e-Governance in Karnataka: An introduction


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Slides from a presentation delivered at the Dayananda Sagar college, Bangalore, on April 27, 2007.

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e-Governance in Karnataka: An introduction

  1. 1. e-Gov in Karnataka Kiran Jonnalagadda Comat Technologies kiran.j@comat.com
  2. 2. About Comat 10 years old Primarily in e-Governance Startup-like growth curve Three divisions: Go Digi – computerisation projects Go Rural – rural technology projects Rural BPO – rural work opportunities 2
  3. 3. Of the various e-governance projects Comat has been involved with in Karnataka, the Bhoomi rural land records Nemmadi system and rural information telecentre projects deserve attention.
  4. 4. Bhoomi: Rural Land Records
  5. 5. Land Records: Property Rights Why is property important? Means of economic production For example, farming: Fertility of soil, size, proximity to market are important Land generates revenue. Who benefits from this revenue? 5
  6. 6. “Land Tenure”
  7. 7. “Land Tenure” “The conditions under which land or buildings are held or occupied.”
  8. 8. Property Rights aren’t absolute. They’re bounded by the community. The term “tenure” captures this balancing of rights.
  9. 9. Huh? Take an example: an independent house on a plot of land, versus a flat in a building. You can rebuild the house and make it bigger. You can’t expand the flat. The “community” of the building defines your rights.
  10. 10. Boundaries of Property Your House Plot Plot Plot Plot Pl Road Plot Plot Plot Plot Trade
  11. 11. Division of Property
  12. 12. Division of Property
  13. 13. Division of Property No Access To Road
  14. 14. No Access to Road, Really! The “nail house” of Chongqing, China
  15. 15. Yang Wu and Wu Ping fought f o r a f a i r p r i ce f o r t h e i r property when a developer tried forcing them to sell cheap by digging a deep ditch around the house. Their story received worldwide attention. Eventually, they won. Fighting it Out
  16. 16. joint family? How What about a do you cut up the house? Does it make sense to define property in terms of individuals? What if property is defined “family?” as owned by the
  17. 17. Community and Land Tenure Tenure is defined by community Family, neighbourhood, type of land Distinct communities develop distinct tenure systems Tenure is like language and dialect Tendency to fragment; variations depending on local conditions 14
  18. 18. Administrative Reform: Defragmentation Administrations prefer simplicity in the interest of manageability Historic tendency (through centuries) to unify similar tenure systems across regions into a common definition Like language again: Hindi and English across India; English across the world 15
  19. 19. Introducing Bhoomi Bhoomi is: 1. Computerisation of oral and paper- based records 2. Simplification of tenure systems from over 1200 known types in Karnataka, to 256 16
  20. 20. Translations Aren’t Easy Elevator Announcement: “Please close the door. Dayamadi gate muchi” Literally Translated: “Take pity, close the gate” Tenures get similarly mangled in a translation process
  21. 21. Computerisation has effects that go far beyond putting computers in front of babus. Effects can be both positive negative. and
  22. 22. Positive Effects of Bhoomi Created Transparency Single repository of authoritative information on land ownership Reduced Corruption The village accountant is no longer master of the database; is perfunctory Improved Speed of Processes 19
  23. 23. Where do you get a copy of your land records? Nemmadi: Rural Telecentres
  24. 24. Common Fallacy Why does rural need special attention? Rural = Poor = Stupid, backward, need to be told what’s good for them Do not fall for this! Rural citizens are perfectly normal people. Examine the circumstances, not the people 21
  25. 25. Road Network Density Determines Access to Conveniences & Necessities
  26. 26. Information Network? Map from 1986: most of the world is offline
  27. 27. Nemmadi expands the geographical reach of the information network
  28. 28. 800 telecentres Most locations have 27 districts barely four hours of 177 taluks electric supply at 100 volts, let alone All major internet access. habitation centres How do you setup a kiosk in such a location? By investing in 25 technology
  29. 29. The Nemmadi Network Nemmadi Telecentre Network Architecture The Internet Hughes Downlink, Gurgaon RDS, Tata Bhoomi Indicom Servers CDMA Network Private Network GoK SWAN LAN 75% Telecentres with VSAT 25% Telecentres with CDMA Backoffice GoK Taluk Server Private IP Range Public Non-Static IPs No Internet Access 48 kbps 112 kbps (This diagram is a few months old and may no longer be accurate)
  30. 30. VSAT – Internet via satellite + UPS Government services: Bhoomi RTC certificate Revenue Dept certificates and services Other departments soon Education: Sarva Shikshana Abhigyan Private services Internet browsing, banking products Several others upcoming 27
  31. 31. Q&A Any Questions?