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Fmc Ver 1.3 June 27 2007

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FMC No Spin Zone

FMC No Spin Zone

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  • 1. FMC No Spin Zone Multi-Access Networks UMA, Femtocells, I-WLAN Fixed Mobile Convergence FMC Voice Call Continuity VCC Between CS-IMS © 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice Jack Brown
  • 2. Defining Fixed Mobile Convergence
    • “ The ultimate goal of convergence is to deliver seamless [customer] experience across multiple locations, multiple devices, and multiple types of use.” (The Yankee Group, November 2004)
    Device Convergence Network Convergence Lifestyle Convergence Application Convergence Fixed Mobile Convergence Sprint Wireless Sprint IP Inter-working Gateway Work Home Elsewhere
  • 3.
    • Customers want…
      • A network that is seamless on- and offsite
      • Each campus user to have one phone, one number and one voicemail
      • An easy-to-manage, -migrate and -operate solution
      • To leverage investments in current campus communication assets
    • Customers want…
      • Lower Total Cost of Ownership
      • A predictable monthly cost
      • Lower operational and administration costs
      • Scalable solutions to meet future communication and technology needs
    • Customers want…
      • Enhanced in-building coverage
      • Reliable networks with no capacity issues
      • Redundancy and recovery systems
      • High voice and data service quality
    SIMPLE LOW-COST HIGH-QUALITY Key Demand Drivers for Fixed Mobile Convergence Solutions
    • Customers want their wireless services to interoperate seamlessly with their wireline services and/or they want to consolidate some users to wireless only within the workplace.
  • 4. US VoWLAN/Cellular Dual-Mode Users, 2005-2010 (Millions) Because of increased acceptance of standard cellular operation and continued increases in wireless usage where landline phones are available. Dual-mode adoption and implementation will be slower than some other industry predictions. Integrated VoWLAN/Cellular dual-mode users will grow at a CAGR of over 140 percent per year until 2010, as shown above. This will result in 9 million handsets in service. Source – Insight Research September 2005
  • 5.
    • Fixed/Mobile Convergence (FMC) Still In Its Infancy: In The United States, There Have Been Limited Deployments Of FMC, Including AT&T’s OfficeReach And T-Mobile’s Latest Solution For Consumers. There Are Still Concerns About Battery Life And Seamless Handoff Between Wifi And Cellular Networks. Although It Is Expected To Impact Mobile Operators’ Revenue Streams In The Next Few Years, The Magnitude Of The Impact Still Remains To Be Seen.
    • FMC Means Very Different Things To Different Telecom Industry Participants, Depending On Their Business Models, Installed Base Of Technology, And Applications For Use Of Wired Versus Wireless Communications.
    • Enterprises, Fixed Operators (E.G., Wireline Telecommunications Carriers And Cable System Operators), And Cellular Wireless Service Providers Are Each Considering The Potential For FMC In Different Ways That Support Their Diverse Objectives.
    • For The First Time, FMC Now Pits Fixed Operators Against Mobile Operators—with Both Types Of Service Provider Competing Against Enterprise Equipment Vendors. In Addition, FMC Has Encouraged Fixed Operators To Acquire Mobile Operators. AT&T Bought Bellsouth In The United States, Primarily So It Would Have Complete Ownership Of Cingular Wireless, Thereby Facilitating The Introduction Of FMC Services
    • Technical Developments Are Making It Possible To Combine Wireless (Wireless Local Area Network [WLAN] And Mobile Cellular) And Wireline Networks To Deliver Integrated Fixed Mobile Services With Entirely New Capabilities. But Mobile Operators, Wireline Network Service Providers, And Enterprises Have Very Different And Sometimes Conflicting Objectives In Deploying These Next-generation Networks . The Result Will Be New Forms Of Competition Between Previously Separate Industry Segments That Will Affect Enterprise And Consumer Service And Product Choices, Network Capabilities, And Service Provider/Vendor Relationships
    FMC No Spin Zone
  • 6. Wireless Integration – Voice Over Wi-Fi (VoWiFi) VoWiFi will provide a viable, low cost alternative to traditional cellular networks for roaming. Wi-Fi also promises more reliable indoor coverage and higher voice quality than traditional cellular solutions. In addition, VoWiFi may spawn a tremendous amount of new converged application development by extending enterprise applications to mobile workers and enriching those applications with new capabilities like location, presence and messaging. There are a number of high-profile announcements concerning VoWiFi deployment in large enterprise environments like distribution and warehousing centers, hospitals, and college campuses. Many of the current deployments involve integration with the enterprise PBX, whether the PBX is an IP PBX , or a traditional PBX. One method of integrating with a traditional PBX is to use a VoWiFi gateway which supports most of the leading legacy PBX vendors. Integration with the PBX allows calls to be placed to and received from the PSTN, and also supports the PBX features such as call forwarding, messaging, and conference calling. A major drawback of VoWiFi is that it still tethers the user to the wireless LAN, at least for the duration of a call or session. Furthermore, large campus environments with dead zones where the WLAN is not available may result in missed or dropped calls. For those workers in professions that are the leading candidates for VoWiFi, such as medical professionals, sales people, plant managers and other highly mobile workers, this lack of continuous coverage could stymie their acceptance of the technology. FMC No Spin Zone
  • 7. Dual-mode CDMA – Wi-Fi Handsets Deploying a Wi-Fi/Cellular roaming solution requires dual-mode handsets that support both VoWiFi as well as cellular, and a gateway that sits in the core of the carrier’s network. The gateway connects to the mobile switching center for cellular calls, and connects to the data network for WLAN calls. The gateway manages subscriber access and handoff . As the subscriber moves within range of a wireless access point, the gateway authorizes the subscriber’s access and all network services – both voice and data – are delivered over the WLAN. When the subscriber moves outside of coverage of the current WLAN, the gateway seamlessly switches control over to another WLAN or the cellular network if an authorized WLAN is not available. Multiple vendors working on the gateways include Bridgeport with their NomadicONE, Kineto with their INC-5501, NewStep with their Converged Services Node as well as the major equipment manufacturers such as Lucent and Nortel. Several handset manufacturers have announced devices that will support roaming between cellular and Wi-Fi networks , although some are at least initially intended for roaming of data sessions. Nokia, the world’s largest handset maker is working on the Communicator 9500, which will be able to use Cisco’s Aironet access points. The Communicator 9500 is expected to be available by the end of the year. Motorola has also announced it is working on a dual-mode handset, as have NEC, NTT DoCoMo and others. FMC No Spin Zone
