BIR_LT6
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BIR_LT6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Research Process
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • After identifying the variables in a problem situation and developed the theoretical framework, then we need to design the research in a way that the requisite ( 必要的 ) data can be gathered ( 收集 ) and analyzed ( 分析 ) to arrive ( 達到 ) at a solution
  • 5.
    • Research design, which involves a series of rational ( 理性的 ) decision-making choices, issues relating to decisions regarding:
  • 6.
      • The purpose ( 目的 ) for the study (exploratory, descriptive, hypothesis testing),
  • 7.
      • Its location ( 研究地點 ) (i.e., the study setting),
      • The type it should conform ( 遵守 ) to (type of investigation),
  • 8.
      • Its location ( 研究地點 ) (i.e., the study setting),
      • The type it should conform ( 遵守 ) to (type of investigation),
      • The extent ( 範圍 ) to which it is manipulated ( 操縱 ) and controlled ( 控制 ) by the researcher (extent of researcher interference ( 干預 )),
  • 9.
      • Its location ( 研究地點 ) (i.e., the study setting),
      • The type it should conform ( 遵守 ) to (type of investigation),
      • The extent ( 範圍 ) to which it is manipulated ( 操縱 ) and controlled ( 控制 ) by the researcher (extent of researcher interference ( 干預 )),
      • Its temporal aspects ( 研究時間方面 ) (time horizon), and
  • 10.
      • Its location ( 研究地點 ) (i.e., the study setting),
      • The type it should conform ( 遵守 ) to (type of investigation),
      • The extent ( 範圍 ) to which it is manipulated ( 操縱 ) and controlled ( 控制 ) by the researcher (extent of researcher interference ( 干預 )),
      • Its temporal aspects ( 研究時間方面 ) (time horizon), and
      • The level at which the data will be analyzed (unit of analysis)( 資料分析程度 )
  • 11.
    • Each component ( 部份 ) of the research design offers several critical ( 關鍵性 ) choice points.
    • The extent of scientific rigor ( 嚴謹 ) in a research study depends on how carefully the researcher chooses the appropriate ( 合宜的 ) design alternatives ( 選擇 ), taking into consideration ( 考慮 ) its specific purpose.
  • 12.
    • It is therefore relevant ( 相關 ) to ask oneself at every choice point whether the benefits that result from a more sophisticated ( 精密的 ) design to ensure accuracy ( 準確性 ), confidence ( 可信性 ), generalizability ( 普遍性 ), and so on, are commensurate ( 相稱的 ) with the larger investment of resources.
  • 13.
    • It is therefore relevant ( 相關 ) to ask oneself at every choice point whether the benefits that result from a more sophisticated ( 精密的 ) design to ensure accuracy ( 準確性 ), confidence ( 可信性 ), generalizability ( 普遍性 ), and so on, are commensurate ( 相稱的 ) with the larger investment of resources.
    • 做 research… 最緊要睇下有冇 budget 支持支持
  • 14. Research Design
  • 15.
    • Studies may be either exploratory in nature of descriptive , or may be conducted to test hypotheses – depend on the stage ( 階段 ) to which knowledge about the research topic has advanced.
  • 16. Purpose of the Study
  • 17.
    • Exploratory study is undertaken ( 執行 ) when
      • (1) not much is known about the situation at hand ( 手頭上根本咩都唔多清楚 ) or
  • 18.
    • Exploratory study is undertaken ( 執行 ) when
      • (1) not much is known about the situation at hand ( 手頭上根本咩都唔多清楚 ) or
      • (2) no information is available on how similar problems ( 未曾發現有類同問題曾發生過 ) or
  • 19.
    • Exploratory study is undertaken ( 執行 ) when
      • (1) not much is known about the situation at hand ( 手頭上根本咩都唔多清楚 ) or
      • (2) no information is available on how similar problems ( 未曾發現有類同問題曾發生過 ) or
      • (3) research issues have been solved in the past. ( 以前曾經解決過 – 不過 … 往事只能回味 )
  • 20.
    • In this situation, extensive ( 大量的 ) preliminary work needs
      • (1) to be done to gain familiarity ( 熟悉 ) with the phenomena ( 現象 ) in the situation, and
      • (2) understand what is occurring, before we develop a model and set up a rigorous ( 精確的 ) design for comprehensive ( 廣泛的 ) investigation.
  • 21.
    • Extensive interviews with many people might have to be undertaken to get a handle on the situation and understand the phenomena.
    • Qualitative studies where data are collected through observation or interviews, are exploratory in nature ( 性質 ) .
  • 22.
    • Exploratory studies are also necessary when some facts are known but more information is needed for developing a viable ( 可實行的 ) theoretical framework (to explore all the relevant variables).
  • 23.
    • In sum, exploratory studies are important for obtaining a good grasp ( 理解 )of the phenomena of interest and advancing ( 提升 ) knowledge through subsequent ( 隨後的 )theory building and hypothesis testing.
  • 24. Purpose of the Study
  • 25.
    • Descriptive study is undertaken in order to ascertain ( 確定 ) and be able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation.
  • 26.
    • The goal of a descriptive study is to offer to the researcher a profile or to describe relevant ( 相關的 ) aspects of the phenomena of interest ( 有興趣了解的現象 ) from an individual, organizational, industry-oriented, or other perspective.
  • 27.
