Process Writing


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Process Writing

  1. 1. Process Writing<br />JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan<br /><br /><br />
  2. 2. Differences between speech and writing<br />Speech<br />Universal<br />Dialect variations<br />Voices and body language<br />Pauses and intonation<br />Spontaneous and unplanned<br />Writing<br />Not universal<br />Standard forms<br />Only page for expression<br />Punctuation<br />Usually planned<br />(Raimes, 1983) <br />
  3. 3. Speech<br />Pronunciation<br />Listener is present, feedback<br />Informal and repetitive<br />Compound sentences (and’s and but’s)<br />Writing<br />Spelling<br />Only one chance to communicate<br />More formal and compact<br />Complex sentences common<br />
  4. 4. History<br />Shift in emphasis from the product of writing activities (the finished text) to ways in which text can be developed<br />from ‘what have you written?&apos;, ‘what grade is it worth?’<br />to ‘how will you write it?&apos;, ‘how can it be improved?’<br />(Furneaux, 1998) <br />
  5. 5. Beginning at the end of the 1960s and continuing through the 70s and 80s, composition was investigated as a cognitive process <br />began to be reflected in L1 freshman composition <br />filtered eventually into ESL writing textbooks. <br />ESL began investigations of L2 writing informed by the insights of L1 <br />(Myers, 1997)<br />
  6. 6. What is process writing?<br />All writing is a creative act <br />requires time and positive feedback to be done well<br />Teacher doesn’t just assign a writing topic and receive the finished product for correction with no intervention in the writing process itself.<br />(Stanley)<br />
  7. 7. Why use process writing?<br />To address the needs of our changing society, <br />teachers must prepare students for the challenges of today&apos;s world.<br />Writing is a powerful tool <br />can influence others and clarify one&apos;s own thoughts.  <br />Teaching the writing process can give students the key to unlocking this powerful tool.  <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  8. 8. Teacher / Student Roles<br />Teacher <br />Move away from being a marker to a reader<br />Respond to content more than form. <br />Students <br />encouraged to think about audience<br />realize what they put down on paper can be changed<br />(Stanley)<br />
  9. 9. The role of grammar<br />“Grammar is important—but as a tool, a means, and not as an end in itself.”<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  10. 10. Assumptions about writing<br />Writing is a thinking process<br />Writing is a form of problem-solving<br />Ideas are revealed during the act of writing itself.<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  11. 11. The stages of the process<br />Pre-writing <br />Focusing ideas<br />First Draft <br />Revision <br />Editing <br />Publishing<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  12. 12. (White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  13. 13. Stage One: Pre-writing<br />Stimulate students&apos; creativity<br />get them thinking how to approach a writing topic. <br />Most important<br />flow of ideas<br />not always necessary to produce much (if any) written work. <br />(Stanley)<br />
  14. 14. magazines/newspapers/periodicals/CD-ROM <br />conduct an interview based on your topic <br />media-radio, TV, internet <br />experiences <br />movies and documentaries <br />music <br />visual art <br />dreams <br />memories <br />discussion and brainstorming <br />responding to literature <br />role playing <br />research <br />imagination <br />personal interest inventories <br />class interest inventory<br />How can they get ideas? <br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  15. 15. Pre-writing activities<br />free writing <br />“journalling “<br />image streaming<br />transplant yourselfto another place or time and describe from a first person point of view) <br />lists <br />visualization <br />brainstorming<br />individually or as a group <br />webbing / mapping / clustering <br />graphic organizers <br />topic or word chart<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  16. 16. Graphic Organizers<br />Comparison<br />Clusters<br />Chain of Events<br />Cycle<br />Fishbone Mapping<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  17. 17. Stage Two: Focusing<br />Students write without much attention to the accuracy of their work or the organization. <br />Most important feature is meaning. <br />Concentrate on the content of the writing. <br />Is it coherent? <br />Is there anything missing? <br />Anything extra?<br />(Stanley)<br />
  18. 18. Fast writing<br />students write quickly for five to ten minutes without worrying about correct language or punctuation. <br />Later this text is revised. <br />Group compositions<br />Working together in groups, sharing ideas. <br />involves other skills (speaking in particular.) <br />Changing Viewpoints<br />follow a role-play or storytelling activity. <br />students choose different points of view<br />discuss what character would write in a diary, witness statement, etc. <br />Varying form<br />different text types are selected. <br />how would the text be different as a letter, or a newspaper article, etc.<br />Focusing activities<br />(Stanley)<br />
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  21. 21. Stage Three: First Draft<br />Ideas are composed on paper.  <br />focus on the content, not the mechanics.  <br />ideas should flow easily and the words be written quickly. <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  22. 22. Questions for writers<br />What is my purpose for writing this piece?<br />What will my audience want to know about my topic?<br />How can I best arrange my information?<br />What are the main ideas I want to present?<br />What details can I add to support my main ideas?<br />What will make a good lead to catch the reader&apos;s attention?<br />How can I end the piece effectively?<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