  • 8. Deployment Challenges In addition to the introduction of the network gateways and dual mode handsets, there are a number of technical and operational issues that must be addressed in order for VoWiFi/cellular roaming to become a seamless and viable means of communication. First, the WLAN networks must provide the proper bandwidth and QoS to support VoWiFi deployments . Of course, QoS is an issue for VoWiFi networks even if roaming is present; however, if not addressed adequately the problem could be exacerbated when support for roaming leads to increased acceptance and use of VoWiFi. Security and privacy are other big issues that need a great deal of attention . This is a topic, which has yet to be dealt with even in traditional, wired VoIP implementations. Using wireless networks for the transmittal of sensitive voice and data increases the potential for risk dramatically. Another big hurdle is billing for hybrid VoWiFi/cellular roaming , especially in business models where carriers will charge (perhaps at a discounted price per minute) for VoIP minutes as well as for the cellular minutes. Gateway systems should be able to cut billing records for the VoIP calls, but inter-carrier settlement will have to be worked out when multiple carriers are involved. How to handle E911 calls from a roaming user is yet another issue that must be solved. Potentially, the biggest inhibitor to the success of Wi-Fi/Cellular roaming may be the wireless carriers themselves. After all, why would carriers want to provide a technology that would allow their subscribers to seamlessly roam from their revenue generating networks to free or reduced-cost networks ? Several possible business models exist. The most obvious is one in which the cellular carrier offers a plan in which subscribers can roam from their cellular network to Wi-Fi, with reduced pricing for minutes used on the WLAN . After all, it costs carriers much less to deliver service over the free, unlicensed spectrum and reduces congestion in the existing cellular network. FMC No Spin Zone
  • 9. To Achieve Truly Seamless FMC, There Are Several Technical And Product/Service Approaches That Differ Primarily In Who Controls The Establishment Of Voice Calls Or Other Multimedia Sessions . In The Case Of Voice Calls (With Multimedia Operating Similarly), Some Of The Alternatives Are: • Mobile Operator Control: The Mobile Operator Provides Call Control For Its Dual-mode (Third-generation [3G] Cellular, WLAN) Phones, Using The Enterprise And Fixed Operator Networks Only As IP Transport Conduits For Call Control And Media Traffic. • Fixed Operator Control: The Fixed Operator Provides Call Control For Voice Over Ip (VoIP) Clients Running On Mobile Virtual Network Operator (Mvno) Dual-mode Phones, Using The Enterprise And Mobile Operator/Mvno Networks Only As IP Transport Conduits For Call Control And Media Traffic. • Enterprise Control: The Enterprise's IP-PBX Provides Call Control For VoIP Client Software Running On Dualmode Personal Digital Assistant (Pda)/Smartphones, Using The Fixed And Mobile Operator Networks Only As IP Transport Conduits For Call Control And Media Traffic. FMC No Spin Zone
  • 10. VoWiFi/Cellular as a Competitive Differentiator Carriers may even offer those minutes for free and consider it a competitive differentiator . Or, they can capitalize on the opportunity to steal more customers away from landline carriers. Today a growing number of subscribers prefer to use their mobile phones in the home or office, anyway, as they become attached not only to the mobility it provides but also the convenience of having a single number where they can always be reached, being able to click to call any of the numbers in their contact list and missed call logs. Another compelling business model for cellular carriers involves the ability to facilitate adoption of new, higher bandwidth services. Users may be more likely to take advantage of services such as real-time video and downloading of rich content over the faster WLAN, and once accustomed to the services use them even when the WLAN is not available. There is another technology on the near horizon that offers additional capability. The 802.16 standards “WiMax” is similar to Wi-Fi, except that its range is slated to be about 25-30 miles, versus Wi-Fi’s couple of hundred feet. WiMax could eventually compete with 3G, or become a complimentary offering. FMC No Spin Zone
  • 11. A clear trend is emerging in the form of fixed and mobile telephony convergence (FMC). The aim is to provide both services with a single phone, which could switch between networks ad hoc . Typically, these services rely on Dual Mode Handsets, where the customers' mobile terminal can support both the wide-area (cellular) access and the local-area technology. Historically Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Bluetooth have been used locally, although there is a clear trend towards WiFi . One example of this convergence is the BT Fusion offer in UK, where British Telecom offers a Vodafone handset capable of making calls through the ADSL line via a local wireless connection (in trials and early launch this was bluetooth but the product is now transitioning to using WiFi. Other examples are provided in France with wifi connectivity around the base station, by the BeautifulPhone from neuf cegetel by the means of a QTek 8300 or Home Zone from Wanadoo with a Nokia handset. Free (French ISP) develops a wifi mesh network of HD freeboxes to be used to provide mobile telephony and compete with traditional cellular operators. The Generic Access Network (or GAN) is a standard roaming system between WLANs and WWANs . Among the first handsets capable of this switching are the Nokia E series , which will be used by the British operator Truphone starting its service in may 2006. [1] . GAN is the name formally used by 3GPP but the technology is also known as UMA and was first developed by Kineto . At the end of the nineties, some dual mode DECT /GAP and GSM services were envisionned. In the UK, BT Cellnet launched its OnePhone offer in 1999. Ericsson and Sagem have produced a few handset models, and Ascom resold some Ericsson units. Those offers have not taken any sufficient ground and have been stopped. Six companies, British Telecom , NTT , Rogers Wireless , Brasil Telecom , Korea Telecom and Swisscom have formed the Fixed-Mobile Convergence Alliance (which as of January 2007 has 26 members) with the purpose to encourage the seamless integration of mobile and fixed-line telephone services. An alternative approach to achieve similar benefits is that of femtocells FMC According To WIKIPEDIA
  • 12. http:// www.thefmca.com / Fixed Mobile Convergence Alliance
  • 13. Multi-Access Networks Integration for UMA, Femtocells & I-WLAN
  • 14.
    • Fixed-mobile Convergence (FMC) Solutions Such As Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), Femtocells And Integrated WLAN (I-WLAN) Offer Techniques To Lower Capacity And Operating Costs By Utilizing Less Expensive Radio Technologies And Residential Broadband Access To The Internet. The Big Challenges That Remain Are (1) The Specific Manner In Which These Multi-access Networks Are Interconnected To The Mobile Operator Core Network, And (2) The Security Methods Implemented To Safeguard The Subscriber And The Mobile Operator Network From Internet-caliber Security Risks.
    Multi-Access Networks Integration for UMA, Femtocells & I-WLAN
    • Operators Are Looking To Harness Alternate Radio Access Technologies To Complement Macro-cellular Networks And Solve The In-building Penetration Challenge To Reduce Churn And Increase Fixed-mobile Substitution. Mobile Operators Are Also Looking To Enhanced Voice And Multimedia Services To Deliver Growth In The Face Of Declining Voice ARPU. High Bandwidth Requirements Strain The Radio Capacity Required To Provide Coverage For In-building Environments.
