History of Stone Age


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History of Stone Age

  2. 2. SAT Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • Source Isotope Disintegrate Fossils acclimate Emerge Migrate Nomad Austere Boisterous Credence Dearth Esthetic Fallacy Gregarious Harry laconic Neologism Obfuscate Paragon
  3. 3. Archaeology: The study of past societies through the examination of artifacts. Artifacts are anything that people modify or use. They can include: Tools and Weapons Jewelry Art and Sculpture Human Remains Pottery Ancient Ruins
  4. 4. History The study of the past by written artifacts. Time before writing. So, we have to rely on archeology to understand what happened.
  5. 5. The study of human life and culture The remains of plants and animals. By studying fossils archaeologists and anthropologists can learn about what people ate, what animals they had around, and their way of life. Carbon dating The paragon of dating, it can be used to date organic artifacts, or any thing that lived. All living things have a radioactive isotope of Carbon called Carbon 14 from the sun. Carbon 14 disintegrates by half in 5730 years (±40 years). Scientists can measure how much Carbon 14 an artifact has today. So, they can tell how old it is.
  6. 6. Thermoluminescence dating This method measurements back 200,000 years. It measures the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surrounding fossils and artifacts. Microscopic and biological analyses of organic remains—such as blood, hairs, and plant tissues left on rocks, tools, and weapons—give archeologists more information. Analysis has shown that blood molecules may survive millions of years.
  7. 7. Thermoluminescence dating It is useful in telling archeologists more about humans, their use of tools, and the animals they killed. Ancient deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is providing new information on human evolution. The analysis of plant remains on stone tools yields evidence on the history of farming.
  8. 8. 60 Million years Ago The age of giant reptiles comes to an end, when a comet hits.
  9. 9. Paleo: Old Lithic: Stone AGE 250,000 BC – 10,000 BC . Humans used simple stone tools. Around 40,000 BC , someone put a rock on a stick to make a spear, high tech in the Paleolithic age. .
  10. 10. AGE Lucky humans lived in caves. They had laconic and austere lives .
  11. 11. By 10,000 BCE, they made fire by friction. Fire cooked food, gave warmth, and allowed greater migration.
  12. 12. AGE Fire was critical for humans to acclimate and migrate. The Ice Age ( 100000 8000 BCE) had extremely fridge weather.
  13. 13. AGE They lived in small gregarious family groups called clans. They had to find and hunt food (a hunter and gathering society). Once food became dearth, they moved on to the next place ( Nomadic society).
  14. 14. AGE Division of labor Women usually gathered food and took care of the camp. Gathering supplied the majority of the food.
  15. 15. AGE Division of labor Most likely, women ruled the camps (a matriarchal society).
  16. 16. AGE Division of labor Usually, men hunted. Woolly Mammoths were the biggest game. mammoth hunt - Yahoo! Search Results.flv
  17. 17. Hunters would ambush, surround and harry herds of mammoths , so that the titanic game might stampede off cliffs. 6 - Mammoth Journey 3.avi.flv
  19. 19. AGE Artists recorded life on cave walls.
  20. 20. AGE Lascaux France has famous esthetic examples of cave art.
  21. 21. AGE Altamira, Spain.
  22. 22. Patagonia, Argentina
  23. 23. Ennedi, Sahara desert
  24. 24. Altamira Catal Huyuk Lascaux Olduvai Gorge Stonehenge
  25. 25. They even imagined death.
  26. 26. They buried their dead with artifacts and believed in religion and magic.
  27. 27. The first gods were women (Mother Earth goddess) , which gives credence to the theory of Paleolithic matriarchal rule.
  28. 28. Neolithic Female Figures
  29. 29. The Ice Ages ends (20,000 BC-8,000BCE). The world became warmer (Cause). (Effect) More trees grew. A plethora of Trees (Cause). Humans invent tools using wood. (Effect)
  30. 30. MESOLITHIC AGE Middle Stone Age 10,000-8,000 BCE People moved out of the caves and built huts
  31. 31. MESOLITHIC AGE They invented wooden bows and arrows for hunting, boats for fishing.
  32. 32. MESOLITHIC AGE They still used stone tools like these fishing hooks.
  33. 33. MESOLITHIC AGE They domesticated wolves, that became dogs. Clans grew larger..
  34. 34. MESOLITHIC AGE People made pottery to store food.
  35. 35. MESOLITHIC AGE and jewelry!
  36. 36. MESOLITHIC AGE Still they retained nomadic lives. They hunted, fished out, and gathered all the food in an area, then moved on to a new place.
