Public safety in a multi media era facilitating incident management response

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Situational awareness
“Situational awareness” was a term originally used to describe the tactical situation during aerial combat . While the literal term doesn’t go back as far as World War I, the idea surfaced then, when pilots first took to the sky in combat. At first, the term referred to the pilot’s ability to know where he was in relation to the enemy and the other pilots of his flight. In reality, that is only positional awareness. However, when pilots added their knowledge of aircraft capabilities and known battle tactics with positional awareness, they were able to interpret, comprehend and anticipate. The comprehension of observations is the essence of situational awareness.

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Public safety in a multi media era facilitating incident management response

  1. 1. Facilitating Incident Management Response Public Safety in a Multimedia Era Information Draft Jack Brown Jan 11, 2008
  2. 2. Situational AwarenessWhen the first aircraft struck the World Trade Center, what were your thoughts? Did youthink about terrorists? Or, was your first thought something more like “How could thathappen?” The first crash left most people trying to figure out what human or mechanicalerror could have caused the crash. However, a little over 15 minutes later – and the instantFlight 175 came into view – we knew we were under attack. As the jet slammed into theSouth Tower of the World Trade Center, our view changed and the response of police andfire personnel to the WTC and the other incidents changed.Our reaction changed because the additional information of the second aircraft altered ourperception of the first crash. Our perceptions moved closer to reality because more datagave meaning to and enhanced our comprehension of what we were observing.Situational awareness“Situational awareness” was a term originally used to describe the tactical situation duringaerial combat . While the literal term doesn’t go back as far as World War I, the ideasurfaced then, when pilots first took to the sky in combat. At first, the term referred to thepilot’s ability to know where he was in relation to the enemy and the other pilots of his flight.In reality, that is only positional awareness. However, when pilots added their knowledge ofaircraft capabilities and known battle tactics with positional awareness, they were able tointerpret, comprehend and anticipate. The comprehension of observations is the essence ofsituational awareness.
  3. 3. Public Safety in a Multimedia EraPublic safety agencies have made significant investments in CAD system, records-management systems, GIS, crisis information management, and facility preplandrawing and management systems. These are stand-alone systems and areincapable of easily sharing data with other programs. Their proliferation has createda series of data silos requiring service command or other response personnel toperform “swivel chair” integration, rolling back and forth between the user interfacesof several different systems or books to build a composite picture of the situation intheir minds.The emergence of Internet standards for Web services and data integration nowmakes it possible to weave these systems together by providing the connections anddata translations necessary to make each systems data understandable to theothers. This establishes a true information-sharing environment in which variousdata sources can be brought together and woven into valuable information relevantto the incident being responded to. New capabilities such as video surveillance, fixedor mobile sensors, and plume modeling can be integrated easily in the future.Another benefit is that public safety personnel can focus on being decision-makersand not data-entry clerks.
  4. 4. Public Safety in a Multimedia EraPublic safety agencies work in a dynamic, complex and high-risk environment thatdemands current and relevant situational awareness. Time is of the essence whenfaced with saving lives, property and the environment. There is no time to copyand send files, pictures, or diagrams. The best case is to have all relevantinformation updated in real time to keep pace with the unfolding incident orsituation. Responders, incident commanders and emergency managers need tobe able to view the situation and collaborate in real time to communicate what ishappening at present.With the systems tied together and the information flowing in real time, what isneeded next is to fuse the information together and present it in a visualizationenvironment that can be quickly understood and manipulated.
  5. 5. Public Safety in a Multimedia EraPublic safety and emergency management entities already operate in ageospatial environment: How do I get there? Where is the incident? Where isthe fire? Where is the bad guy going? What and where are the exposures to thisfire? Where is my water supply? Where are my resources? How does ourcoverage look for any other emergencies? Incident response organizations areused to dealing with maps and locations, and thus a geospatial picture makes alot of sense as the primary visualization mechanism for incident data.With a map-based operating picture that is updated in real time, the informationpresented on that map can be adapted as appropriate to the roles andresponsibilities of the individual responders. This will facilitate rapidcomprehension and more effective decision-making for all disciplines that mightbe required.
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  15. 15. Communication Network Trends …..Extending the IP Network Edge• Network-based applications are increasingly important to transit operations More profitable, faster, safer operations is the goal• Advances in Wireless technologies Increased reliability, lower prices, better coverage 802.11a/b/g/n, UMTS, GPRS, CDMA, WiMAX, Satellite• Increased demand for Mobile Networking Real time access to information, increased productivity and lower costs, increased safety
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  32. 32. Appendix
  33. 33. Cisco Design Overview
