Some interesting things about occupation

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This is a short 'taster' presentation, presenting some recent literature from the discipline of occupational science, a discipline that contributes to the theoretical underpinning for the practice of occupational therapy. It is not a comprehensive literature review. It is structured around themes which I devised in an unscientific way.

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Some interesting things about occupation

  1. 1. Some interesting things about occupation<br />A not very systematic review! <br />October 2008 – August 2011<br />Jackie Taylor<br />
  2. 2. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />2<br />Sources<br />Journal of Occupational Science<br />American Journal of Occupational Therapy<br />Florence Clark, Christiansen, Nelson, Polkinghorne, Yerxa<br />Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy <br />Bonder, Hammell, Whiteford<br />British Journal of Occupational Therapy<br />Wilcock, Yerxa, Ilott (Blair, Taylor!)<br />Australian Occupational Therapy Journal<br />
  3. 3. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />3<br />A reflection – my flawed method<br />My review was biased<br />Influenced by my own interests<br />And by what I thought might interest you<br />
  4. 4. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />4<br />Journal of Occupational Science<br />It feels like an established, cohesive journal<br />There is much of relevance to therapists who see occupation as fundamental to health and well-being<br />But often the reader has to make the link<br />The authors come from a range of disciplines<br />
  5. 5. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />5<br />JOS author guidelines extract<br />‘Articles on widely different topics related to the subject are welcomed, from disciplines such as anthropologists, ethnologists, human geographers, occupational psychologists, occupational therapists, sociologists, and social biologists, any discipline, in fact, which has a humanistic view and could contribute to the study of occupation’.<br />
  6. 6. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />6<br />Another reflection and a diversion <br />Simple occupations are not simple to fully understand<br />Exercise <br />What does having a cup of tea (or coffee) mean to you? <br />
  7. 7. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />7<br /> Is making an cup of tea an honours degree subject? (Creek 1996)<br />Yes it is (Hannam 1997)<br />Interviews with 5 women, about tea-drinking<br />6 categories of meaning<br />Reasons for drinking tea: a break, a little chat, thirst<br />The senses: aroma, flavour, temperature, crockery<br />Objects used: cups, mugs, tea-pots, kettles, spoons<br />Temporality: childhood customs, day-time patterns<br />Social context: family, memories, work, friends<br />Changes in lifestyle: mugs, tea-bags, life-events<br />
  8. 8. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />8<br />Back to the review . . .<br />Papers focusing on specific occupations<br />Papers looking at contexts for occupational engagement<br />Papers looking at specific groups of people or experiences<br />Papers developing theory<br />
  9. 9. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />9<br />Specific occupations<br />Shed Culture (Thomson, 2008)<br />Sheds as places of meaning and creativity<br />practical spaces for resourcefulness and inventiveness, skill-sharing, community contribution, networking, support, contemplation. <br />Choirs (Jacob, Guptill and Su, 2009)<br />In a special issue about co-occupations<br />Themes: previous musical experience, sense of community and social bonding, desire for personal and group accomplishment, stress relief and improved mood<br />
  10. 10. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />10<br />Specific occupations<br />The meanings of computer use for older adults (Aguilar, Boerema, Harrison, 2010)<br />Highly valued and meaningful<br />Links to positive identity, self esteem<br />Feel in control, part of daily life, keeping brain active, relating to others, personal gains and benefits<br />Handwriting in healthy people over 65 (van Drempt, 2011)<br />
  11. 11. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />11<br />A reflection from you . . .<br />If you could do some research to develop a better understanding of an occupation, which occupation would it be? <br />Why?<br />
  12. 12. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />12<br />Social contexts for occupational engagement<br />October 2009 JOS, whole issue about co-occupations<br />One body, three hands and two minds: a case study of the intertwined occupations of an older couple after a stroke(van Ness, Runge, Jonsson, 2009)<br />The couple act as one entity<br />Challenges the individualistic nature of occupation <br />Suggests we give attention to interdependency and complexity of interaction with close social environment<br />Parent-child co-occupations (Price & Miner Stephenson, 2009)<br />Structured opportunities for occupational, social and emotional development <br />
  13. 13. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />13<br />Social contexts for occupational engagement<br />ALSO<br />Domestic violence against disabled women seen from an occupational justice perspective (Smith & Hilton, 2008)<br />occupational imbalance, marginalization, deprivation and alienation <br />Impact of racism on occupational engagement in African Canadian women (Beagan, 2009, Canadian JOT)<br />
