For public sector agricultural research and development, understanding the inequalities between poor men and women in rural societies is equivalent to understanding its “customer base.” This is vital for widespread use of its research products and for realizing their expected impact on reducing poverty and improving food security, nutrition, health and the sustainable use of natural resources. This is why the CGIAR Consortium has developed a Gender Strategy and is integrating strategic gender research and gender analysis into all fifteen of its new CGIAR Research programs (CRPs).
The CGIAR’s Strategic Results Framework proposes to address gender inequality first, by ensuring that all research programs integrate consideration of relevant gender issues across the full research cycle, from planning to evaluation. Second, gender will be addressed as a cross-cutting theme on which programs will collaborate. And third, in order to recruit and retain the best quality scientists the system will promote diversity in the workplace.
The theory of change that provides a rationale for integrating (mainstreaming) gender into the research programs is outlined in this slide. An important (unwritten) assumption here is that other facets of gender inequality that affect farm productivity and innovation, such as men’s and women’s unequal land or water rights, or access to information and credit will not prove insuperable obstacles to overcoming gender disparities in technology adoption and food availability. However, some research and development programs will depend on change in these non –technological aspects of gender inequality to achieve their impact . These programs will need to work closely with development partners who are intervening to effect the complementary changes in policy and practice needed to transform gender relations and reduce gender inequality on a broad front.
The Consortium Level Gender Strategy has two components.
The Strategy’s objective is explicit about improving the relevance of CGIAR research to poor rural women which should be observable in a relatively short time frame in target areas, if women’s access to and use of these innovations improves compared to a baseline.
Thus the Strategy identifies short-term, concrete and measurable benefits for rural women as deliverables.
A corollary of achieving the deliverables is performance monitoring that will allow the CGIAT to (a) assess progress towards expected results (outputs, outcomes and impacts) and (b) understand how well the process of integrating gender into research is advancing over time.
Research capacity building is central to the Strategy.
The second component of the Strategy involves improving recruitment and retention to ensure the best possible quality of science.
The following slides discuss the rationale for efforts to reduce gender inequality or the “gender gap “ in agriculture.
Source: personal communication, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, IFPRI (2012)
The next topic is the progress of addressing gender at the level of the CGIAR Research Programs.
Mianstreaming is being addressed by two important innovations: The requirement that each Program presents a Gender Strategy within six months of inception, detailing the gender dimensions of its theory of change, research questions, impact pathways and methodologies Gender budgeting which makes transparent the intended allocation of resources for implementing the CRP Gender Strategy As of June 15, 2012 all approved CRPs had a first draft of their gender strategy and of these three have a final version.
This work is supported by the Consortium’s senior advisor for gender and research.
Development of a cross-cutting approach is being implemented with the Research Network to which all fifteen CRPs have designated a scientist whose responsibility it is to lead and coordinate gender research.
Gender budgeting is useful primarily to ensure that the full cost of implementing the work laid out in the CRP Gender Strategy is assessed and made explicit. It is proposed that monitoring will include tracking the extent to which actual expenditure is commensurate with budget for gender but in practice, the relevance of research outputs to rural women and benefits delivered to them will be the key measure of success.
From an analysis by this author of the CRP proposals, several cross cutting themes or strategic entry points have been identified which were discussed by the Gender and Agriculture Research Network members at their first meeting in March, 2012.
This slide lists the collaborative activities that are currently under development
Four areas where Board members in particular can exert leadership to ensure that their Center is responsive to gender and in touch with its customer base.
These four areas can be expressed in a set of “must-ask” questions. In many development agencies considerations like these are mandatory, not discretionary. The first one refers to making sure targeting and diagnosis of constraints take gender differences into account.
The second refers to research design.
And the third to impact assessment.
The fourth question concerns diversity in the workplace
The fifth and final “must-ask” question concerns resources. In many development agencies these are mandatory.
