Vocabulary development

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  • 1. BY MS JACINTA .T . MTHEMBU
  • 2. TEACHING VOCABULARY ACROSS THE CURRICULUM How would you define Vocabulary?  What is Vocabulary?  Vocabulary can be defined as “the words we must know to communicate effectively: the words in speaking ( expressive vocabulary) and words in listening( receptive vocabulary)” (Neuman and Dwyer, 2009 p.385)
  • 3. The vocabulary system is taken as an essential matter at the moment of teaching a second language in a classroom which is present in all the skills of the language (reading, writing, speaking and listening). One of the reasons is that students need to develop their knowledge in the context of second language learning. In the following paragraphs it will be discuss, according to Nation (2001), Hedge (2000) and Sökmen (1997) some strategies, factors affecting vocabulary acquisition and useful exercises among others
  • 4. The nature of language teaching (Aims and Objectives) The purpose of English teaching a. To improve their four skills. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing b. To cultivate their communicative competence. c. To show them the way to study themselves. Haroon
  • 5. Ways to learn vocabulary: Nation (2001) mentioned two ways which vocabulary can be learned. The first way is to learn vocabulary through oral skills which involves listening and speaking. In listening learners can pick up new vocabulary as teachers read to them and in speaking learners are suggest to memorise as well as vocabulary knowledge a large number of clauses and phrases. The second way is to learn vocabulary through written skills which involves reading and writing. In reading students can learn new vocabulary by guessing words from context and in writing teachers ask for words to be marked so it can be used to encourage vocabulary development.
  • 6. Research on Imagery as Elaboration Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed… # of studies 6 4 37 percent higher than… …students who kept repeating definitions. 21 percent higher than… …students who were using the terms in a sentence. (Pickering, 2007)
  • 7. magnify  word parts:  magn (large, great)  -ify (v. to do)
  • 8. TEACHING VOCABULARY ACROSS THE CURRICULUM  IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY  Vocabulary has long been an important topic in academic circles ,but today it could be considered a hot topic.  Research on Vocabulary  One important finding from research suggests vocabulary learning never stops.(Smith, 1998)  It is a natural and lifelong phenomenon.
  • 9. Different Kinds of Words Require Different Kinds of Instruction!  Learning a basic oral vocabulary  Learning to read known words  Learning new words representing known concepts  Learning new words representing new concepts  Learning new meanings for known words  Clarifying and enriching the meanings of known words  Moving words into students’ expressive vocabularies  Building English learners’ vocabularies (Graves, 2006)
  • 10. What does the literature say on Vocabulary instruction?  Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words  Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions.  Teaching word parts enhances understanding.  Different types of words require different types of instruction.  Active engagement improves learning.  Repeated exposure is essential.
  • 11. Characteristics of Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction 1. Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions. 2. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways. 3. Different types of words require different types of instruction. 4. Students should discuss the terms they are learning. 5. Students should play with words.
  • 12. The Case Against Providing Only Dictionary Definitions  When people first learn words, they understand them more as descriptions as opposed to definitions (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) Word Dictionary Definition Description illusion An erroneous perception of reality Something that looks like one thing but is really something else or is not there at all
  • 13. Building Academic Vocabulary A Six-Step Process 1. Introduce word YOUR FEEDBACK ? How would you weekly 1 to 5 new words introduce/teach new words ?   2. Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc. Must connect to students’ prior knowledge Students generalize meaning 3. Students create nonlinguistic representation periodically all previous words 4. Engage students in word activities 5. Discuss words 6. Engage student “play” with words
  • 14. ASCD. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary: Student Notebook.( Sample)
  • 15. Academic Vocabulary Sheet II
  • 16. Definition Characteristics Word Examples NON-examples
  • 17. Characteristics Definition Glassy A solid made of atoms in an ordered pattern Clear coloured Brightly coloured Evenly shaped Crystal Examples Metals NON-examples Rocks Coal Salt Pepper sugar lava
  • 18. (Allen, 1999)
  • 19. (Allen, 1999)
  • 20. A Quick Note: Student Note Taking  Organized  WORKSHEETS Vocabulary book  Teacher-created Students must be able to adjust and build on their understanding of words.  Student notebooks  Designated section of notebook
  • 21. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT SHEET Meaning EXAMPLE EEE Phrases or Sentences Synonyms word Antonyms Part of Speech Other forms Picture or Cartoon Voclabury study Prefix Root Suffix
  • 22. Vocabulary Development via Games
  • 23. “Teaching words well means giving students multiple opportunities to develop word meaning and learn how words are conceptually related to one another in the texts that they are studying.”
  • 24. 3 Types of Vocabulary  1. General Vocabulary- consists of words with acknowledged meanings in common usage.  2. Specialized vocabulary- is made up of words from everyday life, general vocabulary that takes on specialized meanings when adapted to a particular content area.  3. Technical Vocabulary- consists of words that have usage and application only in a particular subject matter field.
  • 25. Experiences, Concepts, and Words  Words are labels for concepts however; a single concept represents much more than a single word.  What does it mean to know a word? Depends on how well we understand the relationships among direct experiences, concepts, and words.  Learning is much more intense and Meaningful when it develops through the child’s first hand experience.
  • 26. What are concepts?  Concepts create a mental image, which may represent anything that can be grouped together by common features or similar criteria: objects, symbols, ideas, processes and events. Common Element or relationship.  Concepts are similar to schemata!!  For EVERY concept there is an example!!!
