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Understanding the polling process
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Understanding the polling process


This session was facilitated by Dr Ng Oon Ee, to help us better understand the role of PACA and also to familiarise voters on the procedures on polling day.

This session was facilitated by Dr Ng Oon Ee, to help us better understand the role of PACA and also to familiarise voters on the procedures on polling day.

Published in News & Politics
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  • 1. Polling ProcessUnderstanding the Polling Process orHow to Bersih-kan elections
  • 2. Sources●
  • 3. ScopeOnly covers●  The actual voting process on election day●  PACADoes NOT cover●  Postal voting●  Pre/post election bribery●  Legally registered unqualified voters●  Election Observers
  • 4. PACAPolling Agent / Counting Agent (PACA)●  Job: to ensure free and fair elections without:- –  Multiple voting –  Voting of non-qualified voters –  Phantom voting –  Ballot stuffing●  in EVERY voting stream in the country
  • 5. Where is Voting Held?●  In schools (for most areas)●  Divided into multiple streams (classrooms)●  Approximately 200-500 voters per stream●  Voters allocated by IC number (therefore by age)●  Older voters tend to be in stream 1 (downstairs)
  • 6. When is Voting Held?●  Up to the Election Commission●  Normally a weekend (since schools must be used)●  8am to 5pm●  Counting done after 5pm
  • 7. Who is Involved?●  Polis●  Penyelia Pusat Mengundi●  Ketua Tempat Mengundi (KTM)●  Kerani Pengundian (KP)●  Polling Agents / Counting Agents (Station Master)●  Voters
  • 8. Can YOU be a PACA?Qualifications are:-●  Malaysian citizen >= 21 years old●  Not a convicted/imprisoned criminal (in last 5 years)●  Not a bankrupt●  Appointed by the candidate (IMPORTANT)
  • 9. Station Master Instructions (per school)●  Role: Oversee, lead, and ensure PACA play their roles●  Overall coordination●  Located at meeting points at schools●  Has a big umbrella and 4x stools●  Holds PACA kits for distribution●  Emergency contact for PACAs All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 10. PACA Instructions●  Bring your IC●  Bring your handphone (fully charged) + battery/ charger●  Dressing – smart casual (red, NO PARTY LOGO) –  Collar polo t-shirt / short sleeve shirt –  Long pants/skirt (no shorts or miniskirts) –  Shoes (no slippers) –  No caps All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 11. PACA Instructions●  2 shifts (get PACA kit from station master) –  Shift 1 – 7am to 1pm –  Shift 2 – 1pm to 5pm (come at 12pm!) –  Counting is after 5 pm till whenever (may be same person)●  Counting agents to be on-site from 4.15pm for standby●  Dont forget to vote yourself! All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 12. The PACA Kit●  Appointment letter (from EC)●  Borang Sumpah Kerahsiaan (Borang A)●  SPR ID (with photo)●  Stationary●  Borang 14 (x2) and Borang 13 (x2)●  Count form●  Paper●  Electoral roll
  • 13. Process of VotingGeneral time-line of election day●  Sealing of ballot boxes●  Actual Voting (8am to 5pm)●  Closing of voting●  Counting of votes
  • 14. Sealing of Ballot Box●  First shift must arrive early (by 7am)●  Inspect surroundings●  Inspect ballot box (make sure its empty) BEFORE it is sealed●  Sign on seal (leave sample of your signature on the count form) All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 15. Sealing of Ballot Box
  • 16. Sealing of Ballot Box
  • 17. Actual Voting●  Voters are allowed in by policeman (one at a time)●  Voter hands IC to KP1 for verification●  KP1 checks if voter has already voted on list●  KP1 checks voters finger for indelible ink●  KP2 marks voters finger with indelible ink●  KP1 checks voters name off the list and reads out IC number and name
  • 18. Actual Voting●  KP1 checks voters name off the list and reads out IC number and name●  KP3 chops ballot paper and hands it to voter –  Please do NOT request another ballot paper as mentioned in a lot of emails/FB posts●  Voter marks ballot paper in the booth●  Voter drops ballot papers in ballot boxes●  Voter leaves the classroom
  • 19. Actual Voting (Indelible Ink)
  • 20. Actual Voting (Ballot Paper)
  • 21. Actual Voting (Ballot Paper)
  • 22. Actual Voting (Ballot Paper)
  • 23. Actual Voting (PACA rules)●  Handphones officially disallowed (but SMS-ing discreetly has so far been okay)●  Do not leave the room (if MUST leave, obtain permission from KTM and BRING your ID and letter of appointment)●  Do not drink too much water (no toilet breaks due to 2-hr rule)●  Keep alert (always watch the ballot box!)●  Do not speak to voters●  Do not display any party symbols
  • 24. Actual Voting (PACA rules)●  Do not argue with KTM (has the right to kick you out)●  Wear SPR ID at all times●  If sending an SMS (to station master), ensure acknowledgement, if none comes, resend●  Make notes of any irregularities●  Produce letter of appointment to anyone who requests it (police, KTM, etc.) 3rd line is DAP-specific!
  • 25. Actual Voting (PACA role)●  Be alert, watch out for any irregularities●  When KP calls name out:- –  Check to see if name is on the list and if anything seems wrong –  Check to see if finger has indelible ink (do not approach voter)●  Any other suspicious activity●  Use ruler and pencil to cancel out voters who have voted
  • 26. Actual Voting (PACA role)
  • 27. Actual Voting (PACA role)●  Count form –  Contains sample of your signature (for Counting Agent to verify) –  Keep a rough count of voter numbers and estimated ethnicity (DO NOT talk to voter, just best guess) –  Purpose is for PACA coordinator to monitor trends and see if any particular segment of society is not voting (may indicate intimidation or other problems) All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 28. Actual Voting (PACA role)