    • While Mobile Operators Have Traditionally Relied Exclusively On Licensed Spectrum For Additional Capacity, It Is Not The Most Cost-effective Way To Meet The Emerging High-bandwidth Demands On Both Spectrum And Backhaul Capacity When Most Voice And Data Usage Actually Occurs Indoors. Wifi And Broadband Are Ubiquitous And Cost-effective Solutions For Indoor Coverage And Backhaul Cost Reduction, However They Need To Be Secured End-to-end To Provide The Same Degree Of Security That Operators Have Grown To Expect With Their Macro-cellular Networks.
  • 15. Multi-Access Networks Integration for UMA, Femtocells & I-WLAN
  • 16. Multi-Access Networks Integration for UMA, Femtocells & I-WLAN
  • 17. Multi-Access Networks Integration for UMA, Femtocells & I-WLAN
  • 18. Femtocell Opportunity Expanding
  • 19. Femtocell-Opportunities and Challenges
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. P1900 Simplified Map of Metalanguage 802.21 MIH Function Protocol and Device Hardware Applications Connection Management WLAN Cellular WMAN L2 Triggers and Events Information Service Mobility Management Protocols Smart Triggers Information Service Handover Messages Handover Management Handover Policy Handover Messages IEEE 802.21 IETF Mobile Terminal Network (Operators) OMA 3GPP, 3GPP2 SDRF Metalanguage IETF MIP FMIP SIP HIP NETLMM DNA MIPSHOP “ Cognitive” Terminal Information Types Voice, Async, VoIP, Video, … Draft 3GPP2 VCC I-WLAN SAE-LTE
  • 23.
    • Seamless connectivity requires mobility and support for both homogenous and heterogeneous handovers. Heterogeneous handovers involve transition across different networks such as WLAN, WiMAX and Cellular networks. Homogeneous handovers involve transition across points of attachment (PoA—such as WLAN access points or WiMAX base stations) within the same network.
    • In the case of homogeneous handovers within a WLAN environment, the first step is for the mobile platform to intelligently recognize the user's immediate wireless environment and automatically select the best available access point (AP). In the second step, quality of service (QoS) resources must be allocated and security associations computed, either before or during the reassociation interval.
    • IEEE 802.11k and 802.11r are the key industry standards now in development that will enable seamless Basic Service Set (BSS) transitions in the WLAN environment. The IEEE 802.11k standard provides information to discover the best available access point. IEEE 802.11r defines mechanisms for secure and fast transitions between access points within the same Extended Service Set (ESS).
    Seamless Mobility
    • To maintain uninterrupted user connections during handovers across different networks, IEEE 802.21 defines a common media independent handover (MIH) function between Layer 2 and Layer 3 of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) network stack, which enables mobility across heterogeneous networks. By allowing client devices and networks to work cooperatively during these network transitions, IEEE 802.21 provides mechanisms for optimizing handovers across Wi-Fi, WiMAX and cellular radios that will dramatically enhance the user's mobile experience.
    Media Independent Handover (MIH)
  • 24.
    • While the arrival of mixed-network devices promises to drive enhanced voice and multimedia services, supporting concurrent multiple radios presents unique mobility-related and platform-related challenges. Client devices must be capable of automatically detecting and selecting the best wireless network and providing a seamless transition from one network to another. Emerging mobility standards are needed to enable handovers and also to enable terminal mobility across multiple points of attachment as changes in user environments make one network more attractive than another. The standards address two kinds of handover:
    Seamless Mobility Media Independent Handover (MIH)
    • Heterogeneous handovers are defined as handovers across different networks and are applicable to multiradio client platforms. The emerging IEEE 802.21 standard addresses mobility across heterogeneous networks.
    • Homogeneous handovers across similar points of attachment such as Wi-Fi APs and WiMAX base stations within a single network are handled by the respective access networks' technology standards. IEEE 802.11k and 802.11r address mobility in WLAN networks. IEEE 802.16e augments mobility in WiMAX (802.16), and mobility in cellular networks is enabled by 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards.
  • 25. Seamless Mobility Media Independent Handover (MIH)
    • IEEE 802.11k enables smart roaming within the Wi-Fi network. The mobile client uses the IEEE 802.11k neighbor report that is provided by the current AP to find other candidate APs in the vicinity. The smart roaming algorithm on the client then analyzes channel conditions and the AP service load on candidate APs. The client then selects the AP capable of providing the best throughput and to maintain adequate QoS.
    • Once a suitable transition candidate has been found, the station must perform a basic service set (BSS) transition. To do so, it must break its association with the current AP and associate with the new AP. The transition process includes setting up the radio for the new channel, exchanging the association request and response with the new AP, performing authentication and key management, and establishing other aspects of connection state such as QoS.
    • IEEE 802.11r accelerates and secures BSS transitions by introducing a transition-enabled capability exchange. This is a resource reservation mechanism designed to work over the air or over the current AP to the target AP, activating resources at reassociation time using a modified reassociation exchange. A new key management framework enables the station and the AP to establish a unique Pairwise Master Key Security Association (PMKSA). The mechanism uses the new roaming protocol to perform Pairwise Transient Key (PTK) derivation at or prior to reassociation.
  • 26.
    • The IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover standard provides link layer intelligence and other related network information to upper layers to optimize handovers between heterogeneous media. The standard can support handovers for both mobile and stationary users. For mobile users, handovers may occur due to a change in wireless link conditions or a gap in radio coverage resulting from movement of the client. For stationary users handovers may occur when the environment around the user changes to make one network more attractive than another.
    • In another case the user may choose an application such as downloading a large data or media file that may require handover to a network capable of supporting a higher data rate. All such handover scenarios should maximize service continuity to maintain a high-quality user experience.
    • The IEEE 802.21 standard supports cooperative use of mobile clients in addition to the network infrastructure. The mobile client is capable of detecting available networks, and the infrastructure can store required network information, such as neighborhood cell lists and the location of mobile devices. In general, both the client device and the network's points of attachment (WiMAX base stations or Wi-Fi APs) can support multiple radio standards (multimode) and in some cases use more than one interface simultaneously.
    Seamless Mobility Media Independent Handover (MIH)
  • 27.
    • The IEEE 802.21 MIH function assists in handover decision-making. Upper layers make handover decisions and link selections based on inputs and context from the MIH function. Recognizing that a handover should take place and discovery of information on how to make effective handover decisions are key components of the IEEE 802.21 standard.