  • 27. Using Graphic Organizers to Make Connections among Key Concepts  A graphic organizer is a diagram that uses content vocabulary to help students       anticipate concepts and their relationships to one another in the reading material. Analyze the vocabulary and list the important words Arrange the list of words Add to the Scheme vocabulary terms that you believe the students understand. Evaluate the organizer. Introduce students to learning tasks As you complete the learning task, relate new information to the organizer
  • 28. Activating what students know about words  Graphic organizers can be used to activate the student’s prior knowledge     of the vocabulary words in the given assignment or study unit and also clarify their understanding of concepts as they study texts. To show the relationship in a thematic unit in a chapter or chapter subsection To build a frame of reference for students as they approach new material Activate prior knowledge of the vocabulary words in a text assignment or unit of study Clarify their understanding of concepts as they study text
  • 29. Word Exploration  Word exploration is a writing to learn strategy that works well as a vocabulary activity.  A word exploration activity invites students to write quickly and spontaneously, a technique called free writing.  The purpose of free writing is to get down on paper everything a student knows about a topic in just a few minutes. This activity will activate schema and long term memory.
  • 30. How to activate what students know…  Brainstorming  List-Group-Label  Word Sorts, Word Walls  And Knowledge Ratings are also great activities to activate what students know about words.
  • 31. Word Wall  Word walls provide easy access to words students need. The specific organization of the word wall will match the teacher's purpose.  The most helpful word walls grow and change throughout the year and are used as a learning reference.
  • 32. Knowledge Rating  Knowledge ratings get readers to analyze what their prior knowledge is about the topic. Term Line Segment Ray Know It Heard it Not Much X X X
  • 33. VSS- Vocabulary Self Collection Strategy  Promotes long term acquisition of language in an academic discipline. Steps:  Divide the class into teams of two  Present the word each team has selected to the class ( where it’s found, what team thinks it means, why the team thinks class should learn it)
  • 34. CD Word Mapping- Concept of Definition Word Maps  provides a framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word.  CD word map instruction supports vocabulary and concept learning by helping students internalize a strategy for defining and clarifying the meaning of unknown words.
  • 35. REINFORCING AND EXTENDING VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE AND CONCEPTS  Students need many experiences, real and vicarious to develop word meaning and concepts. They need to use, test, and manipulate technical terms in instructional situations that capitalize on reading, writing, speaking, and listening.  In having students to do these things, you create the kind of natural language environment that is needed to extend vocabulary and concept development. There are many activities that can be used to develop these skills.
  • 36. Activity Examples…  RTI framework helps teachers plan lessons so that students can learn vocabulary concepts as they relate to their understanding of the text. RTI supports thoughtful vocabulary instruction that allows each student to experience growth  There are also some activities examples that help extend and reinforce vocabulary knowledge and concepts.  Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA) – establishes a meaningful link between students’ prior knowledge and words that are conceptually related to one another. As a teaching activity, SFA is easily suited to before or after reading instructional routines.     Categorization Activities Concept Circles Vocabulary Triangles Magic Squares
  • 37. VOCABULARY-BUILDING STRATEGIES  Showing learners how to construct meaning for unfamiliar words encountered during reading helps them develop strategies needed to monitor comprehension and increase their own vocabularies.  Demonstrating how to use context, word structure, and the dictionary provides students with several basic strategies for vocabulary learning that will last a lifetime.
  • 38. USING CONTEXT TO APPROXIMATE MEANING  Constructing meaning from context is one of the most useful strategies at the command of proficient readers.  Showing readers who struggle how to make use of context builds confidence and competence and teaches the inquiry process necessary to unlock the meaning of troublesome technical and general vocabulary encountered during reading.  Typographic Clues, Syntactic and Semantic Clues, Logographic Cues are helpful tools to help struggling readers.
  • 39. OPIN  Students pair off into groups but they complete a sentence exercise individually and once completed, convince their word choice is the best.  The best choice must have a reasonable defense.  OPIN reinforces the role of prior knowledge and experiences in the decisions the group makes.  EX- Charts and graphs are used to _____ information
  • 40. WORD STRUCTURE  In addition to emphasizing context as a vocabulary building strategy, showing learners how to approximate word meaning through word structure is another important aspect of vocabulary building.  A word itself provides information clues about its meaning. The smallest meaning in a word is called morpheme. Analyzing a words structure, morphemic analysis, is a secondary vocabulary building strategy that students can use to predict meaning.
  • 41. The Dictionary is a Great Source for Learning!  The uses of context and word structure are strategies that give struggling readers insight into the meanings of unknown words. Rarely does context or word structure help learners derive precise definitions from keywords.  When a reader doesn’t understand the meaning of a word, the dictionary is a great resource for students.  One way to make a dictionary functional resource is to use it to verify educated guesses about word meaning revealed through context or word structure.
  • 42. Tips for helping students use a dictionary:  Help students determine the “best fit” between a word and its definition.  If you assign a list of words to look up in the dictionary, list them selectively.  Help students with the pronunciation key in the glossary or dictionary as the need arises.
  • 43. Reference list  Muhammad Haroon Baig ,Ma Tesol (Oxford),CELTA(Cambridge),MA Eng.(Punjab),PGD TEFL (AIOU)  Ashley Hildebrant and Brittany Clawson.  Fran Lehr, M.A., Lehr & Associates, Champaign, Illinois; Jean Osborn, M.Ed., University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Dr. Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Visiting Research Professor, University of California – Berkeley. A Focus on vocabulary Practices in Early Reading Series published by the Regional Educational Laboratory at Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.