Global Climate Negotiations      Doha COP-18 Negotiations Result in      “Doha Climate Gateway”     Negotiations from 26 N...
Summary Assessment of the Doha Climate Gateway: Kyoto Protocol and   Flex Mechanisms Extended; New Market Mechanism Deferr...
Summary Assessment of the Doha Climate Gateway: To Consider Loss   and Damages; Durban Platform to Begin Discussion of Sco...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 1 of 7)   Extending the Kyoto Protocol to 2020         After the last three days of almost ...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 2 of 7)   Kyoto Protocol Goes to Second Commitment Period         The negotiations to exten...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 3 of 7)   Long Term Cooperative Action Track Closes         To close the negotiating track ...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 4 of 7)   Long Term Cooperative Action Track Closes         Nations also agreed to put seve...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 5 of 7)   New Market Mechanism Deferred to SBSTA Negotiations   The negotiations for a new m...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 6 of 7)   Tech Transfer; Aviation and Marine Fuels emissions, CCS         Developing nation...
Doha Climate Gateway (Details 7 of 7)   Durban Platform to Consider Elements         The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durb...
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change    Long Term Impacts     The impacts of the UN Framework Convention...
Global Negotiations and Parallel to the History of the   Scientific Assessments         The current climate change negoti...
“SideLights”   IPIECA, Chevron, Shell, Statoil, ENI, QatarGas and RasGas in Side   Event         IPIECA Side Event “The E...
“SideLights”   Chevron, Green Gulf Launch Solar Test Facility 2 Dec 2012         The Qatar National Vision 2030 calls for...
“SideLights”   Chevron, Green Gulf Launch Solar Test Facility, 2 Dec 2012                                Photo: Aisha Al M...
“SideLights”      Carbon Capture and Storage Association and University of Texas Side      Event       Capacity Building ...
Appendix   Brief History of Global Climate Negotiations© 2012 Arthur Lee        Photos by Arthur Lee excepted where noted ...
Global Climate Change Negotiations:        Background and Brief History        Arthur Lee        Observer from the Busines...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (1 of 10)          This primer is to provide a brief, high-level descrip...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (2 of 10)   From the Berlin Mandate to the Kyoto Protocol          At CO...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (3 of 10)   From COP13 or CMP3         The Conference of Parties (COP) ...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (4 of 10)   COP15 or CMP5 at Copenhagen         For over two years and ...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (5 of 10)   COP16 or CMP6 at Cancun         The Copenhagen Accord never...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (6 of 10)   COP17 or CMP7 Durban          After over 70 hours of round-t...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (7 of 10)   Cancun Agreement is made effective with a series of decision...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (8 of 10)   At a crucial period 2:55 am to 3:40 am Sunday morning, 11 De...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (9 of 10)   Doha Climate Gateway: Kyoto Protocol and Flex Mechanisms Ext...
Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (10 of 10)   Doha Climate Gateway: To consider loss and damage; Durban P...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Global negotiations doha2012p4_associations

445 views
340 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
445
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Global negotiations doha2012p4_associations

  1. 1. Global Climate Negotiations Doha COP-18 Negotiations Result in “Doha Climate Gateway” Negotiations from 26 November to 8 December 2012 Brief Assessment: 11 December 2012 Arthur Lee© 2012 Arthur Lee Photos by Arthur Lee excepted where noted 1
  2. 2. Summary Assessment of the Doha Climate Gateway: Kyoto Protocol and Flex Mechanisms Extended; New Market Mechanism Deferred  Kyoto Protocol is extended from 2013 to 2020 with emission reductions submitted by nations with roughly 14% of global emissions (according to an EU press statement). Carry-over of emissions allowances is allowed, though most nations have declared not to use them in the second period. Access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms is allowed only to those nations agreeing to the second commitment period. Australia and Kazakhstan have now signed up to the second period.  Clean Development Mechanism’s (CDM) 2% share of proceeds that goes to the Adaptation Fund is maintained at 2%. However, the transfer of emissions allowances in Joint Implementation projects (conducted between Annex I nations) will now be subject to the same 2% proceeds going to the Adaptation Fund. The CDM will continue to be in effect with no gap as of 1 January 2013.  Long Term Cooperative Action (LCA) track, which developing nations did not want to close, is now closed with several issues deferred to future negotiations in the technical bodies of the Convention, called the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI). For example, new market mechanism modalities and procedures are now deferred to SBSTA negotiations. Non-market approaches will also be considered in a new work program under SBSTA.  The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its first legal instrument, the Kyoto Protocol, have had slow, long term impacts on government policies Source: IISD news coverage around the world in the last 18 years. The formal continuation of the Kyoto Protocol into a defined second commitment period, with all its flexibility mechanisms and the institutions established both under the KP and the UNFCCC means that markets and policies driven by them will continue. The carbon markets may not increase levels of activities or carbon prices, but the markets will still likely limp along as emission reductions are continuing to be required.© 2012 Arthur Lee 2
  3. 3. Summary Assessment of the Doha Climate Gateway: To Consider Loss and Damages; Durban Platform to Begin Discussion of Scope and Structure.  The issue of “loss and damages” will be taken up for future negotiations in a new institutional mechanism under the UNFCCC with modalities and procedures to be elaborated at COP19 Warsaw. These negotiations will likely enter into issues such as: the risk of slow onset events (e.g., sea level rise) and extreme events; non-economic loss and damages; impacts of climate change integrated into climate-resilient development processes; and how impacts of climate change are affecting patterns of migration, displacement and human mobility.  With the closing of the LCA track, nations will now focus negotiations towards “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force” to be completed by COP21 in 2015, and to come into force by 2020. The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) is the single track of negotiations under the UN Framework Convention with a negotiating text to be prepared by May 2015 to be ready for completing negotiations at COP21. Therefore, elements of the draft negotiating text will have to be considered at COP20.  In 2012, the ADP has begun considering these elements: (a) Application of the principles of the Convention; (b) Building on the experiences and lessons learned from other processes under the Convention and from other multilateral processes, as appropriate; (c) The scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement; (d) Ways of defining and reflecting enhanced action. It will also consider, in 2013, ways to increase “ambition” of emissions reductions before 2020 in a second work stream. Source: IISD news coverage  With numerous contentious issues deferred, including even “settled” text on shared vision with its issues of historical responsibility, the negotiations going forward will again be fraught with difficulties. Continuing issues such as loss and damages, long term finance, technology development and transfer with its intellectual property rights protection issue, will still pose enormous challenges to future negotiations of the Durban Platform.© 2012 Arthur Lee 3
