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Challenging Learning<br />James Nottingham    www.p4c.com<br />www.jamesnottingham.co.uk<br />
Praise can make pupils scared of challenge<br />Our praise often teaches pupils that easy success means they are intellige...
Focusing on learning<br />“Pupils show greater motivation, are better behaved and are more likely to be independent and st...
Carol Dweck<br />www.carol-dweck.co.uk<br />
The effects of different types of praise <br />Mueller and Dweck, 1998<br />In six studies, 7th grade students were given ...
Mueller and Dweck, 1998<br />Intelligence praise<br />“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.” <br />...
Number of problems solved on a 3rd test<br />
Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls <br />
The effects of praise<br />Swimming<br />“You do your best swimming when you concentrate and try your best to do what Chri...
Number of students who lied about their score<br />
John Hattie’s Visible Learning (2009)<br />
Feedback is a major influence on learning<br />InfluenceEffect SizeDomain<br /><ul><li>(1) Self-report grades		1.44		Student
(2) Piagetian programs		1.28		Student
(3) Formative evaluation		0.90		Teaching
(4) Micro teaching			0.88		Teacher
(5) Acceleration 			0.88		School
(6) Classroom behavioural		0.80		School
(7) Interventions for SEN		0.77		Teaching
(8) Teacher clarity			0.75		Teacher
(9) Reciprocal teaching		0.74		Teaching
(10) Feedback			0.73		Teaching
(11) Staff-student relationships	0.72		Staff
(12) Spaced vs. mass practice	0.71		Teaching</li></li></ul><li>Rewards, rewards, rewards<br />10/10<br />
Fixed vs Growth Mindsets<br />Intelligence can be grown<br />Priority: Become smarter<br />Feel Smart by engaging fully, e...
Comparing test scores<br />140<br />130<br />120<br />110<br />100<br />90<br />140<br />132<br />125<br />105<br />100<br...
Evelyn Glennie – Growth Mindset ?<br />
Sting – Fixed Mindset ?<br />
Alfred Binet, creator of the IQ test<br />Alfred Binet<br />1857 - 1911<br />
How would you change the following praise?<br />Clever girl!<br />Gifted musician<br />Brilliant mathematician<br />Bright...
What do (spellings) tests encourage?<br />
An alternative way to administer tests<br />Thinking<br />Wondering<br />Decision<br />Understanding<br />Reflection<br />...
What is …. ?<br />
The Learning Challenge<br />Concept<br />Conflict<br />Clarity<br />1<br />2<br />Confusion<br />The Pit<br />188<br />
A selection of thinking skills<br />GROUP<br />HYPOTHESISE<br />IDENTIFY<br />INFER<br />INTERPRET<br />ORGANISE<br />PARA...
Pick a concept, any concept<br />Foreign				Fairness<br /> 	Evidence				Tourism<br />	Home				Truth<br />	Language				Hist...
Recent Demo Lesson Concepts<br />	Is it possible to have no weather?  	(Yr 7)<br />	Are habits the same as addictions?  (Y...
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Alderbrook School

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Slides used with Alderbrook School, Solihull on 8th April 2011

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Transcript of "Alderbrook School"