  37. 37. MESOLITHIC AGE Hunting yields improved with techniques. Before We Ruled the Earth 2 Of 2 -Mastering the Beasts (2 5).flv
  38. 38. REVOLUTION 8000-1000 BCE V. Gordon Childe coined the neologism “The Neolithic Revolution” in 1932.
  39. 39. AGE 8000-1000 BCE New Stone Age. The most crucial inventions were farming and large scale
  40. 40. AGE 5000-1000 BC New Stone Age. People no longer had to migrate as nomads. The Agricultural Revolution let people live in villages and cities.
  41. 41. AGE Systematic Agriculture has two parts, farming and animal domestication. Neolithic humans tamed many animals as livestock (cows, sheep, pigs, goats, ass).
  42. 42. . AGE Systematic agriculture gave humans a steady food supply. In time, individual farmers produced surpluses (extra food).
  43. 43. Men took over the work of farming. Men became the primary food-providers. Women became the family caregiver. Society transformed into a maledominated (patriarchal) institution in most places
  44. 44. . AGE War raids and stealing ones neighbors food stuff increased greatly. Then as now its always easier to steal then to assiduously work to make things.
  45. 45. . AGE Megaliths were built as calendars and altars to an expanding pantheon of gods and goddesses. Job specialization: priest/magician class expands.
  46. 46. In England, Stonehenge was probably finished around 2500 BC
  47. 47. As a calendar it marked the spring and fall equinoxes and the summer and winter soloists. It let people know when to plant seeds.
  48. 48. Bloody human sacrifice marks it as an alter to the gods. The Grain-King story is from Neolithic England. Some special individual (whom embodied male fertility) would be sacrificed for the good of the community. Without human sacrifice, the crops would not grow.
  49. 49. Religions became much more complex. A new young Seed King would be put in his place, to be sacrificed the following Spring. Eventually, magical symbols and rituals replaced human sacrifice.
  50. 50. • • • • • • Human figure, from Ain Ghazal, Jordan, c. 6750-6250 BC Plaster, painted and inlaid with shell and bitumen, 3’6’’ (Louvre) Houses built of irregularly shaped stones, plastered and painted Ritually buried Function unknown Beginning of monumental sculpture in the ancient Near East
  51. 51. Human sacrifice in the First Dynasty DR. KATE SPENCE
  52. 52. Religions became much more complex. The Grain Kings became the first priests, and who better than the war/raid leader to fill the role? In most places, animal and plant sacrifice replaced human sacrifice to the Gods. This lead to the first real division of society, into ruler and ruled.
  53. 53. . AGE Society needed more organization, and a social class of rulers began.
  54. 54. . AGE The food surplus (Cause) allowed some people to develop different skills and jobs. (Effect) Job specialization: People became full time weavers, potters, jewelry, tool and weapon makers.
  55. 55. . AGE People built permanent structures out of stone and brick. Job specialization: stone mason, brick
  56. 56. Towns and cities of stone began to emerge. AGE
  57. 57. . AGE Çatal Hüyük 7,000 BC
  58. 58. was a brick and stone city almost 100,000 square meters. Its population of 5,000 to 8,000 people included farmers, artisans, craftsmen, and traders.
  59. 59. . AGE Here is a typical house in Çatal Hüyük. You entered home threw the roof!
  60. 60. . AGE In Israel, Jericho was founded around 11,000 BCE. Over time, 20 towns and cities were built on top of each other.
  61. 61. Some artifacts dating to around 8000 BC.
  62. 62. The discovery of copper. working marks the end of the stone age.
  63. 63. Copper The first metal used was copper. This is a natural metal that can be easily cast into tools, jewelry, and weapons. Bronze Age Later, copper was mixed with tin to make bronze a much stronger alloy.
  64. 64. Bronze Age Later, copper was mixed with tin to make bronze. Bronze is much stronger than copper.
  65. 65. The first civilizations developed where the people were thickest. These were in river valleys, the first in Mesopotamia, Other river valleys include The Nile in Egypt, the Indus Valley in India, and the Yellow River in China. These places became known as Cradles of Civilization.
  66. 66. NEXT TIME
  67. 67. Using Key Terms 1. People who combined copper and tin to make tools are said to have entered the _____. 2. The _____ of animals provided humans with a steady source of meat, milk, and wool. 3. The rise of cities, growth of governments, and development of religion are characteristics of _____ . 4. The “modern” type of Homo sapiens is called _____. 5. Lucy was an ____________. 6. The study of past societies by the analysis of the artifacts they have left behind is called _____. 7. The period of time before writing was developed is called _____. 8. The _____appear to be the first early people to bury their dead. 9. The _____designates the period when humans used simple stone tools. 10. Humans and other creatures that walk upright are called _____. 11. Remains of human and animal bones preserved in the earth’s crust are _____. 12. Skilled workers and craftsmen who made jewelry and weapons were the first _____ .