  4. 4. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 1 of 7) Extending the Kyoto Protocol to 2020  After the last three days of almost round-the-clock negotiating sessions stretching to Saturday night 9 pm, the nations of COP18 Doha agreed to a package of decisions which is now called the “Doha Climate Gateway,” building on the Durban Platform of Enhanced Action from COP17 Durban. This summary describes and assesses select issues that were of interest to me as an official Business and Industry NGO (BINGO) observer.  At Doha, the most important single decision that needed to be agreed to by all Parties who ratified the Kyoto Protocol, is the extension of the Kyoto Protocol. At COP17 Durban, nations agreed that the Kyoto Protocol will have a second commitment period to begin 1 January 2013 but they could not agree to an end date. At COP18 Doha, nations finally agreed to a second commitment period ending in 2020. Several nations have withdrawn from while others elected to enter into the Kyoto Protocol’s second commitment period. Canada, Japan, New Zealand and Russia withdrew.  Australia and Kazakhstan have submitted quantified emission limitations and reduction commitments (QELRC) to the second commitment period. Australia committed to 99.5 per cent of 1990 levels over the eight year commitment period (2013-2020), which Australia states is consistent with its Cancun pledge of 5% reduction of emissions by 2020 based on year 2000 emissions with the option to move to 15% or 25% reductions if certain conditions are met. Kazakhstan submitted a QELRC of 95% of 1990 level for the period 2013-2020, with a pledge to reduce 7% by 2020. Connie Hedegaard European Commissioner for Climate Action, and Zhenhua Xie, Minister/Vice-Chairman National© 2012 Arthur Lee Development and Reform Commission, China. Source: IISD news coverage 4
  5. 5. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 2 of 7) Kyoto Protocol Goes to Second Commitment Period  The negotiations to extend the Kyoto Protocol to 2020 was greatly hampered by the issue of “carry-over” of unused emissions allowances (“assigned amount units” or AAUs) in the first commitment period. Although the final agreement allows Parties to use such AAUs in the second commitment period, the European Union, Australia, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Monaco inserted political declarations into an annex of the KP decision that they will not use or purchase any carry-over AAUs.  Ukraine made an opposing statement, reflected in the footnote to its QELRC, that there “[s]hould be full carry-over and there is no acceptance of any cancellation or any limitation on use of this legitimately acquired sovereign property.”  Australia’s statement is nuanced. The statement declared: “Australia will not purchase AAUs carried over from the first commitment period. Australia will adhere to arrangements in other countries relating to the transfer of AAUs under any arrangement that Australia may have linking our emissions trading scheme with any other scheme including the European Union emissions trading scheme. Imported AAUs will continue to be ineligible for surrender for compliance by liable entities in Australias emissions trading scheme.” This would mean companies in Australia will not be able to purchase any AAUs carried over from the first commitment period for compliance with the Australian scheme.© 2012 Arthur Lee Connie Hedegaard submits the EU’s written consent to amend the Kyoto Protocol. Source: IISD news coverage 5
  6. 6. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 3 of 7) Long Term Cooperative Action Track Closes  To close the negotiating track under the Bali Action Plan called “Long Term Cooperative Action,” nations agreed to a few easy issues in order to advance other tracks of negotiations. Nations agreed to a shared vision in two relatively simple statements: “Decides that Parties will urgently work towards the deep reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions required to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to attain a global peaking of global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, consistent with science and as documented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, reaffirming that the time frame for peaking will be longer in developing countries; …”  This shared vision avoids any discussion about peaking year and pathways for emissions reduction. The statement then further reaffirms what has already been agreed in previous negotiations: “Also decides that Parties’ efforts should be undertaken on the basis of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and the provision of finance, technology transfer and capacity-building to developing countries in order to support their mitigation and adaptation actions under the Convention, ….”© 2012 Arthur Lee Photo: Arthur Lee 6
