Occupational form and occupational performance 2005

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Some fundamentals of occupational science

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  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford These occupations are part of the person’s normal roles WE WANT TO GET OUR CLIENT BACK TO THEIR NORMAL LIVES, IF POSSIBLE They have purpose and meaning for the person - purposeful means they help people to achieve their goals - meaning is very individual e.g. what does walking in the countryside mean to you? They organise the person’s time They help the person to participate in life /society
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford The O.T. can help the person learn / relearn these occupations, and can make adaptations if necessary - e.g. ramps, small pieces of equipment – a large handled trowel for someone with stiff joints to return to gardening
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction by Trombly and Radomski is excellent around this. We can introduce occupation as intervention to help improve someone after illness or when disabled e.g. improve muscle strength, standing tolerance, improve insight, social skills Enables eventual occupational functioning e.g. being able to cook a meal, return to work, make and keep a social network We choose occupations which interest the client and which have therapeutic value They should be challenging but enable success
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Main reference here is Nelson 1988 – don’t worry about getting hold of it – it is summarised in several OT text books. This lecture introduces some simple concepts – you’ll be eager to know more – but they will be elaborated on later in the course.
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Write down a celebration or special occasion when you have a special meal
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford ‘ an objective set of circumstances, independent and external to a person’ (Nelson 1988 p633) Occupational form is a ‘pre-existing structure that elicits, guides, or structures subsequent human performance’ - what other people are aware of – they can see it, hear it or know about it. We, most of us in this room, know what a game of Monopoly looks like, many of know what the pieces and board look like, some of know what the rules are.
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Think about how you got to university this morning Did you catch a bus? Drive a car? Get a lift? Walk? Think of an occupation you carried out yesterday evening Did you cook a meal? Go for a drink with friends? Write an essay? Watch the TV?
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Can be measure and described The objects and their properties e.g. a bus, a car, what type – size, shape, colour, tickets? Bus passes? Bus stops? The temporal aspects e.g. the sequence of events, the time it took, the movement of objects over time, the changes in objects over time The human aspects the presence of other people, where they are, characteristics? E.g. other passengers, the driver
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Symbols, norms, sanctions, roles symbol – when something stands for something, and we all understand, e.g. red traffic light norms – what is normally done, and therefore expected of us (by law, or social expectation) e.g. stopping at traffic lights, letting people get off the bus before we get on. (E.G. OF CROSSING THE ROAD IN Antwerp or using a sauna in Finland)) sanctions – typical social rewards and punishments associated with norms roles – set of expectations involving others, e.g. student, worker, mother SOMETIMES WHEN WE ENCOUNTER A NEW OCCUPATIONAL FORM, WE DO NOT KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED Levels of society Some sociocultural aspects are universal – we all, everywhere, understand them – eg water is for drinking Some only work at a national level (symbols, norms, laws, sanctions, roles etc), or at a religion level, or ethnic group, professional group, region, community, family smaller groups Language Speech is part of most occupational forms – it is part of sociocultural life – again their may be symbols, norms, there are rules of grammar etc – and these are all dependent on the various levels we operate at. E.g. families may have their own jokes and short cuts to communicating. Writing is included here.
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford OCCUPATIONAL FORM IS ‘ an objective set of circumstances, independent and external to a person’ (p633) a ‘ pre-existing structure that elicits, guides, or structures subsequent human performance’
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Cognitive processes e.g. problem solving, thinking, recalling Emotional reactions e.g. anxiety, enjoyment, sorrow, fear
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Think about what could go wrong! What if someone tells you to get the milk from the fridge, but you have never seen one before in your life! What if you have forgotten what a fridge is? What if you can’t walk? What if the milk carton is coloured orange and all the writing is in Chinese? BUT THESE STEPS IN THE CHAIN CAN BE BROKEN DOWN FURTHER
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford What might go wrong? Which parts of the arm do you use when reaching for the handle? Which mental processes do you use?
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford No two people are alike in the way they approach an occupational form, and the way they perform. The occupational form, on the face of it, looks as though it demands certain responses and behaviours and attitudes, but not so!….
  • 07/03/13 J.Taylor / Intro to Key Concepts / University of Salford Have you discovered the journals in the library yet?
  • Occupational form and occupational performance 2005

