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Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
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Process Writing

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A basic presentation defining process writing and its stages.

A basic presentation defining process writing and its stages.

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  • 1. Process Writing<br />JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan<br />joannmillerj@gmail.com<br />www.efltasks.net<br />
  • 2. Differences between speech and writing<br />Speech<br />Universal<br />Dialect variations<br />Voices and body language<br />Pauses and intonation<br />Spontaneous and unplanned<br />Writing<br />Not universal<br />Standard forms<br />Only page for expression<br />Punctuation<br />Usually planned<br />(Raimes, 1983) <br />
  • 3. Speech<br />Pronunciation<br />Listener is present, feedback<br />Informal and repetitive<br />Compound sentences (and’s and but’s)<br />Writing<br />Spelling<br />Only one chance to communicate<br />More formal and compact<br />Complex sentences common<br />
  • 4. History<br />Shift in emphasis from the product of writing activities (the finished text) to ways in which text can be developed<br />from ‘what have you written?&apos;, ‘what grade is it worth?’<br />to ‘how will you write it?&apos;, ‘how can it be improved?’<br />(Furneaux, 1998) <br />
  • 5. Beginning at the end of the 1960s and continuing through the 70s and 80s, composition was investigated as a cognitive process <br />began to be reflected in L1 freshman composition <br />filtered eventually into ESL writing textbooks. <br />ESL began investigations of L2 writing informed by the insights of L1 <br />(Myers, 1997)<br />
  • 6. What is process writing?<br />All writing is a creative act <br />requires time and positive feedback to be done well<br />Teacher doesn’t just assign a writing topic and receive the finished product for correction with no intervention in the writing process itself.<br />(Stanley)<br />
  • 7. Why use process writing?<br />To address the needs of our changing society, <br />teachers must prepare students for the challenges of today&apos;s world.<br />Writing is a powerful tool <br />can influence others and clarify one&apos;s own thoughts.  <br />Teaching the writing process can give students the key to unlocking this powerful tool.  <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 8. Teacher / Student Roles<br />Teacher <br />Move away from being a marker to a reader<br />Respond to content more than form. <br />Students <br />encouraged to think about audience<br />realize what they put down on paper can be changed<br />(Stanley)<br />
  • 9. The role of grammar<br />“Grammar is important—but as a tool, a means, and not as an end in itself.”<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  • 10. Assumptions about writing<br />Writing is a thinking process<br />Writing is a form of problem-solving<br />Ideas are revealed during the act of writing itself.<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  • 11. The stages of the process<br />Pre-writing <br />Focusing ideas<br />First Draft <br />Revision <br />Editing <br />Publishing<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 12. (White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  • 13. Stage One: Pre-writing<br />Stimulate students&apos; creativity<br />get them thinking how to approach a writing topic. <br />Most important<br />flow of ideas<br />not always necessary to produce much (if any) written work. <br />(Stanley)<br />
  • 14. magazines/newspapers/periodicals/CD-ROM <br />conduct an interview based on your topic <br />media-radio, TV, internet <br />experiences <br />movies and documentaries <br />music <br />visual art <br />dreams <br />memories <br />discussion and brainstorming <br />responding to literature <br />role playing <br />research <br />imagination <br />personal interest inventories <br />class interest inventory<br />How can they get ideas? <br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 15. Pre-writing activities<br />free writing <br />“journalling “<br />image streaming<br />transplant yourselfto another place or time and describe from a first person point of view) <br />lists <br />visualization <br />brainstorming<br />individually or as a group <br />webbing / mapping / clustering <br />graphic organizers <br />topic or word chart<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 16. Graphic Organizers<br />Comparison<br />Clusters<br />Chain of Events<br />Cycle<br />Fishbone Mapping<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 17. Stage Two: Focusing<br />Students write without much attention to the accuracy of their work or the organization. <br />Most important feature is meaning. <br />Concentrate on the content of the writing. <br />Is it coherent? <br />Is there anything missing? <br />Anything extra?<br />(Stanley)<br />
  • 18. Fast writing<br />students write quickly for five to ten minutes without worrying about correct language or punctuation. <br />Later this text is revised. <br />Group compositions<br />Working together in groups, sharing ideas. <br />involves other skills (speaking in particular.) <br />Changing Viewpoints<br />follow a role-play or storytelling activity. <br />students choose different points of view<br />discuss what character would write in a diary, witness statement, etc. <br />Varying form<br />different text types are selected. <br />how would the text be different as a letter, or a newspaper article, etc.<br />Focusing activities<br />(Stanley)<br />