  7. 7. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 4 of 7) Long Term Cooperative Action Track Closes  Nations also agreed to put several contentious issues into the standing subsidiary bodies under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change for future negotiations, effectively deferring these issues for the future.  Nations decided “to establish a work programme under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to continue the process of clarifying the quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets of developed country Parties with a view to: (a) Identifying common elements for measuring the progress made towards the achievement of the quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets; (b) Ensuring the comparability of efforts among developed country Parties, taking into account differences in their national circumstances; …”  Nations also decided “to establish a work programme to further the understanding of the diversity of the nationally appropriate mitigation actions [for developing nations] … under the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, with a view to facilitating the preparation and implementation of those nationally appropriate mitigation actions,…”© 2012 Arthur Lee Source: Webcast video of the stocktaking informal plenary 7
  8. 8. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 5 of 7) New Market Mechanism Deferred to SBSTA Negotiations The negotiations for a new market mechanism was deadlocked at COP18 Doha. No progress could be made. Therefore, the President of COP18 proposed that the modalities and procedures of how such a new mechanism could work to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), considering these elements:  (a) Its operation under the guidance and authority of the Conference of the Parties;  (b) The voluntary participation of Parties in the mechanism;  (c) Standards that deliver real, permanent, additional, and verified mitigation outcomes, avoid double counting of effort and achieve a net decrease and/or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions;  (d) Requirements for the accurate measurement, reporting and verification of emission reductions, emission removals and/or avoided emissions;  (e) Means to stimulate mitigation across broad segments of the economy, which are defined by the participating Parties and may be on a sectoral and/or project-specific basis;  (f) Criteria, including the application of conservative methods, for the establishment, approval and periodic adjustment of ambitious reference levels (crediting thresholds and/or trading caps) and for the periodic issuance of units based on mitigation below a crediting threshold or based on a trading cap;  (g) Criteria for the accurate and consistent recording and tracking of units;  (h) Supplementarity;  (i) A share of proceeds to cover administrative expenses and assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation;  (j) The promotion of sustainable development;  (k) The facilitation of the effective participation of private and public entities;  (l) The facilitation of the prompt start of the mechanism;.© 2012 Arthur Lee 8
  9. 9. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 6 of 7) Tech Transfer; Aviation and Marine Fuels emissions, CCS  Developing nations were successful in retaining language in the LCA agreement to “request the Technology Executive Committee, in elaborating its future workplan to initiate the exploration of issues relating to enabling environments and barriers” to technology development and transfer.  This language will again be used as a way to allow discussion of intellectual property rights negotiations, which developed nations oppose, as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is not deemed to be the appropriate venue for such negotiations.  The Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technology Advice (SBSTA) will continue to ask the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to report on their progress of implementing efficiency standards and working towards a global market-based mechanism. No other language could be negotiated at COP18, thus no new development on a potential tax on emissions from these sectors.  Carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) was considered in the COP18 negotiations under the CDM. Projects that cross national boundaries are to be deferred until negotiations resume in 2016. A global carbon reserve was considered briefly for negotiations but was also deferred until 2016. Such a reserve would have raised costs for CCS projects.© 2012 Arthur Lee Photo: Arthur Lee 9
  10. 10. Doha Climate Gateway (Details 7 of 7) Durban Platform to Consider Elements  The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) is the single track of negotiations under the UN Framework Convention with a negotiating text to be prepared by May 2015 to be ready for completing negotiations at COP21 December 2015. Therefore, elements of the draft negotiating text will have to be considered at COP20.  In 2012, the ADP has begun considering these elements: (a) Application of the principles of the Convention; (b) Building on the experiences and lessons learned from other processes under the Convention and from other multilateral processes, as appropriate; (c) The scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement; (d) Ways of defining and reflecting enhanced action. It will also consider, in 2013, ways to increase “ambition” of emissions reductions before 2020 in a second work stream.© 2012 Arthur Lee Deputy Special Envoy Jonathan Pershing and Special Envoy Todd Stern, United States, Source: Webcast video of COP18/CMP8 closing plenary 10
