Porifera

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  • Multicellular Body with pores (ostia) No organs or true tissues. No nervous system Adults sessile & attached to substratum. Skeleton of calcareous spicules , siliceous spicules , spongin or a combination. All aquatic, mostly marine.
  • Composed of 3 layers outer layer of flattened contractile cells (pinacocytes) inner non-living mesoglea containing a variety of specialized cells collar cells (choanocytes) which capture food, etc. from water flowing through channels. Exhibit asymmetry or radial symmetry . Reproduction - asexual by buds & gemmules. Sexual by eggs & sperm.
  • Calcium carbonate = chalk and limestone Silicon = sand (silicon dioxide) Collagen = main protein of connective tissue and changed into gelatin.
  • Fig. 12.11a
  • Large sponges filter 1500 liters/day *How important are they to the ocean environment? what would happen if there were too many? Too few? Choanocytes phagocytize Archeocytes digest No respiratory, excretory or nervous systems
  • Porifera

    1. 1. Phylum Porifera
    2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Simple Sponge Morphology
    3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sponge Body Forms
    4. 4. Spicule <ul><li>Skeleton of sponge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Archeocyte <ul><li>Amoeboid cells </li></ul><ul><li>Receive food from choanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate into other cell types </li></ul>
    6. 6. Mesenchyme (Mesoglea or Mesohyl) <ul><li>Gelantinous matrix </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pinococyte <ul><li>Outer surface of sponge </li></ul><ul><li>Contractile </li></ul>
    8. 8. Choanocyte <ul><li>Flagellated cells </li></ul><ul><li>One end in mesnchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella creates water currents </li></ul><ul><li>Collar traps food </li></ul><ul><li>Passes food to archeocyte </li></ul>
    9. 9. Porocyte <ul><li>Forms a pore </li></ul>
    10. 10. Asconoid Sponge Ostium Spongocoel Osculum Porocyte
    11. 11. Syconoid Sponge Osculum Ostium Spongocoel Choanocytes Radial Canal Incurrent Canal
    12. 12. Syconoid Sponge Spongocoel Ostium Choanocytes Radial Canal Incurrent Canal Scypha ( Grantia) xs
    13. 13. Leuconoid Sponge Choanocyte chamber Osculum Incurrent canal Excurrent canal Incurrent pore
    14. 14. Class Calcarea Grantia <ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Vase shape </li></ul><ul><li>Spicules of calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight or 3-4 rays </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Class Hexactinellida Euplectella <ul><li>Spicules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siliceous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 rays </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Class Demospongiae Spongia <ul><li>Spicules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siliceous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spongin </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Physiology
    18. 19. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Monoecious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both male and female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sperm and egg derived from choanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliated larva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swim to new location </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Budding </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Gemmule formation </li></ul><ul><li>-survive freezing </li></ul>Asexual Reproduction Micropyle Spicule

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