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Untuk pelajar-pelajar NMIT yang mengikuti program Supply Chain Management (MRI 2305)

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  1. 1. Edited By JQuek
  2. 2.  Define and describe what is LOGISTICS in SCM
  3. 3. The Logistics Network consists of:  Facilities: Vendors, Manufacturing Centers, Warehouse/ Distribution Centers, and Customers  Raw materials and finished products that flow between the facilities.
  4. 4. Supply Sources: plants vendors ports Regional Warehouses: stocking points Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production/ purchase costs Inventory & warehousing costs Transportation costs Inventory & warehousing costs Transportation costs
  5. 5. What must be determined: • the appropriate number of warehouses • the location of each warehouse • the size of each warehouse • Allocate space for products in each warehouse • which products customers will receive from each warehouse
  6. 6.  Strategic Planning: Decisions that typically involve major capital investments and have a long term effect 1. Determination of the number, location and size of new plants, distribution centers and warehouses 2. Acquisition of new production equipment and the design of working centers within each plant 3. Design of transportation facilities, communications equipment, data processing means, etc.
  7. 7.  Tactical Planning: Effective allocation of manufacturing and distribution resources over a period of several months 1. Work-force size 2. Inventory policies 3. Definition of the distribution channels 4. Selection of transportation and trans-shipment alternatives
  8. 8.  Operational Control: Includes day-to-day operational decisions 1. The assignment of customer orders to individual machines 2. Dispatching, expediting and processing orders 3. Vehicle scheduling.
  9. 9.  Pick the optimal number, location, and size of warehouses and/or plants  Determine optimal sourcing strategy ◦ Which plant/vendor should produce which product  Determine best distribution channels ◦ Which warehouses should service which customers
  10. 10.  Design or configure the logistics network so as to minimize annual system-wide cost subject to a variety of service level requirements
  11. 11. The objective is to balance service level against • Production/ purchasing costs • Inventory carrying costs • Facility costs (handling and fixed costs) • Transportation costs That is, we would like to find a minimal-annual- cost configuration of the distribution network that satisfies product demands at specified customer service levels.
  12. 12.  Mapping ◦ Mapping allows you to visualize your supply chain and solutions ◦ Mapping the solutions allows you to better understand different scenarios ◦ Color coding, sizing, and utilization indicators allow for further analysis
  13. 13.  Data ◦ Data specifies the costs of your supply chain ◦ The baseline cost data should match your accounting data ◦ The output data allows you to quantify changes to the supply chain  Engine ◦ Optimization Techniques
  14. 14. 1. A listing of all products 2. Location of customers, stocking points and sources 3. Demand for each product by customer location 4. Transportation rates 5. Warehousing costs 6. Shipment sizes by product 7. Order patterns by frequency, size, season, content 8. Order processing costs 9. Customer service goals
  15. 15. Customers and Geocoding  Sales data is typically collected on a by- customer basis  Network planning is facilitated if sales data is in a geographic database rather than accounting database 1. Distances 2. Transportation costs  New technology exists for Geocoding the data based on Geographic Information System (GIS)
  16. 16.  Geocoding is the process of finding associated geographic coordinates (often expressed as latitude and longitude) from other geographic data, such as street addresses, or zip codes (postal codes).  A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, interpret, and understand data to reveal relationships, patterns, and trends