Cgiar board orientation gender j ashby edit
CGIAR Consortium Gender Strategy CGIAR Board Orientation Rome, June 20, 2012 Jacqueline Ashby Senior Advisor, Gender and Research CGIAR ConsortiumArtist: Ashley Cecil; image on Flickr by Piotr Fajfer Oxfam International
Topics• Gender in the CGIAR Strategic Results Framework• The Consortium-level Strategy• What does gender mean for research impact?• Integration of gender into CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs)• Opportunities and challenges for Centers, CRPs and Boards
1.Gender in the CGIAR Strategic Results FrameworkApproach:• Mainstream gender in the CGIAR Research Programs (CPRs)• Cross-cutting theme for research• Promote workplace diversity
Rationale for gender in the CGIAR Strategic Results FrameworkFor research• If gender disparities in the adoption of new technologies, resource management practices and marketing opportunities are reduced, income and assets for women producers will increase.• Improved nutritional status of women and children will lead to reduced inter- generational transmission of poverty
2. The Consortium-level Gender Strategy• Goal, objectives and deliverables• Gender in Research• Gender and diversity in the workplace• Accountability
The strategy’s overall goal:• To strengthen the CGIAR research agenda and its impact on development challenges, through a rigorous integration of gender issues in the research carried out by the CGIAR.
Gender StrategyComponent 1: CRP Gender Component 2: Diversity andStrategy Gender in the workplace Planning considers all relevant Broad understanding of why gender constraints to the diversity and gender are relevant in research process and the uptake research for development of research outputs. Implementation, monitoring and review throughout all CRPs Equality of career progression within the CGIAR Greater expertise in gender analysis CGIAR succeeds in attracting and retaining some of the world’s top scientists and service function Research outputs and outcomes professionals remove constraints faced by women farmers BETTER ACHIEVEMENT OF THE STRATEGIC LEVEL OUTCOMES
CGIAR Consortium Gender Strategy (Dec. 2011)Objective• To improve the relevance of the CGIARs research to poor women as well as men (reduced poverty and hunger, improved health and environmental resilience) in all the geographical areas where the work is implemented and targeted by end of 2012.• By 2015 progress towards these outcomes will be measurable.
DeliverablesObjective Deliverables• To improve the relevance • All CRPs have an explicit of the CGIARs research to gender strategy that is poor women as well as implemented within 6 men (reduced poverty and months of their inception hunger, improved health • Research outputs in all and environmental CRPs bring demonstrable resilience) in all the and measurable benefits geographical areas where to women farmers in the work is implemented target areas within 4 and targeted by end of years following inception 2012. of the CRP.• By 2015 progress towards • By 2014 Staff training these outcomes will be and strategic partnerships measurable. ensure all CRPs have sufficient gender expertise.
Performance monitoringObjective • CRP annual reports• To improve the relevance are to select a set of of the CGIARs research to outcome indicators, poor women as well as men (reduced poverty and including some hunger, improved health gender-responsive and environmental outcome indicators, resilience) in all the for reporting at geographical areas where baseline and on the work is implemented and targeted by end of subsequent progress 2012. • CRP Gender Strategy• By 2015 progress towards has process these outcomes will be indicators and M&E measurable. • Gender Budgeting
Research Capacity Building • Increase gender expertise: requires high calibre social scientists • Ensure gender awareness at all management levels • Develop partnerships capable of leveraging gender equality for positive impact
Gender and Diversity in the Workplace • Diversity in the workplace aims to increase the quality of research. • Recruitment • Retention • A pragmatic approach utilising targets where appropriate. • Recruit Human Resources expert 2013
3.What does gender mean for research impact?• The “gender gap” in agriculture• Risks• Opportunities
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) In most regions of the world, one out of five farms is headed by a woman Women comprise about 40% of people working on farms in low- income countriesMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the NigerRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Inequalities between women and men producers: • hold back agricultural productivity (yield gaps of 20-25%) • perpetuate poverty and unsustainable resource use • make women more vulnerable to climate- change impacts on agriculture • are obstacles to the CGIAR achieving its strategic resultsPhoto P. Casier (CGIAR).
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Pervasive inequalities between women and men in: • Assets for agriculture --land, water, trees, fisheries, livestock, especially insecure property rights • Labor markets • Access to services- financial, advisory, business development • Knowledge and skills • Technology • Organization • Supportive institutions andMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the Niger policyRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
Gender inequality affects: (2) Decisions about agricultural production and marketing (3) Power over use of resources like land, water and livestock (4) Control over food availability, spending and income (5) Leadership in the community and bargaining power in markets (6) Time use and workloads
Risks of ignoring the gender gap • Women don’t buy into proposed technologies or strategies if these are inappropriate (eg. more labor intensive) • Women can’t access or use information about recommended innovations • Women oppose or cannot invest in needed innovationsPhoto P. Casier (CGIAR).
Example: technology is not adoptedReview of 24 multivariate studies of technological input use, access, and adoption fertilizer, seed varieties, tools, pesticide use, access, and adoption.• 79 percent of studies found men have higher mean access• 59 percent of studies found when unequal farm size, credit, capital, extension and other factors are taken into account, the farmer’s sex has no significant effect on output• Many other channels perpetuate gender disparities such as receiving lower prices or through poor access to markets.