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  25. 25. Stage Four: Revision<br />Revising is . . . <br />Making decisions about how to improve writing<br />Looking at writing from a different point of view<br />Picking places where writing could be clearer, more interesting, more informative and more convincing.<br />It&apos;s important to note that revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling.<br />(Antifaiff )<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  26. 26. “A cultivation of a sense of responsibility for being one’s own critic”<br />Writer must realize he/she will be read by other people, not just graded<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  27. 27. Conferencing<br />Conferencing can be with another student or with the teacher.  <br />The conferencing will involve each person rereading and sharing ideas that will enhance and clarify the writing.  <br />Students should be taught to conference effectively.  <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  28. 28. Stages<br />First reading:<br />Put your pen down and read the composition for content<br />Comment on content<br />Second reading<br />Pick up pen<br />Comment on writing, communication, not picky details<br />
  29. 29. Revising Activities<br />A.R.R.R. - four types of changes.Adding: What else does the reader need to know?<br />Rearranging: Is the information in the most logical order?<br />Removing: What extra details are in this pieceof writing?<br />Replacing: What words could be replaced by clearer or stronger expressions?<br />R.A.G. - Read Around Group (3-5 writers / group<br />Anonymous compositions  <br />Everyone reads each paper once to get a general idea. Nothing is written on papers.<br />On separate paper, graded on a scale of 1-4 and write comments for later discussion<br />Same group: second reading. More detail.<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  30. 30. Proofread for mechanics and grammar.  <br />beginning stages of writing, focus on one area at a time to edit <br />More advanced students can focus on more areas.  <br /> can conference with other students and provide proofreading support for each other<br />Stage Five: Editing<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  31. 31. Editing Activities<br />Self Edit<br />Read your own work backwards.<br />Read the last sentence, then the secondlast sentence, etc.<br />Does each sentence make sense when you read it on it&apos;s own?<br />Do you see or hear any errors in the sentence?<br />Peer Edit<br />Checklist for students<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  32. 32. Name________________________ Project____________Peer Editor ____________________Date ______________                  Peer Editing ChecklistUse this list to check your paper carefully.<br />Louisiana Department of Education<br />
  33. 33. General Editing Strategies<br />See errors as friends, not enemies<br />Use errors in students’ writing to plan ahead<br />Learn to expect errors that regularly occur at certain stages in a student’s learning<br />Devise a system for indicating some or all of the errors in the student’s second or third drafts.<br />(Raimes 1983)<br />
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  35. 35. Correcting all errors!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />
  36. 36. Circling Errors<br />
  37. 37. Symbols for Correction<br />
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  39. 39. Stage Six: Publishing<br />Students prepare final version<br />Then they need to have response to their writing.   <br />helps clarify their work, generate new ideas, and most importantly validate the piece of writing.   <br />involves sharing a piece of writing with an audience. <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  40. 40. Where to publish?<br />Author&apos;s chair<br />Students sit on a designated chair for &quot;authors&quot; and read their writing to an audience. <br />On-Line publishing<br />An on-line magazine <br />Blogging<br />Printed class newspaper<br />Bulletin Board<br />Tape oral versions<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  41. 41. Blogs<br /> Weblogs--spaces on the web where you can write and publish (post) about a topic or several topics.  <br />Weblogs (&quot;blogs“)<br />act of publishing (posting) to a weblog is often called &quot;blogging.&quot;  <br />In educational circles, &quot;EduBlogs&quot; or &quot;Schoolblogs.&quot; <br />An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis:$33<br />
  42. 42. Common Features<br />Easy and quick to create <br />Organized by time (chronologically backwards) or posts<br />The posts are usually short and frequently posted.<br />Readers can often respond or react through a &apos;comments&apos; feature.<br />Instant web publishing<br />Maintained by one person or as a multi-person blog<br />Free or very low-cost to create.<br />An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis:$33<br />
  43. 43. Why use blogs?<br />promote verbal and visual literacy <br /> dialogue and storytelling<br />allow opportunities for collaborative learning<br />accessible and equitable to a variety of age groups and developmental stages in education. <br />Huffaker, D. (2005). Let Them Blog: Using Weblogs to Promote Listening in K-12 Education. In L. T. W. Hin and R. Subramaniam (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Literacy in Technology at the K-12 Level. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.<br />
  44. 44. Tutorial Blog<br />
  45. 45. Class blog<br />
  46. 46. OK….how do I start?<br />
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  49. 49. Thank you very much<br />JoAnn Miller<br /> <br /><br />Copies of the handout are available at:<br /> (Presentations)<br />