  34. 34. Cisco IPICSThe Cisco IPICS portfolio of products and applications provides Communicationsinteroperability between push-to-talk (PTT) radio systems and devices such asmobile phones, IP phones, public switched telephone network (PSTN) phones,and PC clients. Based on IP standards, Cisco IPICS takes advantage of IPnetworks to extend the reach of traditional communications networks and also toprovide notification using email, pager notification, and Short Message Service(SMS).Using Cisco IPICS, public sector agencies and enterprises can intelligently applyresources to streamline operations and rapidly respond to routine events as wellas emergencies.Cisco IPICS can be deployed in mobile command vehicles and included in tacticalcommunications kits, connecting to IP or non-IP wired, wireless, or satellitenetworks.
  35. 35. Cisco IPICS
  36. 36. Cisco IPICS
  37. 37. Cisco IPICSSolutions components include the following:Cisco IPICS Server: The core foundation for the Cisco IPICS solution, theCisco IPICS Server is a security-enhanced, Linux-based platform that providesan administration console and resource management and hosts the optionalCisco IPICS Policy Engine and Operational Views applications.Cisco IPICS IP Phone Client: The Cisco IPICS IP Phone Client enablespersonnel to use their Cisco Unified IP phones to collaborate with otherpersonnel on PTT channels.Cisco IPICS PMC: The Cisco IPICS PMC is a Windows-based PC clientsoftware package that enables personnel to use their PCs to collaborate withother personnel on PTT channels.Cisco IPICS Operational Views: Cisco IPICS Operational Views allows differentorganizations to manage and share resources across ownership andorganizational boundaries.
  38. 38. Cisco IPICSCisco IPICS Policy Engine: The Cisco IPICS Policy Engine enables one-clickactivation of predefined policies for notification and talk-group establishment, andincludes the ability to dial in and dial out to the PSTN.Intelligent NetworkingCisco IPICS takes advantage of the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture(SONA), an architectural framework that enables organizations to maximize thevalue of their network services and resources. The Cisco SONA framework makesit possible to centrally manage all radio systems, other voice systems, and dataover a common, unified platform, increasing efficiency and the value of theagency’s network assets while lowering capital and management costs.
  39. 39. Cisco Unified Contact CenterCisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise uses an IP infrastructure to deliver skills-based contact routing, voice self-service, computer telephony integration (CTI),and multichannel contact management. By combining multichannel automatic-call-distributor (ACD) functions with IP telephony in a unified solution, Cisco UnifiedContact Center helps deploy a distributed voice-over-IP (VoIP) contact centerinfrastructure.The Unified Contact Center segments customers, monitors resource availability,and delivers each contact to the appropriate resource anywhere in the enterprise.The software profiles each customer contact using related data such as dialednumber and calling line ID, caller entered digits, data submitted on a Web form,and information obtained from a customer database lookup. Simultaneously, thesystem monitors the resources available in the contact center including agentskills and availability, interactive-voice-response (IVR) status, and queue lengths.
  40. 40. Cisco Unified Communications ManagerUnified Communications Solutions unify voice, video, data, and mobile applications onfixed and mobile networks, delivering a media-rich collaboration experience acrossbusiness, government agency, and institutional workspaces. These applications usethe network as the platform to enhance comparative advantage by acceleratingdecision time and reducing transaction time. The security, resilience, and scalability ofthe network enable users in any workspace to connect anywhere, anytime, andanyplace, using any media, device, or operating system.A Unified Communications is part of a solution that includes network infrastructure,security, wireless, management applications, lifecycle services, flexible deployment andoutsourced management options, and third-party applications.The Cisco Unified Communications Manager (formerly known as Cisco UnifiedCallManager) is the call-processing component of the Cisco Unified Communicationssystem.
  41. 41. Cisco Unified Communications Manager
  42. 42. Cisco Unified Communications ManagerIP voice call setup is initiated between the IP phone, IP videophone or gateway, and CiscoUnified CallManager. Cisco Unified CallManager classifies a call based on parameterssuch as application (voice or video) and Multilevel Precedence and Preemption (MLPP),and signals to the Cisco RSVP Agent in the access router. Bandwidth pools arepreconfigured in the router on a per-application and per-interface basis. Using theclassification provided by Cisco Unified CallManager, the Cisco RSVP Agent attempts toset up a call within the appropriate bandwidth pool and across the WAN to a far-end CiscoRSVP Agent for the receiving party.If RSVP bandwidth is secured, the Cisco RSVP Agent signals back to Cisco UnifiedCallManager. Cisco Unified CallManager in turn signals to the IP phone, IP videophone, orgateway and the call proceeds. The Cisco RSVP Agent can apply differentiated servicescode point (DSCP) marking to media packets based on instruction from the Cisco UnifiedCallManager. DSCP packet marking may be applied to place the RSVP secured mediastream into the router priority queue. If RSVP bandwidth cannot be secured, the CiscoRSVP Agent signals back to Cisco Unified CallManager, which administers policies. Thecall is either disallowed or allowed to proceed with a lower-priority DSCP packet markingapplied by the Cisco RSVP Agent as instructed by the Cisco Unified CallManager.
  43. 43. Cisco Unified Communications ManagerMid-call policies may also be applied for handling of changes to the media stream such astransfers during a call. Network design using the Cisco RSVP Agent allows voice and videocalls to proceed as part of a single unified network together with data. This setup allows forsupport of meshed designs, multitiered designs, adjustment to dynamic link changes, andredundant links. This single design helps reduce the costs for both infrastructure andmanagement. Because CAC is managed and secured and QoS is applied as a networkcomponent, there is no reliance on end-user devices.Cisco RSVP Agent functions independently of the call-signaling protocol, and hence, SessionInitiation Protocol (SIP), Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP), H.323, and Media GatewayControl Protocol (MGCP) are all supported. Figure 2 shows how the Cisco Unified CallManagerand Cisco RSVP Agent in the router work together to optimize the voice quality across the IPnetwork.

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