  11. 11. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Long Term Impacts The impacts of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change have been accumulating over the long term, and in the last decade have driven national policies (draft or passed), regulatory regimes, even the IMO and ICAO, and projects that include but not limited to the following: – EU Emissions Trading Scheme and the associated monitoring scheme. – National legislations in the EU that implemented the EU ETS in early 2000’s to 2005 – Stimulus money in the EU and US for CCS and renewable energy technologies – Senate and other Congressional bills (USA) over the last several years – New Zealand’s implementation of an emissions trading scheme that caps emissions including carbon content of fuels, which remains in place though New Zealand will not enter the second commitment period of the KP. – Australian National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting System (NGERS) – Australian Clean Energy Futures Bills (passed recently) – California’s AB32 and implementing regulations – Various discussion papers and policies being considered in the larger rapidly developing nations (the BASIC nations of Brazil, South Africa, India, and China). – Kazakhstan imposes emission limits and initiates a national emissions trading scheme as it enters the second period of the KP. – Changes to international shipping and aviation energy efficiency and operational efficiency standards – Clean Development Mechanism projects Long term impacts can continue to accumulate as the negotiations drive more developing nations to enact laws and regulations for GHG monitoring, reporting, verification, and on technology transfer criteria, and also adaptation actions affecting infrastructure, land use, and access to resources.© 2012 Arthur Lee 11
  12. 12. Global Negotiations and Parallel to the History of the Scientific Assessments  The current climate change negotiations by over 190 nations is part of a process that has gone on since the early 1990’s, in parallel to the development of four scientific assessments carried out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which began in 1988 and culminated in the first global scientific assessment of 1990. The current UN negotiation round is called “COP17,” hosted by South Africa. The IPCC has begun convening several hundred scientists, engineers, technologists, and economists for the next three years to conduct the Fifth Assessment. IPCC UNFCCC “Policy-Relevant, Not Policy “Common But Differentiated Prescriptive Science” Responsibilities” 1990 First Assessment Report 1992 Rio Summit: UNFCCC signed “…emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations…” 1995 Second Assessment Report 1994 UNFCCC entered into force “…balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate …” 1995 COP1: Berlin Mandate provided differentiated approaches for Annex I and non-Annex I (“developing”) 2001 Third Assessment Report countries “…new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the past 50 years is attributable to human activities.” COP3 negotiations resulted in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol 2007 Fourth Assessment Report 2005 Kyoto Protocol entered into force “Most of the observed increase in globally averaged COP/MOP 1 held in Montreal, Canada temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic (human) greenhouse gas concentrations. “ 2009 Copenhagen Accords; 2010 Cancun Agreements; 2011 Durban Platform; 2012 Doha Climate Gateway© 2012 Arthur Lee 12
  13. 13. “SideLights” IPIECA, Chevron, Shell, Statoil, ENI, QatarGas and RasGas in Side Event  IPIECA Side Event “The Expanding Role of Natural Gas,” 30 November, 2012 at COP18 Doha. Photo: Helen Murphy, IPIECA© 2012 Arthur Lee 13
  14. 14. “SideLights” Chevron, Green Gulf Launch Solar Test Facility 2 Dec 2012  The Qatar National Vision 2030 calls for 1.8 Gigawatts of Solar Energy, or approximately 16% of its energy generation portfolio. To support the first step in this effort, Chevron and partner Green Gulf launched the Solar Test Facility on 2 December 2012 with Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, the queen of the Emir, who in her role as the Chairperson of the Qatar Foundation officially launched the generation of the facility. Five Ministerial-level Qatar officials also joined the event, including the President of the COP-18, His Excellency Mr. Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attiyah, and Christiana Figueres, the Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. U.S. Ambassador to Qatar Susan Ziadeh also attended. Sheikha Moza opens solar test facility  The Solar Test Facility is seven acres of test site supporting approximately 200 kW of solar photovoltaic systems and 200 kW of solar thermal systems, plus testing a mini smart-grid with battery storage. Around 20 PV products will be evaluated, including crystalline silicon, thin film, and concentrating PV. Several solar thermal collectors and applications will be tested, including solar cooling and desalination. Operating parameters such as tracking, cleaning frequencies and system scales will also be studied.© 2012 Arthur Lee 14
  15. 15. “SideLights” Chevron, Green Gulf Launch Solar Test Facility, 2 Dec 2012 Photo: Aisha Al Musallam / HHOPL Christiana Figureres, UNFCCC. Photos: Arthur Lee Photos: Arthur Lee© 2012 Arthur Lee 15