    • The MIH function offers a unified interface to the upper layers. The service primitives exposed by the MIH function are independent of the technology-specific protocol entities of the multiple access networks. The MIH function communicates with the lower layers of the mobility-management protocol stack through technology-specific interfaces. Such interfaces are already specified as service access points (SAPs) within the standards that pertain to the respective access technologies, including IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16, 3GPP and 3GPP2. MIH function helps to maintain user connections, enables optimum network discovery and selection, and can power radios on or off based on network availability to extend battery life in mobile handsets.
    Seamless Mobility Media Independent Handover (MIH)
  • 28. Fixed Mobile Convergence FMC Voice Call Continuity VCC Between CS-IMS
  • 29.
    • In a network supporting Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC), the User shall be able to connect to the network via both fixed and mobile access networks, and always receive the same services, using a single identity.
    • For example, they may be connected via a Mobile Circuit Switched (CS) network, or via a Fixed Voice over IP (VoIP) Packet Switched (PS) network that uses WiFi (IEEE 802.11) for wireless connectivity and SIP for signaling. Over either network, they would receive one set of voice services associated with a single Directory Number (DN).
    • The User Equipment will typically be a Dual-Mode (Mobile CS and SIP PS over WiFi) device that could operate in either network domain, depending upon availability and preferences. Such a Dual-Mode Device could attach, register, originate voice calls and receive voice calls in either network domain.
    • Furthermore, it is expected that a Dual-Mode UE could provide “convergent roaming”, where it could continuously sense the availability of both network domains, and always be ready to operate in a network domain that is both available, and meets stored preferences (e.g., prefer SIP PS, or always use Mobile CS for emergency calls.)
    • Finally, it is expected that a Dual-Mode UE could provide “seamless voice call handover” between the two network domains, so that an in-progress call could continue, even if the current network domain becomes un-available during the progress of the call. In response, the Voice Call Continuity (VCC) approach is being investigated by 3GPP (Release 7) and 3GPP2 for a fully deployed IMS services environment.
    • However, finalized VCC-based standards are not expected to be completed in the near term.
    Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC)
  • 30.
    • Voice Call Continuity Approach
    • The 3GPP and 3GPP2 standard bodies are defining voice call handover procedures between the IMS in the Packed Switched (PS) domain and the GSM/CDMA Circuit Switched (CS) domain. They are defining the “Voice Call Continuity” (VCC) approach, which will be implemented in a VCC Application Server (VCC AS).
    • The basic components and functions of the VCC approach include:
    • Both CS and PS network domains, where either may be used to provide the same services to a User using a single identity, i.e., a single Directory Number (DN).
    • A User’s Dual-Mode UE, that can be attached /registered and receive service in the CS and/or PS network domain, depending upon availability and preference.
    • When attachment/registration is allowed simultaneously in both network domains, this is known as the “Dual Registration Mode”.
    • When attachment/registration is allowed in only one network domain at a time, this is known as the “Single Registration Mode”.
  • 31.
    • Voice Call Continuity Approach
    • A “Voice Call Continuity” (VCC) Application Server (VCC AS) that operates within the network environment, and utilizes SIP signaling.
    • Voice calls are routed through the VCC Application Server, which keeps track of all call legs. Every voice call is completed by joining two call legs:
    • One call leg between the UE and the VCC AS.
    • Another call leg between the VCC AS and the Remote User.
    • Handover of a voice call between different network domains is initiated by the Dual Mode UE placing a handover call leg in the “destination” network domain, which is routed to the VCC AS.
    • Upon receipt of a handover call leg, the VCC AS drops the current call leg between the UE and the VCC AS, and substitutes the handover call leg, such that the UE is now connected via the handover call leg and the VCC AS to the Remote User.
  • 32. Voice Call Continuity Approach
  • 33. Example 3GPP IMS Registration through WLAN DHCP AP PDG P-CSCF AAA HSS UE 1. WLAN association at L1/2 2. Access Authentication at AAA server 4. Retrieve PDG address 5. Establish tunnel to PDG 6. Obtain remote IP address and discover P-CSCF 7. Set-up security association between UE and P-CSCF 8. IMS registration and session set-up DNS S-CSCF HSS 3. Obtain local IP address from WLAN DHCP DNS WLAN access network Mobile core network
  • 34. IP BB Voice Seamless Handover Comparisons - Currently DSLAM 802.11 WiFi (@home/ public) ISN (BRAS) DSLAM 802.11 WiFi (@home/ public) ISN (BRAS) MGW Voice ”non-moving leg” can be kept unchanged 1. CS voice <–> UMA HOs: 2. CS voice <–> Current VoIP HOs: BSC/ RNC MSC BSC/ RNC MSC UNC BSC/ RNC MSC BSC/ RNC MSC CPS Two completely separate voice call e2e set-ups are required
  • 35. Voice Call Handover Service Evolution
    • A possible evolution approach is to divide voice call handover service architectures into three architectural phases: A first phase based on existing and deployed standards. A second phase based on existing, but not-yet-deployed standards. And a third phase based on anticipated standards.
    • Phase 1: Voice call handover service architecture based on a Phase 1 VCC AS that operates in an R4 core network. (And by virtue of R4’s interoperation with R99, interoperates with R99 core networks as well.) A brief summary of the R4 core network is presented in Appendix D, while the voice call handover service enhancements to this architecture are presented below. (Within this document, Phase 1 VCC AS is sometimes referred to as R4 VCC AS.)
    • Phase 2: Voice call handover service architecture based on a VCC AS implemented as an IMS Application Server (AS), that is operated within an initial IMS framework (i.e. 3GPP R5/R6), as a transition option to full R7 IMS Service deployment. Features include those provided by the Phase 1 VCC service architecture and can be expected to evolve towards those provided by a Phase 3 service architecture. A brief summary of the capabilities in R5 and R6 IMS networks is presented in Appendix C, while the voice call handover service enhancements to this architecture are presented below.
    • Phase 3: Voice call handover service architecture based on a R7 VCC, as currently being developed in 3G Standards Development Organizations (SDOs).
    • Phase 1 is defined relative to Release 4 because, as of mid-2006, many mobile operators are in the process of deploying “Release 4” compliant systems. (Release 4 is defined by the 3GPP document: “3GPP TS 41.101 v4.15.0”; which lists the applicable documents.
    • Phase 3 is in the process of being standardized by the 3G SDOs (e.g. 3GPP Release 7 VCC). Phase 1 and Phase 2 proposals incorporate the essential VCC functionality required to support feasible levels of handover capability based on commercially available networks and dual mode devices.
  • 36. MMD Network Architecture Model of All-IP-based Mobile Communication Network .