    1. 1. Occupational Form and Occupational Performance Or How to think about occupations!October 2005 J.Taylor 1
    2. 2. Occupations• Occupations are fundamental to health, well-being and identity.• Occupations are the therapeutic media employed by the occupational therapist.• And so …….• We need to have a sophisticated understanding of occupations (Creek 1996)October 2005 J.Taylor 2
    3. 3. Two ways we can use occupations• As the end • As the point that we means to are aiming for improve in our someone’s intervention impaired abilitiesOctober 2005 J.Taylor 3
    4. 4. Occupation as end point• These occupations are part of the person’s normal roles – They organise the person’s time – They help the person to participate in life /society – They have purpose and meaning for the personOctober 2005 J.Taylor 4
    5. 5. Occupation as end point• The O.T. can help the person learn / relearn these occupations, and / or can make adaptations if necessaryOctober 2005 J.Taylor 5
    6. 6. Occupation as a means to an end• We can introduce occupation as intervention to help improve someone after illness or when disabled• Enables eventual occupational functioning• We choose occupations which interest the client and which have therapeutic value• They should be challenging but enable successOctober 2005 J.Taylor 6
    7. 7. Two ways we can analyse occupation• Occupational • Occupational form performanceOctober 2005 J.Taylor 7
    8. 8. Nelson’s question about baseball• What is an occupation?• Is the format of the game (the structure) the occupation?• Or is the playing of the game (the doing) the occupation?October 2005 J.Taylor 8
    9. 9. His answer ….• Occupation is the relationship between occupational form and occupational performance• Occupation is the relationship between the ‘something to be done’ and the ‘doing’ of it – Playing a game of Monopoly – Cooking a meal for a special occasionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 9
    10. 10. Occupational Form• ‘an objective set of circumstances, independent and external to a person’ (p633)• a ‘pre-existing structure that elicits, guides, or structures subsequent human performance’ (p634) (Nelson 1988)October 2005 J.Taylor 10
    11. 11. Occupational form has two dimensions The physical dimension and The sociocultural dimensionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 11
    12. 12. The physical dimension can be observed and measured• The objects and their properties• The environment• The temporal aspects• The human aspectsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 12
    13. 13. The sociocultural dimension – the social and cultural aspects• Symbols, norms, sanctions, roles• These operate at different levels of society• LanguageOctober 2005 J.Taylor 13
    14. 14. OCCUPATIONOccupational Occupational form performance October 2005 J.Taylor 14
    15. 15. Occupational Performance• ‘to go through or carry out the occupational form’• ’the doing, the action, the active behaviour, or the active responses exhibited within the context of an occupational form.’Nelson (1988, p634)October 2005 J.Taylor 15
    16. 16. Occupational performance has two aspects Overt And CovertOctober 2005 J.Taylor 16
    17. 17. Overt occupational performance can be observed• Gross and fine movement• Speech and related vocalisations• Facial expressions• All movements and postures under voluntary motor controlOctober 2005 J.Taylor 17
    18. 18. Covert occupational performance may not be observed directly• Cognitive processes• Emotional reactionsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 18
    19. 19. Chains of occupational performanceOccupational Performance Aspects of formWalks to the refrigeratorOpens The fridge doorLooks for MilkPicks up MilkPushes shut Fridge doorWalks to TablePours Milk into glass October 2005 J.Taylor 19
    20. 20. Opening a fridge door is a complex activity!!!• Reach out to handle• Grasp handle• Firmly pull the handle (to break the hold of the rubber seal)• Gently pull the handle• Stop pullingOctober 2005 J.Taylor 20
    21. 21. What might go wrong?• What if some of the muscles are weak?• What if you cannot initiate muscle action?• What if you cannot control muscle action?• What if you have no movement in one or more of your joints?• What if you cannot recognise the handle?• What if you cannot see it?October 2005 J.Taylor 21
    22. 22. The developmental structure of the human• The human has – Sensorimotor } – Cognitive } abilities – Psychosocial }• These have developed over timeOctober 2005 J.Taylor 22
    23. 23. Occupational performance depends on …..• The occupational form which is encountered PLUS• The unique developmental structure of the individual• The specific features of that one-off occasionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 23
    24. 24. OccupationOccupational The Occupational meaning purposeform person performance October 2005 J.Taylor 24
    25. 25. References• Creek, J (1996) Making a cup of tea as an honours degree subject British Journal of Occupational Therapy 59 (3) 128-130• Nelson, D.L. (1988) Occupation: Form and Performance The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 42 (10) 633-641• Trombly, C.A., Radomski, M.V.(eds) (2002) Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction 5th edition Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & WilkinsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 25

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