  68. 68. Reviewing Key Facts 13. Science and Technology Explain how radiocarbon dating of fossils and artifacts differs from thermoluminescence dating. 14. History List the defining characteristics of the Paleolithic Age. 15. Culture What do the cave paintings found in both Lascaux, France, and Altamira, Spain, indicate about Paleolithic humans and their culture? 16. Society Give four outcomes, or results, of the settlement of humans in villages and towns. 17. History What is the Bronze Age and when did it occur? 18. Economics Discuss early trade among different groups of people. 19. Society Describe the types of shelter and housing that were used by Paleolithic peoples. 20. History What is the most significant development of the Neolithic Age? 21. Science and Technology What factors would lead scientists to choose DNA analysis, rather than carbon or thermoluminescence dating, to determine the age of fossils and other archaeological remains? 22. Culture What evidence has led historians to believe that Neolithic peoples had religious beliefs?
  69. 69. Analyzing Visuals 8. Examine the photo of Skara Brae . What does the village’s ocean location tell you about the way its Stone Age inhabitants lived? The walled city of Skara Brae in Scotland built about 5,000 years ago.
  70. 70. Critical Thinking 6. Describe changing gender roles throughout Paleolithic societies. 7. Sequencing Information Create a cause and effect diagram to show how changes during the Neolithic Revolution led to the emergence of civilization.
  71. 71. is located on the Salisbury Plain in England 4000 years ago it most likely looked like this.
  72. 72. Agricultural surplus. . . . Advanced civilization. POLITICS Rise of cities. POLITICS Government (monarchy) and written laws ECONOMY Public works projects (temples, roads, etc.) SOCIAL Writing (first was cuneiform in Sumer); art & architecture Culture: The way of life of a group of people ECONOMY Job specialization and social classes. SOCIAL Complex religion; priests take an active role.
  73. 73. 60 Million years Ago Giving mammals a chance to evolve. Among the mammals are the primates who like to swing about in trees. CAUSE Comet Effect Mammals evolve
  74. 74. 5 million years ago One of the species of primates leaves the trees. They get up on their hind legs and begin using their hands to carry things.
  75. 75. 5 million years ago As they no longer swing around in trees. Their thumb grows longer and then it becomes opposable.
  76. 76. 2.5 -3.5 million years ago A breakthrough occurs, the first artifact.
  77. 77. Something learned that flint could be shaped by other harder rocks.
  78. 78. Hominids: Living creatures that walk upright on two feet and use tools. 1903-1972 1913-1996 Louis and Mary Leakey spent most of their lives searching for fossils of early hominids. They worked at Olduvai Gorge in East Africa. They discovered the first australopithecus fossil. They named her Lucy.
  79. 79. As hominids came down from the trees, their diet changed from herbivores to carnivores. CAUSE This allowed the big jaw muscles to relax and the cranial cavity to expand. EFFECT
  80. 80. Hominids: Living creatures that walk upright on two feet and use tools. Kenyanthropus platyops—the flat-faced man of Kenya— about 3.5-4.5 million years old. lived in East Africa between 3-4 million years ago made simple stone tools. Homo erectus, “upright man,” lived 1.5 million years ago. Made use of larger and more varied tools, perhaps fire. First hominids to leave Africa and migrate into Europe and Asia.
  81. 81. About 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa (Knowing Man). Two groups: Neanderthals and Homo sapiens sapiens Found in the Neander Valley in Germany. 100,000 to 30,000 years ago, they used advanced stone tools and buried their dead. They had larger brains and stronger bodes than us. Their fate has obfuscated archeologists, some argue that they were killed off by Homo Sapiens Sapiens; others that both interblended. One fallacy states that they live on as “bigfoot” or the “Yeti”. Homo Sapiens Sapiens Neanderthals
  82. 82. Modern human beings lived in Africa 250,000 years ago. By 10,000 BCE, they had migrated throughout the world. Asia and North America were connected by the Bering land bridge from 100,000 to 8000 BCE. The water level was low because of the Ice Age.
  83. 83. All humans today, whether they are Europeans, Asians, Americans, Australian Aborigines, or Africans, belong to the same subgroup of human beings. There is only one race! The human race! Asia and North America were connected by the Bering land bridge from 100,000 to 8000 BCE . The water level was low because of the Ice Age.
  84. 84. Hominids: Living creatures that walk upright on two feet.