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Slides used with Alderbrook School, Solihull on 8th April 2011

Slides used with Alderbrook School, Solihull on 8th April 2011

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  • 1. Challenging Learning
    James Nottingham www.p4c.com
    www.jamesnottingham.co.uk
  • 2. Praise can make pupils scared of challenge
    Our praise often teaches pupils that easy success means they are intelligent and, by implication, that errors and effort mean they are not.
    Prof Carol Dweck, Mindset
  • 3. Focusing on learning
    “Pupils show greater motivation, are better behaved and are more likely to be independent and strategic thinkers when teachers are not obsessed by grades.”
    “If there is one new thing we need in our school system right now, it is a well-developed focus on learning.”
    Chris Watkins, Institute of Education, Aug 2010
    From an analysis of 100 international studies on how children learn
  • 4. Carol Dweck
    www.carol-dweck.co.uk
  • 5. The effects of different types of praise
    Mueller and Dweck, 1998
    In six studies, 7th grade students were given a series of nonverbal IQ tests.
  • 6. Mueller and Dweck, 1998
    Intelligence praise
    “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”
    Process praise
    “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard.”
    Control-group praise
    “Wow, that’s a really good score.”
  • 7. Number of problems solved on a 3rd test
  • 8. Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls
  • 9. The effects of praise
    Swimming
    “You do your best swimming when you concentrate and try your best to do what Chris is asking you to do”
    Ballet
    “What a beautiful ballerina!”
  • 10. Number of students who lied about their score
  • 11. John Hattie’s Visible Learning (2009)
  • 12. Feedback is a major influence on learning
    InfluenceEffect SizeDomain
    • (1) Self-report grades 1.44 Student
    • 13. (2) Piagetian programs 1.28 Student
    • 14. (3) Formative evaluation 0.90 Teaching
    • 15. (4) Micro teaching 0.88 Teacher
    • 16. (5) Acceleration 0.88 School
    • 17. (6) Classroom behavioural 0.80 School
    • 18. (7) Interventions for SEN 0.77 Teaching
    • 19. (8) Teacher clarity 0.75 Teacher
    • 20. (9) Reciprocal teaching 0.74 Teaching
    • 21. (10) Feedback 0.73 Teaching
    • 22. (11) Staff-student relationships 0.72 Staff
    • 23. (12) Spaced vs. mass practice 0.71 Teaching
  • Rewards, rewards, rewards
    10/10
  • 24. Fixed vs Growth Mindsets
    Intelligence can be grown
    Priority: Become smarter
    Feel Smart by engaging fully, exerting effort, stretching skills
    You avoid: Easy, previously mastered tasks, or low level challenge
    Intelligence is fixed
    Priority: Look smart
    Feel smart by achieving low effort success and outperforming others
    You avoid: higher-performing peers, difficulty and setbacks
  • 25. Comparing test scores
    140
    130
    120
    110
    100
    90
    140
    132
    125
    105
    100
    90
    140
    136
    128
    100
    105
    94
  • 26. Evelyn Glennie – Growth Mindset ?
  • 27. Sting – Fixed Mindset ?
  • 28.
  • 29. Alfred Binet, creator of the IQ test
    Alfred Binet
    1857 - 1911
  • 30. How would you change the following praise?
    Clever girl!
    Gifted musician
    Brilliant mathematician
    Bright boy
    Top of the class!
    By far the best
  • 31. What do (spellings) tests encourage?
  • 32. An alternative way to administer tests
    Thinking
    Wondering
    Decision
    Understanding
    Reflection
    Knowledge
    Argument
    Opinion
    Conclusion
    Justification
    Pre-test; Marks Out of 10
    7, 8, 9 or 10
    New Set of Spellings
    4, 5, or 6
    Correct Set
    0, 1, 2 or 3
    Additional coaching
    169
  • 33. What is …. ?
  • 34. The Learning Challenge
    Concept
    Conflict
    Clarity
    1
    2
    Confusion
    The Pit
    188
  • 35. A selection of thinking skills
    GROUP
    HYPOTHESISE
    IDENTIFY
    INFER
    INTERPRET
    ORGANISE
    PARAPHRASE
    PREDICT
    QUESTION
    RANK
    REPRESENT
    RESPOND
    SEQUENCE
    SIMPLIFY
    SHOW HOW
    SOLVE
    SORT
    SUMMARISE
    SUPPORT
    TEST
    VERIFY
    VISUALISE
    ANALYSE
    ANTICIPATE
    APPLY
    CAUSAL-LINK
    CHOOSE
    CLASSIFY
    COMPARE
    CONNECT
    CONTRAST
    DECIDE
    DEFINE
    DESCRIBE
    DETERMINE
    DISCUSS
    ELABORATE
    ESTIMATE
    EVALUATE
    EXEMPLIFY
    EXPLORE
    GENERALISE
    GIVE EXAMPLES
    GIVE REASONS
    137
  • 36. Pick a concept, any concept
    Foreign Fairness
    Evidence Tourism
    Home Truth
    Language History
    Names Number
    Friends Thinking
    Belonging Knowledge
    222
  • 37. Recent Demo Lesson Concepts
    Is it possible to have no weather? (Yr 7)
    Are habits the same as addictions? (Yr 8)
    What’s the difference between tragedy and romance? (Yr 9)
    What is culture? (Yr 10)
    Is zero the same as nothing? (Yr 11)
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Cognitive Conflict is Key to Engagement
    But then why was Robin Hood a hero?
    I know it’s wrong to steal
  • 41. Kriticos = able to make judgments
    Critical Thinking
    Comes from the Greek, Kriticos
    Meaning: able to make judgments
    Source: www.etymonline.com
  • 42. An Ethos for Learning
    Not all of our questions answered …
    … but all of our answers questioned
    ?
    21
  • 43. Challenge with young children
  • 44. Challenge with Year 5 pupils
    Filmed by Channel 4 in 1999. Video at: www.p4c.com/video-clips
  • 45. P4C and thinking skills
    “No programme  I am aware of is more likely to teach durable and transferable thinking skills than Philosophy for Children”
    Robert Sternberg
    President of the American Psychological Association
    21
  • 46. Eureka moments come from challenge
    Eureka!
    Concept
    Conflict
    Construct
    Clarity
    1
    Confusion
    3
    2
    The Pit
    188
  • 47. Rosenthal & Jacobson
  • 48. The Pygmalion Effect
    Our actions
    (towards others)
    impact
    influence
    Others beliefs
    (about us)
    Our beliefs
    (about ourselves)
    cause
    reinforce
    Others actions
    (towards us)
  • 49. Contact Details
    www.jamesnottingham.co.uk
    james@p4c.com
    www.challenginglearning.com