  • 29. Actual Voting (PACA shift change)●  Ensure smooth transition (wait for a suitable time to change)●  Communicate! Share and explain notes●  For 2nd shift, make sure counts tally on Borang 13
  • 30. Closing of Voting●  Closing is at 5pm sharp (sometimes earlier) –  Anyone inside the room is still allowed to vote –  The mouth of the ballot box is sealed and signed by Polling Agent (2nd shift) –  Polling Agent changeover to Counting Agent (if not the same person)●  Do not leave the stream (ballot box) unattended●  Ensure counting agent is in the stream before leaving
  • 31. Counting of Votes
  • 32. Counting of Votes●  Trays (Dulang) will be arranged on the table –  One tray for each candidate (with party/independent symbol) –  UNDI BELUM DIKIRA –  RAGU –  DITOLAK●  Seals on ballot boxes are broken●  Split for counting (Parliament/State)
  • 33. Counting of Votes●  All ballot papers are taken out and placed in the UNDI BELUM DIKIRA tray●  Tied (counted) in bunches of 10s and 100s with rubber bands●  Record how many ballot papers in the box●  Compare with Borang 13
  • 34. Counting of Votes
  • 35. Counting of Votes●  If extra in box compared to Borang 13, must find and remove the extra (based on serial number/ perforation)●  If same or less, count continues●  Kerani starts to sort, KTM will state the party name●  Kerani will place in appropriate tray●  Any uncertainty, place in the RAGU tray
  • 36. Counting of Votes●  Once all split into appropriate trays, any ballot papers in RAGU tray are re-examined●  If accepted, will be chopped Diterima and placed in the appropriate candidates tray●  If rejected, will be chopped Ditolak and placed in the DITOLAK tray●  Finally, ballot papers in each candidates tray counted
  • 37. Counting of Votes (Recount)●  Recount can be requested by PACA, SPR, or Kerani Mengundi if margin is <= 4%
  • 38. Counting of Votes (Borang 14)●  Borang 14 contains the official result (after checking and recount) for the stream●  Each Counting Agent gets one form which is cross- signed by KTM and other Counting Agents●  The MOST important form of the day
  • 39. Counting of Votes (PACA rules)●  Do not be late or on time, be early! (4.15 pm)●  Report to station master and then proceed to stream●  Otherwise same rules as for Polling Agent apply●  Know what is considered a vote and what is considered spoilt (examples to follow)●  This is the time to be assertive if needed and if something suspicious is observed (KTM needs your signature to go home) All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 40. Counting of Votes (PACA role)●  When ballot box seal is broken, check with signature on count form (1st Polling Agent)●  If your Parliament/State counterpart is absent, plead for counting to be consecutive rather than simultaneous (so that both can be observed)●  Dont try to count mentally as will affect your concentration, just identify the RAGU votes●  If Kerani Mengundi is going too fast, ask to slow down All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 41. Counting of Votes (PACA role)●  Make sure votes go into the right tray!●  After all counting is finished, make sure to get KTMs signature on Borang 14 (if it was forgotten, use the one in your PACA kit), the other Counting Agents signature isnt important●  Hand-deliver Borang 14 back to your station master, who will hand-deliver it to the campaign manager All information on this slide is DAP-specific!
  • 42. Interpreting Ballot PapersWhat makes a Ballot Paper Valid?●  At least one clear mark indicating candidate choiceWhat makes a Ballot Paper Invalid?●  Party symbols/drawings/words/names●  Markings on more than one candidate●  Missing perforation●  Mark is outside the candidates row●  Torn paper where perforation is missing
  • 43. Interpreting Ballot PapersExamples of Valid Votes
  • 44. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 45. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 46. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 47. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 48. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 49. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 50. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 51. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 52. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 53. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 54. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 55. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 56. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 57. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 58. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 59. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 60. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 61. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 62. Interpreting Ballot PapersExamples ofInvalid Votes
  • 63. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 64. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 65. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 66. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 67. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 68. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 69. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 70. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 71. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 72. Interpreting Ballot Papers
  • 73. Interpreting Ballot Papers