  • 37. Voice Call Handover Service Evolution A possible evolution approach is to divide voice call handover service architectures into three architectural phases: A first phase based on existing and deployed standards. A second phase based on existing, but not-yet-deployed standards. And a third phase based on anticipated standards. We define the following phases: Phase 1: Voice call handover service architecture based on a Phase 1 VCC AS that operates in an R4 core network. (And by virtue of R4’s interoperation with R99, interoperates with R99 core networks as well.) A brief summary of the R4 core network is presented in Appendix D, while the voice call handover service enhancements to this architecture are presented below. (Within this document, Phase 1 VCC AS is sometimes referred to as R4 VCC AS.) Phase 2: Voice call handover service architecture based on a VCC AS implemented as an IMS Application Server (AS), that is operated within an initial IMS framework (i.e. 3GPP R5/R6), as a transition option to full R7 IMS Service deployment. Features include those provided by the Phase 1 VCC service architecture and can be expected to evolve towards those provided by a Phase 3 service architecture. A brief summary of the capabilities in R5 and R6 IMS networks is presented in Appendix C, while the voice call handover service enhancements to this architecture are presented below. Phase 3: Voice call handover service architecture based on a R7 VCC, as currently being developed in 3G Standards Development Organizations (SDOs). Phase 1 is defined relative to Release 4 because, as of mid-2006, many mobile operators are in the process of deploying “Release 4” compliant systems. (Release 4 is defined by the 3GPP document: “3GPP TS 41.101 v4.15.0”; which lists the applicable documents. Phase 3 is in the process of being standardized by the 3G SDOs (e.g. 3GPP Release 7 VCC). Phase 1 and Phase 2 proposals incorporate the essential VCC functionality required to support feasible levels of handover capability based on commercially available networks and dual mode devices.
  • 38.
      • Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture, with Voice Call Continuity (VCC) Solution Elements
  • 39.
    • Below is a generalized Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture, showing a group of VCC solution elements interworking with the 3GPP Release 4 architecture.
    • Release 4 is defined by the 3GPP document: [3GPP TS 41.101 v4.15.0], which lists other applicable documents. As of mid-2006, many mobile operators are in the process of deploying “Release 4” compliant systems.
    • The VCC solution elements include:
      • Serving MSC Server, including a VLR.
      • VCC AS, equipped with both PS and CS interfaces.
      • SIP UA Server.
      • Security Gateway (such as a Session Border Controller)
      • All utilize SIP signaling.
      • A key aspect of this Phase 1 architecture is that it does not require IMS.
    Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture
  • 40. The Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture configuration includes a GSM Release 4 CS Domain Core Network and a group of Phase 1 VCC Solution Elements, as shown in the following figure, where the Release 4 Core Network drawing is taken from [TS 23.2005]
  • 41.
    • The Basic Components And Functions Of The Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture Configuration Include:
    • Both CS and PS network domains, where either may be used to provide service to a User using a single identity, i.e., a single Directory Number (DN).
    • A GSM Release 4 (or equivalent) Mobile Circuit-Switched (CS) network structure, including:
      • HLR and Authentication Center
      • Gateway MSC and Serving MSC Servers, with associated CS-MGWs
      • GERAN and/or UTRAN Radio Access Network (RAN)
    • A PS network domain structure including:
      • WLAN Access Network
      • Internet
      • Phase 1 VCC Solution Elements.
    Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture
  • 42.
    • The Basic Components And Functions Of The Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture Configuration Include:
    • The Phase 1 VCC Solution Elements include:
      • Phase 1 Serving MSC Server, including a VLR.
      • Phase 1 VCC AS, equipped with both PS and CS interfaces.
      • SIP UA Server, to connect with Dual-Mode UEs in the SIP PS mode, and provide registration and authentication services.
      • Local Authentication DB (e.g., RADIUS) (Not shown), or the use of the HLR Authentication Center (AUC), for user authentication.
      • Security Gateway (such as a Session Border Controller)
    Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture
  • 43.
    • Note that the Phase 1 VCC Solution Elements utilize:
      • SIP for signaling
      • RTP for bearer/media (SBC only)
      • Nc (signaling) interface with the R4 core network
      • Bearer/media and bearer/media control interfaces into the R4 CS domains, for voice connections with R4 CS elements
      • D (MAP) interface with the HLR in the CS domain
    • The basic call processing behavior of the Phase 1 reference network architecture is:
    • A User’s Dual-Mode UE, that can be attached /registered and receive service in the CS or PS network domain, depending upon availability and preference.
      • Attachment/registration is NOT allowed simultaneously in both network domains, and Dual-Mode UE is thus in “Single Registration Mode”
    Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture
  • 44.
    • The basic call processing behavior of the Phase 1 reference network architecture is:
    • All PS voice calls are routed through the Phase 1 VCC AS, which keeps track of all call legs. Every voice call is completed by joining two call legs:
      • One call leg between the UE and the VCC AS
      • Another call leg between the VCC AS and the Remote User
    • Handover of a voice call from the SIP PS domain to the Mobile CS network domain follows the current R7 VCC approach. First, the Dual Mode UE initiates a handover call leg in the “destination” CS network domain. Typically, this involves a call to a “Handover DN”, or HO-DN, which is provisioned within the UE, and within the network such that calls to the Handover DN are routed to the VCC AS.
    • Upon receipt of the handover call leg, the VCC AS drops the current call leg between the UE and the VCC AS, and substitutes the handover call leg, such that the UE is now connected via the handover call leg and the VCC AS to the Remote User.
    Phase 1 Reference Network Architecture
  • 45.
      • Phase 2 IMS-based Reference Network Architecture with Voice Call Continuity (VCC) Service Elements
  • 46. A Phase 2 Reference Network Architecture Configuration With VCC Is Being Developed Based On The 3GPP R5/R6 IMS Standards Specifications
  • 47.
    • The basic components and functions of the Phase 2 VCC architecture include:
    • Both Mobile CS and SIP PS network domains, where either may be used to provide service to a User using a single identity, i.e., a single Directory Number (DN).
    • An R5/R6 IMS structure in the PS domain, including an P/I/S CSCF, HSS; MGCF/MGW for interworking with CS domain; Security GW for connecting with the User via the Internet, and Phase 2 VCC solution elements.
    • The Phase 2 Voice Call Continuity (VCC) solution elements include the VCC Application Server (VCC AS) and the Serving MSC Server. All operate within the IMS network environment, utilizing SIP signaling. The designs should be similar to the Phase 1 VCC solution elements.
      • The Phase 2 VCC AS is expected to evolve into a Ph 3 (R7) VCC AS, as part of a full-service IMS network deployment.