  1. 1. Challenging Learning<br />James Nottingham www.p4c.com<br />www.jamesnottingham.co.uk<br />
  2. 2. Praise can make pupils scared of challenge<br />Our praise often teaches pupils that easy success means they are intelligent and, by implication, that errors and effort mean they are not. <br />Prof Carol Dweck, Mindset<br />
  3. 3. Focusing on learning<br />“Pupils show greater motivation, are better behaved and are more likely to be independent and strategic thinkers when teachers are not obsessed by grades.”<br />“If there is one new thing we need in our school system right now, it is a well-developed focus on learning.”<br />Chris Watkins, Institute of Education, Aug 2010<br />From an analysis of 100 international studies on how children learn<br />
  4. 4. Carol Dweck<br />www.carol-dweck.co.uk<br />
  5. 5. The effects of different types of praise <br />Mueller and Dweck, 1998<br />In six studies, 7th grade students were given a series of nonverbal IQ tests.<br />
  6. 6. Mueller and Dweck, 1998<br />Intelligence praise<br />“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.” <br />Process praise<br />“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard.”<br />Control-group praise<br />“Wow, that’s a really good score.”<br />
  7. 7. Number of problems solved on a 3rd test<br />
  8. 8. Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls <br />
  9. 9. The effects of praise<br />Swimming<br />“You do your best swimming when you concentrate and try your best to do what Chris is asking you to do”<br />Ballet<br />“What a beautiful ballerina!”<br />
  10. 10. Number of students who lied about their score<br />
  11. 11. John Hattie’s Visible Learning (2009)<br />
  12. 12. Feedback is a major influence on learning<br />InfluenceEffect SizeDomain<br /><ul><li>(1) Self-report grades 1.44 Student
  13. 13. (2) Piagetian programs 1.28 Student
  14. 14. (3) Formative evaluation 0.90 Teaching
  15. 15. (4) Micro teaching 0.88 Teacher
  16. 16. (5) Acceleration 0.88 School
  17. 17. (6) Classroom behavioural 0.80 School
  18. 18. (7) Interventions for SEN 0.77 Teaching
  19. 19. (8) Teacher clarity 0.75 Teacher
  20. 20. (9) Reciprocal teaching 0.74 Teaching
  21. 21. (10) Feedback 0.73 Teaching
  22. 22. (11) Staff-student relationships 0.72 Staff
  23. 23. (12) Spaced vs. mass practice 0.71 Teaching</li></li></ul><li>Rewards, rewards, rewards<br />10/10<br />
  24. 24. Fixed vs Growth Mindsets<br />Intelligence can be grown<br />Priority: Become smarter<br />Feel Smart by engaging fully, exerting effort, stretching skills<br />You avoid: Easy, previously mastered tasks, or low level challenge<br />Intelligence is fixed<br />Priority: Look smart<br />Feel smart by achieving low effort success and outperforming others<br />You avoid: higher-performing peers, difficulty and setbacks<br />
  25. 25. Comparing test scores<br />140<br />130<br />120<br />110<br />100<br />90<br />140<br />132<br />125<br />105<br />100<br />90<br />140<br />136<br />128<br />100<br />105<br />94<br />
  26. 26. Evelyn Glennie – Growth Mindset ?<br />
  27. 27. Sting – Fixed Mindset ?<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Alfred Binet, creator of the IQ test<br />Alfred Binet<br />1857 - 1911<br />
  30. 30. How would you change the following praise?<br />Clever girl!<br />Gifted musician<br />Brilliant mathematician<br />Bright boy<br />Top of the class!<br />By far the best<br />
  31. 31. What do (spellings) tests encourage?<br />
  32. 32. An alternative way to administer tests<br />Thinking<br />Wondering<br />Decision<br />Understanding<br />Reflection<br />Knowledge<br />Argument<br />Opinion<br />Conclusion<br />Justification<br />Pre-test; Marks Out of 10<br />7, 8, 9 or 10<br />New Set of Spellings<br />4, 5, or 6<br />Correct Set<br />0, 1, 2 or 3<br />Additional coaching<br />169<br />
  33. 33. What is …. ?<br />
  34. 34. The Learning Challenge<br />Concept<br />Conflict<br />Clarity<br />1<br />2<br />Confusion<br />The Pit<br />188<br />
  35. 35. A selection of thinking skills<br />GROUP<br />HYPOTHESISE<br />IDENTIFY<br />INFER<br />INTERPRET<br />ORGANISE<br />PARAPHRASE<br />PREDICT<br />QUESTION<br />RANK<br />REPRESENT<br />RESPOND<br />SEQUENCE<br />SIMPLIFY<br />SHOW HOW<br />SOLVE<br />SORT<br />SUMMARISE<br />SUPPORT<br />TEST<br />VERIFY<br />VISUALISE<br />ANALYSE<br />ANTICIPATE<br />APPLY<br />CAUSAL-LINK<br />CHOOSE<br />CLASSIFY<br />COMPARE <br />CONNECT<br />CONTRAST<br />DECIDE<br />DEFINE<br />DESCRIBE <br />DETERMINE<br />DISCUSS<br />ELABORATE<br />ESTIMATE<br />EVALUATE<br />EXEMPLIFY<br />EXPLORE<br />GENERALISE<br />GIVE EXAMPLES<br />GIVE REASONS<br />137<br />
  36. 36. Pick a concept, any concept<br />Foreign Fairness<br /> Evidence Tourism<br /> Home Truth<br /> Language History<br /> Names Number<br /> Friends Thinking <br /> Belonging Knowledge<br />222<br />
  37. 37. Recent Demo Lesson Concepts<br /> Is it possible to have no weather? (Yr 7)<br /> Are habits the same as addictions? (Yr 8)<br /> What’s the difference between tragedy and romance? (Yr 9)<br /> What is culture? (Yr 10)<br /> Is zero the same as nothing? (Yr 11)<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Cognitive Conflict is Key to Engagement<br />But then why was Robin Hood a hero?<br />I know it’s wrong to steal<br />
  41. 41. Kriticos = able to make judgments<br />Critical Thinking<br />Comes from the Greek, Kriticos<br />Meaning: able to make judgments<br />Source: www.etymonline.com<br />
  42. 42. An Ethos for Learning<br />Not all of our questions answered …<br />… but all of our answers questioned<br />?<br />21<br />
  43. 43. Challenge with young children<br />
  44. 44. Challenge with Year 5 pupils<br />Filmed by Channel 4 in 1999. Video at: www.p4c.com/video-clips<br />
  45. 45. P4C and thinking skills<br />“No programme  I am aware of is more likely to teach durable and transferable thinking skills than Philosophy for Children”<br />Robert Sternberg<br />President of the American Psychological Association<br />21<br />
  46. 46. Eureka moments come from challenge<br />Eureka!<br />Concept<br />Conflict<br />Construct<br />Clarity<br />1<br />Confusion<br />3<br />2<br />The Pit<br />188<br />
  47. 47. Rosenthal & Jacobson<br />
  48. 48. The Pygmalion Effect<br />Our actions<br />(towards others)<br />impact<br />influence<br />Others beliefs<br />(about us)<br />Our beliefs<br />(about ourselves)<br />cause<br />reinforce<br />Others actions<br />(towards us)<br />
  49. 49. Contact Details<br />www.jamesnottingham.co.uk<br />james@p4c.com<br />www.challenginglearning.com<br />
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