  16. 16. “SideLights” Carbon Capture and Storage Association and University of Texas Side Event  Capacity Building and Education Perspectives, Undergraduate and Graduate Training in Research and Applications of CCS. Moderated by Katherine Romanek (UT Austin, left). Luke Warren CCSA, second from left. Tim Dixon IEAGHG, third from right. Photo:s Arthur Lee© 2012 Arthur Lee 16
  17. 17. Appendix Brief History of Global Climate Negotiations© 2012 Arthur Lee Photos by Arthur Lee excepted where noted 17
  18. 18. Global Climate Change Negotiations: Background and Brief History Arthur Lee Observer from the Business & Industry NGO Community Updated: December 2012 All photos by Arthur Lee except where noted.© 2012 Arthur Lee
  19. 19. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (1 of 10) This primer is to provide a brief, high-level description of selected history and the complexity of the process of these UN negotiations. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international treaty that was signed by President George Bush in Photos by Arthur Lee 1992 at a summit at the Rio de Janeiro. The international treaty is called a Framework for good reasons. It is only a framework and details were left to be further negotiated over time. The UNFCCC was ratified by over 184 nations in 1994 and came into force as international law at that time. The UNFCCC recognizes the science of climate change, talked about “preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system,” and sets out a framework for nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions voluntarily. The UNFCCC sets out two subsidiary negotiating bodies called: Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI) Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice Photo: Screenshot from UNFCCC webcast (SBSTA) ..that convenes twice a year to negotiate all kinds of details in rough categories according to its names. In practice, the thousands of negotiators who come to the SBI and SBSTA meetings complete their negotiations of each set of details and then towards the second meeting (end of the year) join the Conference of Parties (COP) to table their completed texts to the ministers who attend the COP, where the ministers then make their decisions. At each COP, there are always decisions made.© 2012 Arthur Lee 19
  20. 20. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (2 of 10) From the Berlin Mandate to the Kyoto Protocol At COP1 Berlin, Parties to the Convention agreed to the Berlin Mandate, which mandated a roadmap to completing negotiating a Protocol by COP3 at Kyoto. In December 1997 at COP3 at Kyoto, the over 184 nations after long two weeks of round-the-clock negotiations came up with the Kyoto Protocol, which was a legally binding international treaty. In 2005, it entered into force when a threshold number of nations and their emissions were accounted – 55 nations with at least 55% of emissions – submitted their instruments of ratification to the United Nations. In these negotiations, the importance of having texts, and making progress towards texts, is paramount. Each decision, whether it is a relatively simple one to a complex text of the Kyoto Protocol, can still represent years of negotiating efforts. For example, the Marrakech Accords that set out the first complete set of rules and criteria for the clean development mechanism (Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol) took at least two years to complete. After they were completed, negotiations in subsequent years then turned to operationalizing the CDM Executive Board and its “modalities and procedures,” which means in practice what the Executive Board does, how it does its work, and its membership and processes. In many ways, that is still going on in the current negotiations with the focus on streamlining, reforming, and refocusing geographically its modalities and procedures. Other mechanisms, such as the Joint Implementation provisions (Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol), took another two years of negotiations before a Joint Implementation Steering Committee (JISC, similar to the function of the CDM Executive Board) was operationalized with modalities, procedures, and getting the members in place to actually start doing any work of reviewing and approving Joint Implementation projects.© 2012 Arthur Lee 20
  21. 21. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (3 of 10) From COP13 or CMP3  The Conference of Parties (COP) when serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol is called COP/MOP or CMP (short). COP13 in Bali was also the meeting of CMP3.  The CMP decides on issues negotiated specifically under the Kyoto Protocol, such as the Clean Development Mechanism.  For example, with Canada’s withdrawal from the KP in 2011, both the US and Canada will become observer states in the CMP negotiations because they are not Parties to the KP.  