    • A User’s Dual-Mode UE, that can be attached /registered and receive service in the Mobile CS or SIP PS network domain, depending upon availability and preference.
      • Attachment/registration is allowed simultaneously in both network domains, known as “Dual Registration Mode”.
    • All voice calls (including both PS and CS, originated and terminated) are routed through the VCC Application Server, which keeps track of all call legs. Every voice call is completed by joining two call legs:
      • One call leg between the UE and the VCC AS.
      • Another call leg between the VCC AS and the Remote User.
    Phase 2 Reference Network Architecture
  • 48.
    • Handover of voice call between different network domains is initiated by the Dual Mode UE placing a handover call leg in the “destination” network domain. Often, this involves a call to a “Handover DN”, or HO-DN, which is provisioned within the UE, and within the network such that calls to the Handover DN are routed to the VCC AS.
    • Upon receipt of a handover call leg, the VCC AS drops the current call leg between the UE and the CCCF leg, and substitutes the handover call leg, such that the UE is now connected via the handover call leg and the VCC AS to the Remote User.
    • All Mobile originated voice calls must invoke a CAMEL trigger at the Serving MSC, which checks a routing application, and causes the call to be routed to the VCC AS.
    • All Mobile terminated voice calls must invoke a CAMEL trigger at the Gateway MSC, which checks a routing application, and causes the call to be routed to the VCC AS.
    Phase 2 Reference Network Architecture
  • 49.
      • Phase 3 Reference Network Architecture with Standards-based Voice Call Continuity (VCC) Service Elements
  • 50.
    • 3GPP is currently defining VCC for 3GPP Release 7. 3GPP named their “Work Item” “VCC”, and their working documents use that designation. 3GPP’s “SA2” area has responsibility for the VCC work item, and their working document’s core name is: “3GPP TS 23.206”. This document is maintained such that its highest-number version (name suffixes such as “v1.0.0” and “v1.1.0”, etc.) reflects the latest agreed upon information. 3GPP has, on a preliminary basis, started work on the next “Stage” of their VCC work. This work is held in the working document named: “3GPP TS 24.206”.
    • 3GPP2 is also defining a VCC standard for CDMA networks. 3GPP2 named their VCC “project”: “X.P0042 Voice Call Continuity IMS-Circuit”, and its documents are so marked. The project is held in 3GPP2’s “TSGX” area; particularly their Packet Switch Networks group; particularly the TSGX subgroup known as “WG3-PSN/SWG32-MMD”.
    Phase 3 Reference Network Architecture
  • 51. Dual-Mode User Equipment (UE) Functions
  • 52. Reference Dual-Mode UE Configuration The following figure shows the configuration of a reference dual-mode UE in a network that includes both SIP PS and Mobile CS network domains, and a VCC AS:
  • 53.
    • The Reference Dual-Mode UE configuration includes these elements:
    • Interfaces to two (or possibly more) network domains.
      • Typically includes one Mobile CS network domain, i.e., GSM.
      • Typically includes one SIP PS network domain, with a WLAN interface such as IEEE 802.11 (WiFi).
      • Can expect other WLAN interfaces such as WiMAX.
      • May have an interface with a packet data network supported by mobile carriers, e.g., a “HRPD” interface.
      • Could have multiple SIP PS network domains, each with a path back to the VCC AS, that could use the VCC AS handover between these domains.
    • A Network Domain Selector function, that connects directly with the two network interfaces, and makes decisions on:
      • Which network domain to use for “convergent roaming”, based upon network availability and stored network domain preferences.
      • Which domain to use for registration.
      • Which network domain to use to originate a call.
      • When to trigger a handover of a call in progress.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 54.
    • A Voice Call Control Function, which provides for:
      • Carrying originating or terminating calls between either network interface and the User and Media Interfaces.
      • Orchestrating the handover of a call in progress between network domains.
    • A repository of Network Domain Preferences, that are used by the Network Domain Selector and Voice Call Control Functions.
      • Some of these are set by the service provider.
      • Some of these are set (or over-ridden) by the User.
    • Interfaces to and from the network interfaces support the functions required for “converged roaming’ and “voice call handover service’.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 55.
    • Operation in Mobile CS Network Domain
    • The Dual-Mode UE provides all functions of a typical Mobile CS, e.g., GSM, UE, including:
      • Connecting to a GSM network using an Um or Uu interface.
      • Regular GSM roaming.
      • Regular GSM handover, intra-MSC and inter-MSC.
    • All of this functionality has been fully defined in GSM references.
    • Operation in SIP PS Network Domain
    • The Dual-Mode UE provides all functions necessary for service in the SIP PS network domain, that is equivalent to service in the Mobile CS network domain.
    • Based upon preference parameters.
    • An interface with a SIP PS network:
      • Typically using a WLAN interface such as IEEE 802.11b (WiFi).
      • May include IP Roaming via Mobile IP , etc.
    • WLAN attaching/registering functions.
      • The UE may attach to a Private WLAN or a Public &quot;hot spot&quot; WLAN, typically using IEEE 802.11b (WiFi) protocols..
      • For Public &quot;hot spot&quot; WLAN connections, the UE includes functionality to:
            • - Manage security settings.
      • - Facilitate SSID detection.
      • - Automatically complete hot spot authentication after recognized Wi-Fi hot spot SSIDs have been identified.
      • - Automatically submit login credentials.
      • - Receive updates over any available Wi-Fi or cellular network of user credentials, network detection parameters, and
      • authentication methodologies for public hot spot networks 
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 56. Dual-Mode UE
    • Security functions.
    • - Including a privacy mechanism, such as an IPSec tunnel.
    • Authentication functions.
    • - Including an ISIM, with options for authentication via an HLR or HSS.
    • Originating and terminating voice calls.
    • - Using SIP-based signaling
    • - Following the approach being defined for IMS.
    • Control of supplementary services
    • - Using SIP-based signaling
    • - Following the approach being defined for IMS.
    • Much of this functionality is being defined by the WiFi Alliance and the Fixed Mobile Convergence Alliance, and these need to delineated and prioritized.
  • 57.
    • Convergent Roaming
    • Responsibility of Dual-Mode UE, which provides:
    • Based upon Network Domain Preferences:
    • - Some of these are set by the service provider.
    • - Some of these are set (or over-ridden) by the User.
    • Where convergent roaming preferences include:
    • - SIP PS over WLAN only.
    • - Mobile CS only.
    • - Both SIP PS and Mobile CS.
    • - And, typically, convergent Roaming preference is set at: Both SIP PS and Mobile CS.
    • Automatic scans for available networks:
    • - Mobile CS network path , e.g., GSM
    • - SIP PS network path, over WLAN access.