Example: women are worse off and oppose innovations • Innovations increase drudgery for women • Women do not share increases in income when men control marketing • Thus, women face different incentives from menPhoto P. Casier (CGIAR).
Case –Tanzania village studies• Rainy season is now much shorter: farmers in the two villages studied adapted by growing more drought- tolerant crops.• Faster-maturing sorghum and maize plus new varieties of sesame and sunflower were introduced• Increased marketing of food crops, sorghum and maize, traditionally grown by women increased their workloads• New crops-- sesame and sunflower-- increased income but led to more weeding work for women.• Women do not benefit from the profits: all grain is typically sold by men, and women are less likely than men to control the cash received.• Increased sale of groundnuts, bambara nuts, and cowpeas traditionally sold by women provided more access to, and control of income for women. Nelson & Stathers (2009)
Benefits from increasing gender equalityObjective • Yield gaps of 20-25%• To improve the relevance between men and women of the CGIARs research to producers are eliminated poor women as well as • Marketing and value men (reduced poverty and chains include women on hunger, improved health a fair, competitive footing and environmental • Poor rural women resilience) in all the increase the food and geographical areas where income under their the work is implemented control which is and targeted by end of positively associated with 2012. improvements in• By 2015 progress towards nutrition, education and these outcomes will be welfare for the whole measurable. household.
Example: improved nutrition from orange- fleshed sweet potato, Mozambique• 2002: the Towards Sustainable Nutrition Improvement Project targeted improved vitamin intake among children under five• Sweet potato was a “women’s crop” in 72% of farms but women sold it in only 48%• Women farmers tested high-yielding varieties and were directly involved in their evaluation and selection.• Women and men of all age groups in families including principal caretakers of children identified practices that could reduce women’s workloads• Male and female extension agents were used for different audiences and messages• 90 percent of farmers adopted, vitamin A intake increased 8 times in children in adopter households Source: World Bank, IFAD and FAO Gender and Agriculture Sourcebook.
4. Gender in CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs)Implementation of the Consortium- level Gender Strategy
Mainstreaming• Gender Strategy required from each CRP• Gender budgeting in CRPs
Gender and Research Advisor TORS• Facilitate CRP Gender Strategy submission• Chair network• Recommend strategies to improve capacity
Cross-cutting research theme• CGIAR Gender & Agriculture Research Network established, January 2012.
Gender Budgeting Issues• Many CRP proposals lack a gender budget• Strategic research costs are clear• Integration=add-on: is difficult to cost• Monitoring performance rather than expenditure will be critical
Cross-cutting research theme Type of CGIAR Research Program Comm- Natura Pol- Sys- Nutrit- ClimateGender-Responsive odity l icies tems ion ChangeEntry Points Res- ources and HealthEqual access toappropriate technology andadvisory services * * * * * *More inclusivecommodity &food value chains * * * *Women’s control of incomegenerated by technology and institutional innovations * * * * * *Women’s asset accumulation andrights * * * *Improved information systems ongender in agriculture * * * * * *
Opportunities for CRPcollaboration• Joint M&E of a small set of indicators of gender-responsive outcomes shared across CRPs• Joint research: reducing gender inequity in value chains• Joint experimentation with novel approaches to enhance impact• Sentinel sites
5. Opportunities and challenges for Centers, CRPs and Boards• Promote gender awareness at all levels• Ensure performance monitoring of gender in research and accountability for its deliverables• Invest in capacity development• Install policy supporting gender and diversity in the workplace
“Must-ask” questions for Board members:• Have we diagnosed properly the gender differences in constraints and needs of our target populations?
“Must-ask” questions: Has research been designed taking gender into account: • Who owns or controls the assets? • Who does the work? • Who makes the decisions? • Who captures what share of the benefits? • Who is able to join and participate?
“Must ask” questions: Are performance monitoring and impact assessment designed to detect differences among men and women in adoption and the distribution of benefits?
“Must-ask” questions:• Does the Center have in place the recruitment and retention policies needed to support diversity in the workplace?
“Must ask” questions: Do working budgets, new proposals and financial reporting allocate resources for social science (gender) research? Is there the appropriate institutional policy in place to ensure gender budgeting is mandatory?
For more information:http://cgiar.org How we do research/ Research on gender in agriculture