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P4C and Mindset



Slides used by Bosse Larsson and James Nottingham in Varberg, Sweden on 3rd Nov 2011

Slides used by Bosse Larsson and James Nottingham in Varberg, Sweden on 3rd Nov 2011



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  • The story of the Pig of Happiness has been scanned into a separate PPT. So, if it’s possible to create a link here that will start up another PPT (just put in a dummy PPT for now) to save me than having to come out of this PPT and going into another PPT, then that would be great.

P4C and Mindset P4C and Mindset Presentation Transcript

  • P4C & Mindset Bosse James Larsson Nottinghamtankvidare.nu www.p4c.com
  • “Some men are born great, some achievegreatness and others have greatness thrust upon them” Malvolio, Twelfth Night
  • Nature vs NurtureFrancis Galton was the firstto use the term “Nature vs.Nurture”In 1854, he published anarticle exploring whethersocial behaviour was aresult of genetics orenvironment (eg. arecriminals born or created?)Galton was a cousin ofCharles Darwin
  • What has made these two people successful?Oscar Pistorius Usain Bolt
  • Did they develop their genius or were they born with it?Leonardo da Vinci Steve Jobs
  • Their writing talent – innate or incremental?Joanne Kathleen Rowling Astrid Lindgren
  • Mozart – a child prodigy?
  • Once upon a time, there were three babies
  • By the time they start school Some children start school knowing 6,000 words. Others, just 500 words. Source: BBC 2009 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ magazine/8013859.stm
  • Number of words heard by childrenA child in a welfare-dependent family hears onaverage 616 words an hour 500A child in a working-class home hears on average1,251 words an hour 700A child in a professional home hears on average2,153 words an hour 1100Number of words spoken by the time children are 3Hart &Risley, 1995
  • But in school, we use terms such as …Gifted, Bright Special Needs Average
  • Can we predict intelligence?
  • Intelligence – nature or nurture? In 1904, the French government asked Binet to create a mechanism for identifying students in need of alternative education Binet created a scale of 30 tasks for 6 – 14 year olds, ranging from easy to complex ones He stated his test showed what a child had learnt to that point, and nothing else Alfred Binet 1857 - 1911
  • Self-fulfilling prophecies
  • Why does it matter where we think intelligence comes from?
  • Dweck identifies different attitudes to learning based on Mindset People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nature have a „fixed‟ mindset People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nurture have a „growth‟ mindset Professor Carol Dweck, Stanford
  • Carol Dweck‟s theory of Fixed & Growth MindsetsFixed Mindset Growth MindsetIntelligence and ability are fixed Intelligence and ability can growNaturedetermines talents Nurture determines abilitiesI am naturally good at some things I have developed my talentsI‟ll always struggle with some things Potential is there to be realisedMy priorities My prioritieso Prove myself o Improve myselfo Succeed easily o Take challengeso Avoid failure of any sort o Learn from my mistakesMy mottos My mottoso No pain, no pain o No pain, no gaino Only stupid people have to try o Learners always try hardo Effortlessly superior o There‟s always room to improve
  • These beliefs dramatically affect behaviour 535 Columbia University (NY) students, aged 18 to 35 were given a test Their brains were scanned as they took the test Mangels, Butterfield, Lamb, Good &Dweck, 2006
  • Question: What is the capital of Australia? Student types Student rates their confidence on a 7- his or her point scale (1: sure wrong; 7: sure answer right) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2.5 secs 2.5 secs Answer (for 2 secs)
  • Proportion corrected at (surprise) re-test
  • We should focus on progress, not rank order 92 90 90 85 86 85 73 78 84 64 70 78 43 41 40 32 35 34
  • Rewards, rewards, rewards 10/10
  • Praise that discourages pupils getting in the pit Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician Bright boy Top of the class! By far the best
  • The effects of different types of praiseMueller andDweck, 1998In six studies, 7thgrade studentswere given aseries ofnonverbal IQtests.
  • Mueller and Dweck, 1998Intelligence praise“Wow, that‟s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”Process praise“Wow, that‟s a really good score. You must have tried reallyhard.”Control-group praise“Wow, that‟s a really good score.”
  • Number of problems solved on a 3rd test6.5 6 Effort Praise5.5 Control Praise 5 Intelligence Praise4.5 Trial 1 Trial 3
  • Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls
  • 1. Duktigflicka; 2.Extremt bra; 3.Bra jobbat; 4. Enståendeinsats; 5. Vilkenmatematiker du är; 6.Otroligt jobb; 7.Du ärettgeni; 8.Du utvecklas; 9.Smart kille; 10.Du bordevarastolt; 11.Du hardet;12.Du ärunik; 13. Mycketbegåvat; 14. Du överträffar dig själv; 15. Du lyssnarpåett bra sätt; 16. Du kämpade dig igenom; 17.Duärmycketmusikalisk; 18.Fortsätt med detgodajobbet; 19.Det äralltjag hoppats du skullegöra; 20.Perfekt; 21.MVG+arbete; 22.Du ären stjärna; 23.Bra att du arbetat med en svåruppgift; 24. Du är #1; 25.Du tar bra ansvar; 26. Du hartalang; 27.Spektakulärt; 28.Bra valavstrategi 29.Du ärfantastisk; 30.What a great idea; 31.Väl genomarbetat; 32.Myckat tankvärt; 33.Du listadeutdet till slut; 34.Bäst I klassen; 35. Du fårmigattbli glad
  • How philosophical are you?100
  • P4C – Created by Matthew LipmanThe aim of a thinking skills programme such as P4C is not to turn children into philosophers but to help them become more thoughtful, more reflective, more considerate and more reason-able individuals
  • Children are natural philosophers However … this doesn‟t mean adults are able to spot when they are being philosophical and when they‟re just being cute!
  • Not all of our questions answered …… but all of our answers questioned
  • Example question stemsWhat is(difference different from?)What if (everyone was extraordinary?)Always/never (know?)How do we know (what love is?)Why do we (say young people don’t know what love is?)What is the difference (between ordinary & extraordinary?)Is it possible (to always be happy?)When(is happiness a bad thing?)Who(decides what the natural way is?)Can we (ever know for sure?)
  • Colliding conceptsTruth and OpinionBiodegradable and ReusableHero and VillainHappy and ContentDreams and DaydreamsDecision and OrderChild and YouthLies and Make-believeToys and BooksKarma and Revenge
  • Wobblers (If A = B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? Trust Friend For example …
  • How philosophicalare you? 10 0