“When evaluating the quality of teaching in theschool, inspectors must consider:“the extent to which well judged teachingstrategies, including setting challenging tasks matched topupils’ learning needs, successfully engage all pupils intheir learning”“Teaching promotes pupils’ high levels ofresilience, confidence and independence when they tacklechallenging activities.”
“We need morechallenge and lessinstruction, since it isfrom challenge thatone grows inbody, mind andspirit.”Thinking in Education byMatthew Lipman, 1991
Tasks which have just the right amount of challenge• generate a sense of achievement when mastered• require learners to make links between knowledge andexperience and to apply their new knowledge to newsituations• demand creative thinking• help learners to develop resilience and confidence• help teachers diagnose, intervene and evaluateWHY challenge?
Completely focussedMy partner is completely absorbed in this newlearning and is taking creative risks to extend theirunderstandingDeterminedMy partner is determined to learn and is focused onmaking progressInterestedMy partner is interested in the learning and is tryingthings to improve skill and knowledgeCasualMy partner is not really interested in the learning butis having a go at itUninterestedMy partner shows no signs of interest in the topic yetAttitudes
Highly skilledMy partner displays outstanding skill, makes nosignificant errors and can perform almost withoutthinkingProficientMy partner can perform the skill or process in a verycapable mannerPractisedMy partner is well practised and able to perform theskill quite well nowDevelopingThere are some signs that my partner is beginning tolearn and develop the skillBeginnerMy partner hasn’t moved beyond the beginner/novicestage yetSkills
A thorough understandingMy partner knows about and fully understands thisnew learning and is able to explain it’s widersignificanceA good understandingMy partner can give some good answers to thequestions of what, why, when and howA basic understandingMy partner can give a basic answer to eachwhat, why, when and how question but with little detailOne or two ideasMy partner has a bit of knowledge about the topic butcannot explain things yetNo knowledgeMy partner doesn’t seem to have any knowledgeabout this topic yetKnowledg
Challenging tasks …• require effort from the “whole” learner - attitudes, skillsand knowledge• encourage creative solutions• cause cognitive “wobble”• exist in the zone of next development (ZPD)• lead to progressWHAT IS challenge?
Session 2: What strategies will help get challenge “right”?
Marzano – groups of 3 work bestInformalFormalLong-term
Challenge needs adestinationA: “Which road do I take?”CC: "Where do you wantto go?”A: "I dont know.”CC: "Then it doesntmatter. If you dont knowwhere you are going, anyroad will get you there.”Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carol
Top 3 Learning Questions1. Where am Igoing?2. How muchprogress have Imade so far?3. What are mynext steps?
Rank Influence Studies Effects ES1 Assessment capable students 209 305 1.442 Piagetian programs 51 65 1.283 Response to intervention 13 107 1.074 Teacher credibility 51 51 .905 Providing formative evaluation 30 78 .906 Micro teaching 402 439 .887 Classroom discussion 42 42 .828Comprehensive interventionsfor learning disabled students 343 2654 .779 Teacher clarity Na na .7510 Feedback 1310 2086 .75Hattie’s Top Ten (so far)From www.visiblelearningplus.com
Writing Checklistwww.hipsburn.northumberland.eschools.co.ukFor exampleThe mud issquelchy andsticks to mywellies like syrupThe ogre in mystory is reallyquite shy but hepretends to bebrave and a bitbossyLearning goalTo use descriptivewords when writingabout places andcharacters
Sharp pencilTitleDateCapital LettersFull stopsDescribe the characterDescribe the placeFirst, next, then, finallyAnd, but, so, while, because✔✔✔✔✗✔✗✔✗Fun action words (bounded, sprang) ✔Rhyming words (loud, proud, crowd) ✔1. Draft2. Assess3. Edit4. Mark5. Completewww.hipsburn.northumberland.eschools.co.uk
Introduction 4+ sentences Proposition stated Outline of narrative Context of topicBody of essay 3+ paragraphs 6+ facts per paragraph Inter-relationships Argument is relevant Quote with source givenConclusion 3+ sentences Summation Proof of proposition Specific reference to assess/evaluateHistory Marksheet by Frank Eganwww.aranmore.wa.edu.au“I can actuallysee how toimprove, it’sobvious.”
Private vs. State School Athletes (UK)Harrow School has• 2 All-weather multi-sport pitches• An indoor climbing wall• Weights room• Swimming pool• Sports hall• Courts for tennis, rackets, squash &fives• 18 hole golf course• Olympic-standard running track with awater jump for the steeplechaseFrom: www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-214573497%attend privateschool in the UK20%47%9.5%36%8%50%
Which groupbenefits?HighMediumLowMarzano, 2001, p88Nottingham, 2012, p510.090.51- 0.60Impact of Ability Grouping
Application = Value x ExpectationEccles (2000)SportICTArt
010203040506070Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb35302520151050Aug Sept Oct Nov DecProgress Charts
How many of these phraseshave you used?Clever girlBright boyBrilliant linguistGifted musicianHe’s a naturalBy far the bestTop of the class
Mueller and Dweck, 1998In six studies, 7th gradestudents were given a seriesof nonverbal IQ tests.
Intelligence praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore. You must be smart atthis.”Process praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore. You must have triedreally hard.”Control-group praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore.”Mueller andDweck, 1998
Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls (Dweck, 2010)
1.Good girl; 2.How extraordinary; 3.Great effort; 4.Outstandingperformance; 5.What a scientist you are; 6.Unbelievable work; 7.You’rea genius; 8.Youre getting better; 9.Clever boy 10.You should be proud;11.Youve got it; 12.Youre special; 13. Very talented; 14. Youve outdoneyourself; 15. What a great listener; 16. You came through; 17.You’revery artistic; 18.Keep up the good work; 19.Its everything I hoped for;20.Perfect; 21.A+ Work; 22.Youre a shining star; 23.Inspired; 24.Youre#1; 25.Youre very responsible; 26.Youre very talented; 27.Spectacularwork; 28.Great discovery; 29.Youre amazing; 30.What a great idea;31.Well worked through; 32.Very thoughtful; 33.You figured it out;34.Top of the class; 35. You make me smileSay, Avoid, Cringe?
Carol Dweck, Professor of Psychology and author of MindsetBrightCleverGoodBadStupidRacistNaughty