    • - Typically, both Mobile CS and SIP PS over WLAN radios are ON at the same time, and can be used for
    • detecting the availability of a network domain, and then for attachment/registration. However, there are
    • certain dual-Mode UE where only one radio can be ON at a time.
    • Working “on top of”:
    • - Regular Mobile CS (e.g. GSM) roaming.
    • - Any provided SIP PS over WLAN roaming, such as may be provided by Mobile IP.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 58.
    • Convergent Roaming
    • Automatic attachment to network domain or domains:
    • - Provide initial attachment, following preferences.
    • - Registration may be permitted in only one network at a time, i.e., “single registration mode”, or in both
    • networks at the same time, i.e., “dual registration mode”; see below..
    • - Responds to triggers to indicate that another attachment is required.
    • - Provides new attachment, following preferences.
    • - Avoids “Ping-pong” between network domains.
    • - User is informed of network domain availability and attachment.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 59.
    • Single Registration Mode
    • Dual-Mode UE must support the Single Registration Mode, as an option, when configured in the UE.
    • This mode is required for Phase 1 service.
    • This mode is characterized by:
    • Typically, both Mobile CS and SIP PS over WLAN radios are ON at the same time, and can be used for detecting the availability of a network domain, and then for attachment following convergent roaming procedures.
    • - There are certain dual-Mode UE where only one radio can be ON at a time:
    • - Clearly, such devices can only be operated in the single registration mode.
    • - Clearly, all connectivity with the current network domain must end before connectivity is established in the other
    • network domain.
    • Registration is permitted in only one network at a time, because of service requirements.
    • Automatic registration in one network domain, based upon availability and preference.
    • Registration preferences include:
    • - SIP PS over WLAN only.
    • - SIP PS over WLAN preferred.
    • - Mobile CS only.
    • - Mobile CS preferred
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 60.
    • Single Registration Mode
    • In Phase 1 service, Registration preference is typically set at: SIP PS over WLAN preferred.
    • Voice calls can only be originated or received via the current network domain in which the UE is registered.
    • Triggers to move the registration to the other network domain are initiated by:
    • - Loss of connectivity on the current network domain.
    • - Manual request by the User.
    • - Need to originate a call in the other network domain, e.g., originate an Emergency Call in the Mobile CS domain.
    • In turn, this triggers the handover of any in-progress voice call to the other network domain.
    • - However, an in-progress voice call can continue in the current network domain as long as there is connectivity.
    • User is informed of network domain registration.
    • A Dual-Mode UE in the Single Registration Mode can be configured to support either of two types of handover:
    • One-way handover.
    • - For example, in Phase 1 service, only SIP PS to Mobile CS network domain handover is supported.
    • Two-way handover.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 61.
    • Dual Registration Mode
    • Dual-Mode UE must support the Dual Registration Mode, as an option, when configured in the UE.
    • This mode is used for Phase 2 and Phase 3 service.
    • This mode is characterized by:
      • Both Mobile CS and SIP PS over WLAN radios are ON at the same time, and can be used for detecting the availability of a network domain, and then for attachment following convergent roaming procedures.
      • Registration is permitted in both network domains at a time.
      • Automatic registration in both network domains, based upon availability and preference.
    • Registration preferences include:
      • SIP PS over WLAN only.
      • Mobile CS only.
      • Both SIP PS and Mobile CS.
    • In Phase 2 service and Phase 3, Registration preference is typically set at: Both SIP PS and Mobile CS.
    • Voice calls can be received via any network domain in which the UE is registered, i.e., via either or both network domains..
    • Voice calls are originated in either network domain, based upon availability or preference.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 62.
    • Dual Registration Mode
    • Voice call origination preferences include:
      • SIP PS over WLAN only.
      • SIP PS over WLAN preferred.
      • Mobile CS only.
      • Mobile CS preferred.
    • In Phase 2 service and Phase 3, Voice call origination preference is typically set at: SIP PS over WLAN preferred.
    • However, certain calls may be specified to prefer a different network domain, i.e., use Mobile CS preferred for Emergency Calls.
    • Triggers to handover an in-progress voice call to the other network domain are initiated by:
      • Loss of connectivity on the current network domain.
      • Manual request by the User.
    • The Dual-Mode UE in the Dual Registration Mode is typically configured to support two-way handover.
    Dual-Mode UE
  • 63. 3GPP2 Reference Architecture With VCC
  • 64. 3GPP2 has been studying VCC approaches since 2005. They have tried to keep in step with the 3GPP effort, but have developed certain approaches and extensions independent of 3GPP. Currently, 3GPP2 is focused on defining a VCC standard for a network with IMS. A summary is presented below. HRPD – High Rate Packet Data also known as 1xEV-DO. 3GPP2 Reference Architecture With VCC
  • 65.
    • Two functional entities have been added to the MMD network to support HRPD/WLAN VoIP-to-1x circuit-switched voice inter-technology handoffs:
      • Voice Call Continuity Application Server (VCC AS)
      • SMS Gateway (SMS-GW)
    • Voice Call Continuity introduces a new VCC Application Server (VCC AS) functional entity node in the MMD network and relevant reference points for communication with the CS and IMS functional entities. The VCC AS makes use of existing CS and IMS functional entities and reference points. The I-CSCF and S-CSCF functional entities are represented by a single functional entity in the reference model.
    • The VCC Application Server comprises two main functions:
      • Assists in terminating services to a terminal that is 1x CS registered and/or IMS registered
      • Is involved in voice call setup signaling to facilitate HRPD/WLAN VoIP-to-1x circuit-switched voice handoffs and 1x circuit-switched voice to HRPD/WLAN VoIP handoffs
    3GPP2 Reference Architecture With VCC
  • 66.
    • The VCC AS is anchored in the call signaling path of all voice calls originated from, or terminated to, a VCC UE that is IMS registered and tuned to HRPD/WLAN, or 1x CS registered and tuned to 1x. It has the following signaling interfaces:
    • VCC AS / S-CSCF (12/ISC)
    • The VCC AS serves as a SIP back-to-back User Agent (B2BUA) that interfaces to the S-CSCF via an ISC interface.
    • VCC AS / I-CSCF (Ma)
    • The VCC AS interfaces to an I-SCSCF via an ‘Ma’ SIP signaling interface in order to signal with an MGCF in the visited network, when terminating/originating voice calls to/from a UE via 1x CS.
    • VCC AS / HLR (MAP)
    • The VCC AS interfaces to the 1x CS HLR using MAP in order to obtain routing information for terminating voice calls to a UE via the 1x CS network.
    • VCC AS / HSS (Sh)
    3GPP2 Reference Architecture With VCC
  • 67.