In 2007, with lack of sufficient progress since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol (since 2005), the nations which are “Parties” to the Kyoto Protocol again negotiated in a two-week period, round-the- clock, and with great emotional outbursts, settled on the Bali Action Plan. The Bali Action Plan put all Parties on a negotiating roadmap towards COP15 to complete negotiations about two major issues: – The continuation (or not) of the Kyoto Protocol. Certainly in the minds of developing nations, there was no question that the KP must continue – The beginning of negotiations about “long term cooperative action” which numerous nations, including the US, EU, Australia, Canada felt would be the way towards a new comprehensive agreement for all nations  For these two purposes, two plenary bodies are used to negotiate such issues. – Ad Hoc Working Group on the Further Commitments of the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) – Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA)© 2012 Arthur Lee 21
  22. 22. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (4 of 10) COP15 or CMP5 at Copenhagen  For over two years and amidst numerous added negotiating rounds, the more than 100 nations met and finally tried to fashion several texts for negotiations at COP15 Copenhagen. However, as we all know now, agreement was never reached for the “further commitments of the Kyoto Protocol” and the LCA negotiations yielded a three page document, which was never completely agreed in plenary by the entire COP17 body at Copenhagen, became this “political agreement” called the Copenhagen Accord. Given all the reviews of failure given by observers and the media with high expectations, this was a remarkable political agreement personally negotiated between several heads of governments, including the Presidents of the US, China, Brazil, and Prime Minister of India, but sidelining the European Union leaders.  In hindsight, the key success of the Copenhagen Accord was that the negotiations themselves compelled a number of nations to pledge a series of commitments and actions, not necessarily targets with time tables, that would show to the world that these nations can take on such responsibilities. Outside of the Copenhagen Accord, there were also decisions that continued the negotiating tracks of a large number of decisions, including a decision text that kept alive the CCS in CDM issue. Other decision texts kept alive the issues of sectoral credit trading and longer term future of additional market mechanisms© 2012 Arthur Lee 22
  23. 23. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (5 of 10) COP16 or CMP6 at Cancun  The Copenhagen Accord never received formal recognition by the entire body of the COP. However, throughout 2010 and into the COP16 negotiating sessions, negotiators met to parse out all the elements of the Copenhagen Accord and set them up for formal negotiations and codifications as decisions by the supreme body of the UNFCCC, the COP. Therefore, at COP16, again with round-the- clock negotiations and on the verge of failure throughout two-weeks, the Cancun Agreement was reached.  While this sounds impressive, it is in practice a series of decisions codified by the AWG-LCA that flesh out slightly the commitments made by nations in the Copenhagen Accord, including the Green Climate Fund. COP16, as with other COPs, also saw a series of other decisions that continued life in CDM “rulemakings” and, in fact, put much more positive life into the CCS in CDM issue. CCS was finally decided by the COP that it will be allowed as an eligible project technology for the clean development mechanism, and that a whole set of modalities and procedures will have to be elaborated and approved by COP17. The COPs have also compelled, through a series of decisions over time, two other UN treaty agencies, the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization, to establish new efficiency standards, ship design and operational standards, and a push towards market-based mechanisms for these tow international sectors of commerce.© 2012 Arthur Lee 23
  24. 24. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (6 of 10) COP17 or CMP7 Durban After over 70 hours of round-the-clock negotiations at the end, and setting the record for the longest COP negotiations (to early Sunday morning after two weeks), negotiators from over 180 nations agreed to mandate the negotiations in the next four years towards a “protocol, legal instrument, or an agreed outcome with legal force” applicable to all Parties under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The negotiators further agreed to set a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol from 1 January 2013 to either end of 2017 or end of 2020, with the end date to be negotiated at COP18 Qatar. All commitments already pledged by nations under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) will be translated into quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments (QELROs) by COP18. At COP16 Cancun, Japan, Canada, and Russia stated they will not sign onto a second commitment of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol on 13 Dec 2011. Australia is prepared to consider submitting information on its QELRO … following the necessary domestic processes … Photos: Screen shots of the webcast between 2:30 and 3:30 am Sunday 11 Dec. European Commissioner Connie Hedegaard and India’s Minister Jayanthi Natarajan confronted each other’s point of issue on “legal outcome.”© 2012 Arthur Lee 24
