Wynberg girls high-pat orpen-english-verbs


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Verbs and english

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Wynberg girls high-pat orpen-english-verbs

  1. 1. VERBS <ul><li>A verb is the most important part of sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It asserts something about the subject of a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It indicates actions or states of being </li></ul><ul><li>It has a subject, tense, number, mood and voice </li></ul><ul><li>They can be transitive or intransitive </li></ul>
  2. 2. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitive verbs have an object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intransitive verbs do not have an object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I smoked a cigarette </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I smoked heavily when I was a teenager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I wrote a letter to my mother </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I wrote untidily </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>Tense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present – I work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future – I will work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past – I worked </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>ASPECT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous – ING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present – I am working </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future – I will be working </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past – I was working </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>ASPECT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect (past) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present – I have worked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future – I will have worked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past – I had worked </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>MOOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This indicates more exactly the sense of the verb – the state of mind of the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Indicative – facts and questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Imperative – a command or polite/strong request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Subjunctive – used to express doubt or uncertainty or when something is impossible, imaginary, improbable or when expressing a wish </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>INDICATIVE MOOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dog has fleas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did she take her medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am so hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the most exciting lesson that I have had today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was that the bell? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>IMPERATIVE MOOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit down immediately! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do come and join us; be sure to bring your own wine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must be home by midnight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn this work if you want to do well in the exams. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If I were to win the lotto, I would retire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heaven preserve us! (Note: this is expressing a wish rather than a command) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were to learn hard, you would do well. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>VOICE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The voice of the verb indicates whether the action is being performed by the subject, or whether the subject has the action done to it by someone or something else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two voices are Active and Passive </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>ACTIVE VOICE – who/what is performing the action is as important as the action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim killed the chicken hawk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sun shone in my eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Matrics are speaking to the Grade Eights during assembly today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary sold her car to her brother </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>PASSIVE VOICE – more significant is the action that is felt/done by someone/thing else Who is doing it is relatively unimportant and who is responsible is not always stated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is felt that you should work hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has been decided that you will stay in for break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have been seen by the policemen </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. VERBS <ul><li>Three forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Finite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. FINITE VERBS <ul><li>They have a subject whether implied or present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(You) Stand when a teacher enters the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dracula bites his victims on the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students love grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(You) Write this down in your books </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>Verbal forms that do not have subject, number and tense are non-finite verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three kinds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitives – to + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerunds – verb + ing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>present – verb + ing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past – verb + ed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>INFINITIVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I want to walk alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She likes to sleep in the afternoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To dream is to be conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To be or not to be : that is the question” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I love to sing in the shower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary wanted to do well in the test. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>INFINITIVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FACTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT THEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can’t be split </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They behave as part verb and part noun </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>GERUNDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These forms behave like nouns and verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Running is fun when you’re fit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The singing of the choir was glorious. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I enjoyed the swimming we watched at Newlands last night. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her spelling was extremely poor until she began to read. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>Participles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These forms behave like verbs and adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally indicate the aspect of a verb (i.e. completeness or incompleteness of an action) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present participles usually end in –ing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past participles usually end in -ed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. NON FINITE VERBS <ul><li>Present Participles – part verb/part adjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am singing in the choir this year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She was sleeping during the lesson when the principal walked into the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The crying child aroused much sympathy from all those who heard her. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bubbling brook is a pleasant sound to listen to. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>Lend a helping hand: together with a non-finite part of the verb form a finite verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some auxiliary verbs show us the tense (time) and the aspect (simple, continuous/progressive and perfect/past) of the verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are used to express shades of meaning rather than tense – these are called modal auxiliary verbs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>Tense and Aspect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is raining (present continuous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has rained (present perfect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am going to town this afternoon (present continuous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary is playing the piano (present continuous) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>MODALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, ought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I must have your autograph, Mr President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May I have your autograph, Mr President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You will do as you’re told, you naughty child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You could do as you’re told, you naughty child </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>TESTS FOR AUXILIARY VERBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QUESTION TEST – if forming a question, an auxiliary verb will always start the sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary can do the waltz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Mary do the waltz? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I should learn this work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should I learn this work? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>NEGATION TEST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While it is unusual to put the word “not” immediately after a finite verb, one usually puts the word not after an auxiliary verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can eat my supper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can not eat my supper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I will work hard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I will not work hard </li></ul></ul></ul>