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Stage Three: First Draft<br />Ideas are composed on paper.  <br />focus on the content, not the mechanics.  <br />ideas should flow easily and the words be written quickly. <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 22. Questions for writers<br />What is my purpose for writing this piece?<br />What will my audience want to know about my topic?<br />How can I best arrange my information?<br />What are the main ideas I want to present?<br />What details can I add to support my main ideas?<br />What will make a good lead to catch the reader&apos;s attention?<br />How can I end the piece effectively?<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Stage Four: Revision<br />Revising is . . . <br />Making decisions about how to improve writing<br />Looking at writing from a different point of view<br />Picking places where writing could be clearer, more interesting, more informative and more convincing.<br />It&apos;s important to note that revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling.<br />(Antifaiff )<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 26. “A cultivation of a sense of responsibility for being one’s own critic”<br />Writer must realize he/she will be read by other people, not just graded<br />(White, Arndt, 1991) <br />
  • 27. Conferencing<br />Conferencing can be with another student or with the teacher.  <br />The conferencing will involve each person rereading and sharing ideas that will enhance and clarify the writing.  <br />Students should be taught to conference effectively.  <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 28. Stages<br />First reading:<br />Put your pen down and read the composition for content<br />Comment on content<br />Second reading<br />Pick up pen<br />Comment on writing, communication, not picky details<br />
  • 29. Revising Activities<br />A.R.R.R. - four types of changes.Adding: What else does the reader need to know?<br />Rearranging: Is the information in the most logical order?<br />Removing: What extra details are in this pieceof writing?<br />Replacing: What words could be replaced by clearer or stronger expressions?<br />R.A.G. - Read Around Group (3-5 writers / group<br />Anonymous compositions  <br />Everyone reads each paper once to get a general idea. Nothing is written on papers.<br />On separate paper, graded on a scale of 1-4 and write comments for later discussion<br />Same group: second reading. More detail.<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 30. Proofread for mechanics and grammar.  <br />beginning stages of writing, focus on one area at a time to edit <br />More advanced students can focus on more areas.  <br /> can conference with other students and provide proofreading support for each other<br />Stage Five: Editing<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 31. Editing Activities<br />Self Edit<br />Read your own work backwards.<br />Read the last sentence, then the secondlast sentence, etc.<br />Does each sentence make sense when you read it on it&apos;s own?<br />Do you see or hear any errors in the sentence?<br />Peer Edit<br />Checklist for students<br />(Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999) <br />
  • 32. Name________________________ Project____________Peer Editor ____________________Date ______________                  Peer Editing ChecklistUse this list to check your paper carefully.<br />Louisiana Department of Education<br />
  • 33. General Editing Strategies<br />See errors as friends, not enemies<br />Use errors in students’ writing to plan ahead<br />Learn to expect errors that regularly occur at certain stages in a student’s learning<br />Devise a system for indicating some or all of the errors in the student’s second or third drafts.<br />(Raimes 1983)<br />
  • 34.
  • 35. Correcting all errors!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />
  • 36. Circling Errors<br />
  • 37. Symbols for Correction<br />
  • 38.
  • 39. Stage Six: Publishing<br />Students prepare final version<br />Then they need to have response to their writing.   <br />helps clarify their work, generate new ideas, and most importantly validate the piece of writing.   <br />involves sharing a piece of writing with an audience. <br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 40. Where to publish?<br />Author&apos;s chair<br />Students sit on a designated chair for &quot;authors&quot; and read their writing to an audience. <br />On-Line publishing<br />An on-line magazine <br />Blogging<br />Printed class newspaper<br />Bulletin Board<br />Tape oral versions<br />(Antifaiff )<br />
  • 41. Blogs<br /> Weblogs--spaces on the web where you can write and publish (post) about a topic or several topics.  <br />Weblogs (&quot;blogs“)<br />act of publishing (posting) to a weblog is often called &quot;blogging.&quot;  <br />In educational circles, &quot;EduBlogs&quot; or &quot;Schoolblogs.&quot; <br />An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis: http://anvil.gsu.edu/EV/stories/storyReader$33<br />
  • 42. Common Features<br />Easy and quick to create <br />Organized by time (chronologically backwards) or posts<br />The posts are usually short and frequently posted.<br />Readers can often respond or react through a &apos;comments&apos; feature.<br />Instant web publishing<br />Maintained by one person or as a multi-person blog<br />Free or very low-cost to create.<br />An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis: http://anvil.gsu.edu/EV/stories/storyReader$33<br />
  • 43. Why use blogs?<br />promote verbal and visual literacy <br /> dialogue and storytelling<br />allow opportunities for collaborative learning<br />accessible and equitable to a variety of age groups and developmental stages in education. <br />Huffaker, D. (2005). Let Them Blog: Using Weblogs to Promote Listening in K-12 Education. In L. T. W. Hin and R. Subramaniam (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Literacy in Technology at the K-12 Level. Hershey, PA: Idea Group. http://www.davehuffaker.com/papers/Huffaker2005_LetThemBlog.pdf<br />
  • 44. Tutorial Blog<br />
  • 45. Class blog<br />
  • 46. OK….how do I start?<br />
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. Thank you very much<br />JoAnn Miller<br /> miller@room20.org <br /> joannmillerj@gmail.com<br />Copies of the handout are available at:<br />www.efltasks.net (Presentations)<br />

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