  25. 25. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (7 of 10) Cancun Agreement is made effective with a series of decisions at COP17. The negotiators agreed to a whole series of decisions negotiated via multiple tracks, including the operationalization of the Green Climate Fund, which is likely to be the center piece for the transfer of monies and the source of funds for a large number of mitigation and adaptation actions in the future. At Cancun, nations agreed to the establishment of a Green Fund with a fast start of $30 billion by 2012 and long term mobilization of $100 billion per year by 2020, which could include private sector funding. The Fund will be staffed by people from multilateral development banks, World Bank, and Global Environment Facility. At COP17, the Republic of Korea, Germany and Denmark agreed to contribute to the start-up cost of the Green Climate Fund. Decisions were reached on: Photo from UNFCCC webcast Operationalizing the Adaptation Committee and formulating the information for national adaptation plans Agreeing to the modalities and procedures of the Technology Executive Committee with a network of regional technology centers Agreeing to the modalities and procedures for conducting CCS projects in the developing world under the Clean Development Mechanism. Decision was reached favorably for nations and business representatives who support market-based mechanisms. There will be a new market-based mechanism in the long term action framework, which will continue to be negotiated.© 2012 Arthur Lee Photo Arthur Lee 25
  26. 26. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (8 of 10) At a crucial period 2:55 am to 3:40 am Sunday morning, 11 December 2011, the Durban Platform was agreed (COP-17).. Photo: IISD coverage of COP17.© 2012 Arthur Lee 26
  27. 27. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (9 of 10) Doha Climate Gateway: Kyoto Protocol and Flex Mechanisms Extended; New Market Mechanism Deferred  Kyoto Protocol is extended from 2013 to 2020 with emission reductions submitted by nations with roughly 14% of global emissions (according to an EU press statement). Carry-over of emissions allowances is allowed, though most nations have declared not to use them in the second period. Access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms is allowed only to those nations agreeing to the second commitment period. Australia and Kazakhstan have now signed up to the second period.  The Clean Development Mechanism’s (CDM) 2% share of proceeds that goes to the Adaptation Fund is maintained at 2%. However, the transfer of emissions allowances in Joint Implementation projects (conducted between Annex I nations) will now be subject to the same 2% proceeds going to the Adaptation Fund. The CDM will continue to be in effect with no gap as of 1 January 2013.  The Long Term Cooperative Action track, which developing nations did not want to close, is now closed with several issues deferred to future negotiations in the technical bodies of the Convention, called the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI). For example, new market mechanism modalities and procedures are now deferred to SBSTA negotiations. Non-market approaches will also be considered in a new work program under SBSTA. Source: IISD news coverage© 2012 Arthur Lee Photo Arthur Lee 27
  28. 28. Primer on the UNFCCC and the Complex Negotiations (10 of 10) Doha Climate Gateway: To consider loss and damage; Durban Platform to begin discussion of scope and structure  The issue of “loss and damages” will be taken up for future negotiations in a new institutional mechanism under the UNFCCC with modalities and procedures to be elaborated at COP19 Warsaw. These negotiations will likely enter into issues such as: the risk of slow onset events (e.g., sea level rise) and extreme events; non-economic loss and damages; impacts of climate change integrated into climate-resilient development processes; and how impacts of climate change are affecting patterns of migration, displacement and human mobility.  With the closing of the LCA track, nations will now focus negotiations towards “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force” to be completed by COP21 in 2015, and to come into force by 2020. The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) is the single track of negotiations under the UN Framework Convention with a negotiating text to be prepared by May 2015 to be ready for completing negotiations at COP21. Therefore, elements of the draft negotiating text will have to be considered at COP20.  In 2012, the ADP has begun considering these elements: (a) Application of the principles of the Convention; (b) Building on the experiences and lessons learned from other processes under the Convention and from other multilateral processes, as appropriate; (c) The scope, structure and design of the 2015 agreement; (d) Ways of defining and reflecting enhanced action. It will also consider, in 2013, ways to increase “ambition” of emissions reductions before 2020 in a second work stream. Source: IISD news coverage© 2012 Arthur Lee 28

×