  14. 14. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />14<br />Another question . . .<br />Would a better understanding of interdependency, or co-occupations, help you to help any of your clients?<br />How?<br />
  15. 15. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />15<br />Physical contexts for occupational engagement<br />April 2009 – whole issue of JOS about place and space<br />The importance of place for women participating in new occupations (Shaw, 2009)<br />Away from daily routines<br />Resources to support new skills<br />Developing place-specific values<br />Cyber-space and real space (Fok et al, 2009)<br />We need to explore such contemporary occupations <br />Seeing the two as a dichotomy is false<br />Re-thinking ‘doing’, information, place<br />
  16. 16. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />16<br />Physical contexts for occupational engagement<br />The adaptation of migrant worker populations (Peralta-Catipon, 2009)<br />How tens of thousands of migrant domestic workers from the Philippines congregate in Statue Square in Hong Kong every Sunday<br />People who are displaced, disempowered and discriminated against<br />They can use the spaces to share experience, meaning and identity, and to adapt.<br />
  17. 17. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />17<br />A pause to reflect . . .<br />Think of one of your clients<br />In what way does place, or space, have an impact on this person’s occupational engagement?<br />
  18. 18. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />18<br />Specific groups of people or experiences<br />The nature and meaning of occupational engagement for forensic clients living in the community (Lin et al, 2009) - 4 ‘essences’<br />Doing the right thing<br />Connecting with others<br />Freedom and responsibility<br />Meeting the challenges of occupational engagement<br />
  19. 19. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />19<br />Specific groups of people or experiences<br />Occupational consequences of weight loss surgery (Wilson, 2010)<br />12 months after a gastric by-pass<br />Capacity for engagement in occupations and occupational choices have increased<br />Changes in patterns and routines<br />Interactions with other have changed<br />Experiences of participating in occupations by obese people (Forhan et al, 2010)<br />
  20. 20. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />20<br />Developing theory<br />Co-occupations and interdependency<br />Occupational possibilities (Laliberte-Rudman, 2010)<br />Occupations are shaped within a specific socio-historical context<br />Limitations and possibilities<br />Occupational identity (Phelan & Kinsella, 2009, and previously Kielhofner, Unruh)<br />
  21. 21. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />21<br />A big thinker (in my view)<br />Karen Whalley Hammell – she is writing for the attention of occupational therapists, but is clearly building her arguments from occupational science<br />She suggested that we give too much attention to the purpose of an occupation, and not its meaning and that categories are flawed (2004)<br />If we believe that occupation contributes to well-being, why are OTs pre-occupied with illness and impairment? We should see occupation as a political issue and work towards occupational justice (2008)<br />
  22. 22. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />22<br />Productivity, leisure or self-care?<br />Eating<br />Writing an essay<br />a meal out with colleagues<br />Shopping for clothes<br />Going to the hair-dresser / barber<br />Having a bath<br />Walking the dog<br />Weeding the garden<br />Driving the car<br />Reading a bed-time story to a child<br />Doing an assessment of a patient<br />
  23. 23. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />23<br />Back to Hammell: clues for the future<br />We should examine the basic assumptions (sacred texts) of occupational therapy critically (2009)<br />Based on Western (minority) thinking<br />We neglect interdependence and connectedness<br />We ignore the negative meanings and consequence of occupations<br />We ignore the lack of occupational choice that many have<br />People don’t all have power and control in their lives<br />We talk about ‘mastering the environment’ but not all cultures think that this is good<br />‘productivity’ and ‘leisure’ are not universal concepts<br />How do we categorise caring occupations?<br />
  24. 24. Dr Jackie Taylor Interesting things about occupation<br />24<br />Some suggested reading<br />Creek, J. (1996). Making a cup of tea as an honours degree subject. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(3), 128-130.<br />Hammell, K. W. (2004). Dimensions of meaning in the occupations of daily life. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5), 296-305.<br />Hammell, K. W. (2008). Reflections on ... well-being and occupational rights. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(1), 61-64.<br />Hammell, K. W. (2009). Self-care, productivity and leisure, or dimensions of occupational experience? Rethinking occupational "categories". Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(2), 107-114.<br />Hannam, D. (1997). More than a cup of tea: meaning construction in an everyday occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 4(2), 69-74.<br />

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