    • The VCC AS also interfaces to the HSS via an Sh interface using the Diameter protocol to automatically transfer data to the HSS.
    • The SMS-GW is a new functional node in the MMD network whose primary function is to route SMS messages to/from a terminal that is either IMS registered and tuned to HRPD/WLAN or 1x CS registered and tuned to 1x.
    • The diagram depicts the VCC architecture based on 3GGP/3GPP2 standards. For simplicity, the 3G architectures have been combined into one diagram. Fundamentally the two standards are taking very similar approach to VCC which is reflected in the diagram.
    • (Please note that standards have not finalized the architecture yet. This diagram presents the current state of the VCC workgroup.)”
    3GPP2 Reference Architecture With VCC
  • 68. Party A - Black phone, Party B - Combo phone in CDMA mode Initial Call Setup SIP AS HSS - ISCP IPVLR PCS IMS Operator Network SIP AS ISC (SIP) Mobile AS SOHO BB Modem Firewall (SBC) HLR WiFi AP IS-41 S-MSC O-MSC RBOC CDMA WiFi B A (MGC) (MGW) (S-CSCF) (I-CSCF) (P-CSCF)
  • 69. Party A - Black phone, Party B - Combo phone in CDMA mode Initial Call Setup
  • 70. Party A - Black phone, Party B - Combo phone in CDMA mode Terminating Combo Phone move into WiFi coverage SIP AS HSS-ISCP IPVLR PCS PCS IMS Operator Network SIP AS ISC (SIP) Mobile AS SOHO BB Modem Firewall (SBC) HLR WiFi AP IS-41 S-MSC O-MSC RBOC B A WiFi CDMA (MGC) (MGW) (S-CSCF) (I-CSCF) (P-CSCF)
  • 71. Party A - Black phone, Party B - Combo phone in CDMA mode Terminating Combo Phone move into WiFi coverage
  • 72. [TSG-A A.S0014] Interoperability Specification (IOS) for cdma2000 Access Network Interfaces - Part 4 (A1, A2 and A5 Interfaces) [TSG-C C.S0001 ]Introduction to cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems - Revision D [TSG-X X.P0042] Voice Call Interoperability between IMS and Circuit Switched Systems – Stage2 [TIA-EIA-41-D] Cellular Radio Communications Intersystem Operations [TS 23.002] 3GPP TS 23.002 Network Architecture [TS 23.122] 3GPP TS 23.122 Non-Access-Stratum functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode [TS 29.002] 3GPP TS 29.002 Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification [TR 23.806] 3GPP TR 23.806 Voice Call Continuity between CS and IMS Study (Release 7) [TS 23.206] 3GPP TS 23.206 Voice Call Continuity between CS and IMS; Stage 2 (Release 7) [TS 24.206] 3GPP TS 24.206 Voice Call Continuity between the Circuit-Switched (CS) domain and the IP Multimedia (IP) Core Network (CN) subsystem; Stage 3 (Release 7) [802.11] 802.11-1999 Telecommunications and information exchange between systems – Local and Metropolitan Area networks – Specific requirements – part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications [IETF RFC3261] IETF RFC3261, SIP: Session Initiation Protocol [IETF RFC2327] IETF RFC2327, SDP: Session Description Protocol [IETF RFC3550] IETF RFC3550, RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications Standards
  • 73. This document describes requirements of interworking between 3GPP2 systems and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). The intent of 3GPP2 – WLAN Interworking is to extend 3GPP2 packet data services and/or capabilities to the WLAN environment.
  • 74.  
  • 75. This document is part of a multi-part document consisting of multiple parts that together describes cdma2000 Wireless Local Area Network Interworking. The scope of this document covers support for common billing, customer care and cdma2000 based access control and accounting. WLAN interworking service provides Internet access to subscribers of cdma2000 systems via a WLAN network operated by either cdma2000 operators or Wireless LAN network operators who have a service agreement with cdma2000 operators.
  • 76. This document describes the WLAN interworking architecture that supports scenarios 1 and 2 of the four scenarios described in the stage 1 document as follows: • Scenario 1: Common billing and customer care. • Scenario 2: cdma2000 based Access Control and Charging and Access to the Internet via the WLAN system. • Scenario 3: Access to cdma2000 Packet Data Services via the WLAN system. • Scenario 4: Session continuity. Although scenario 1 is supported in this document there are no specific interface requirements to support scenario 1. Support for scenarios 3 and 4 is specified in 3GPP2: X.S0028-200-0, Access to Operator Service and Mobility for WLAN Interworking, Charging functions are limited to accounting in this document.
  • 77. This figure shows the high-level network architecture for support of WLAN interworking for scenario 2. The AAA infrastructure in the WLAN is connected to the cdma2000 home network either directly or via one or more AAA proxies in the intermediate broker network(s). In this architecture model, either a cdma2000 operator or a Wireless ISP may administer the WLAN. The Mobile Station (MS) gains access to the Internet via the WLAN after it is successfully authenticated by the cdma2000 home system. WLAN interworking architecture for scenario 2
  • 78. This document defines the procedures for the support of cdma2000®1 IP data connectivity and mobility in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Interworking for cdma2000networks. These procedures correspond to scenarios 3 and 4 as described in WLAN Interworking Stage 1 Requirements The main objective of this document is to provide secure access to the cdma2000 packet data services and inter/intra access mobility to cdma2000 users via a WLAN system operated by a cdma2000 operator or by a WLAN System operator who has a business relationship with one or more cdma2000 operators.
  • 79.  
  • 80. Reference model for WLAN Interworking Scenario 3
  • 81. Reference model for WLAN Interworking Scenario 4
  • 82.  
  • 83. 3GPP/WLAN Interworking Architecture from 3GPP TS 23.234
    • WLAN Access Gateway (WAG): policy enforcement and charging in the visited (roaming) network
    • Packet Data Gateway (PDG): access to packet based services, VPN concentrator, charging, service authorization, IP address allocation
    • Wa, Wd: access authentication (AAA protocols)
    • Wu: VPN tunnel between terminal and PDG
    • Wi: interface to Packet Data Networks
  • 84. WLAN access to 3GPP IMS PSTN PLMN CS domain BTS GERAN Node B UTRAN RNC 2G 3G SGSN BSC TDM 2G 3G MSC 2G 3G MSC IP-Network (PS domain) Internet Intranet GGSN WLAN WLAN AP 3GPP IMS CSCF MGW MRF MGCF DHCP HSS (HLR) Access Router WAG WLAN AP AAA DHCP PDG IP address allocation, P-CSCF discovery Service authentication and authorization IMS signaling

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