    • Descriptive studies that present data in a meaningful ( 有意思 ) form thus help us to
      • (1) understand the characteristics of group in a given situation,
  • 28.
    • Descriptive studies that present data in a meaningful ( 有意思 ) form thus help us to
      • (1) understand the characteristics of group in a given situation,
      • (2) think systematically ( 有系統 ) about aspects in a given situation,
  • 29.
    • Descriptive studies that present data in a meaningful ( 有意思 ) form thus help us to
      • (1) understand the characteristics of group in a given situation,
      • (2) think systematically ( 有系統 ) about aspects in a given situation,
      • (3) offer ideas for further probe ( 查究 ) and research, and/or
  • 30.
    • Descriptive studies that present data in a meaningful ( 有意思 ) form thus help us to
      • (1) understand the characteristics of group in a given situation,
      • (2) think systematically ( 有系統 ) about aspects in a given situation,
      • (3) offer ideas for further probe ( 查究 ) and research, and/or
      • (4) help make certain simple decisions (such as how many and what kinds of individuals should be transferred from one department to another).
  • 31.
    • Apple Inc.’s marketing manager wants to develop a pricing, sales, distribution, and advertising strategy for her product, iPod.
    • With this in mind, Apple Inc. might ask for information regarding the competitors (Sony and Samsung MP3 walkmans), with respect to the following:
  • 32.
    • The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm; a profile of the terms of sale; and the percentage where prices are controlled regionally instead of from central headquarters.
  • 33.
    • The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm; a profile of the terms of sale; and the percentage where prices are controlled regionally instead of from central headquarters.
    • The percentage of competitors hiring in-horse staff to handle sales and those who use independent agents.
  • 34.
    • The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm; a profile of the terms of sale; and the percentage where prices are controlled regionally instead of from central headquarters.
    • The percentage of competitors hiring in-horse staff to handle sales and those who use independent agents.
    • Percentage of sales groups organized by product line, by accounts, and by region.
  • 35.
    • The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm; a profile of the terms of sale; and the percentage where prices are controlled regionally instead of from central headquarters.
    • The percentage of competitors hiring in-horse staff to handle sales and those who use independent agents.
    • Percentage of sales groups organized by product line, by accounts, and by region.
    • The types of distribution channels used and the percentage of customers using each.
  • 36.
    • The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm; a profile of the terms of sale; and the percentage where prices are controlled regionally instead of from central headquarters.
    • The percentage of competitors hiring in-horse staff to handle sales and those who use independent agents.
    • Percentage of sales groups organized by product line, by accounts, and by region.
    • The types of distribution channels used and the percentage of customers using each.
    • Percentage of competitors spending more dollars on advertising/promotion than the firm and those spending less.
  • 37.
    • Qualitative data obtained by interviewing individuals may help the understanding of phenomena at the exploratory stages of a study, quantitative data in terms of frequencies, or mean, or standard deviations, become necessary for descriptive studies.
  • 38. Purpose of the Study
  • 39.
    • Studies that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain
      • the nature of certain relationships ( 變項與變項之間的關係 ), or
      • establish the differences among groups ( 不同類別有什麼不同的地方 ) or
      • the independence of two or more factors in a situation.
  • 40.
    • A marketing manager of Airwares wants to know if the sales of the company will increase if he doubles the advertising dollars.
    • He would like to know the nature of the relationship that can be established between advertising and sales by testing the hypothesis:
      • if advertising is increased, then sales will also go up
  • 41. Research Design
  • 42.
    • Researcher should determine whether a causal or a correlational study is needed to find an answer to the issue at hand.
  • 43.
    • Causal study is done when it is necessary to establish a definitive cause-and-effect relationship .
  • 44.
    • Researcher is keen on delineating ( 描述 ) one of more factors that are undoubtedly ( 毫無疑問 ) causing the problem.
  • 45.
    • In other word, the intention of the researcher conducting a causal study is to be able to state that variable X causes variable Y.
    • So when variable X is removed, then problem Y is solved.
  • 46.
    • Correlational study is mere ( 只是 ) identification ( 確定 ) of the important factors “ associated with( 關聯的 ) ” the problem, then a correlational study is called for.
  • 47.
    • Compared with causal study, quite often, it is not just one or more variable variables that cause a problem in organizations.
  • 48.
    • There are multiple factors that influence one another and the problem in chainlike ( 連鎖似的 ) fashion ( 改變 ), the researcher might be asked to identify the crucial ( 重要的 ) factors associated with the problem, rather than establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
  • 49.
    • A causal study question:
      • Does smoking cause cancer?
    •  
    • A correlational study question:
      • Are smoking and cancer related?
      • Are smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco associated with cancer? If so, which of these contributes most to the variance in the dependent varible?
  • 50. Research Design
  • 51.
    • The extent of researcher interference by the researcher with the normal flow of work at the workplace has a direct bearing on whether the study undertaken is causal or correlational
  • 52.
    • correlational study is conducted in the natural environment of the organization with minimum interference by the researcher with the normal flow of work.
  • 53.
    • In studies conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships, the researcher tries to manipulate certain variable of interest. In other word, the researcher deliberately changes certain variables in the setting and interferes with the event as they normally occur in the organization.
  • 54.
    • Minimal ( 最少 ) Interference
    • Moderate ( 中等 ) Interference
    • Excessive ( 極度 ) Interference