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Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
Process Writing
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Process Writing


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A basic presentation defining process writing and its stages.

A basic presentation defining process writing and its stages.

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  • 1. Process Writing
    JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan
  • 2. Differences between speech and writing
    Dialect variations
    Voices and body language
    Pauses and intonation
    Spontaneous and unplanned
    Not universal
    Standard forms
    Only page for expression
    Usually planned
    (Raimes, 1983)
  • 3. Speech
    Listener is present, feedback
    Informal and repetitive
    Compound sentences (and’s and but’s)
    Only one chance to communicate
    More formal and compact
    Complex sentences common
  • 4. History
    Shift in emphasis from the product of writing activities (the finished text) to ways in which text can be developed
    from ‘what have you written?', ‘what grade is it worth?’
    to ‘how will you write it?', ‘how can it be improved?’
    (Furneaux, 1998)
  • 5. Beginning at the end of the 1960s and continuing through the 70s and 80s, composition was investigated as a cognitive process
    began to be reflected in L1 freshman composition
    filtered eventually into ESL writing textbooks.
    ESL began investigations of L2 writing informed by the insights of L1
    (Myers, 1997)
  • 6. What is process writing?
    All writing is a creative act
    requires time and positive feedback to be done well
    Teacher doesn’t just assign a writing topic and receive the finished product for correction with no intervention in the writing process itself.
  • 7. Why use process writing?
    To address the needs of our changing society,
    teachers must prepare students for the challenges of today's world.
    Writing is a powerful tool
    can influence others and clarify one's own thoughts. 
    Teaching the writing process can give students the key to unlocking this powerful tool. 
    (Antifaiff )
  • 8. Teacher / Student Roles
    Move away from being a marker to a reader
    Respond to content more than form.
    encouraged to think about audience
    realize what they put down on paper can be changed
  • 9. The role of grammar
    “Grammar is important—but as a tool, a means, and not as an end in itself.”
    (White, Arndt, 1991)
  • 10. Assumptions about writing
    Writing is a thinking process
    Writing is a form of problem-solving
    Ideas are revealed during the act of writing itself.
    (White, Arndt, 1991)
  • 11. The stages of the process
    Focusing ideas
    First Draft
    (Antifaiff )
  • 12. (White, Arndt, 1991)
  • 13. Stage One: Pre-writing
    Stimulate students' creativity
    get them thinking how to approach a writing topic.
    Most important
    flow of ideas
    not always necessary to produce much (if any) written work.
  • 14. magazines/newspapers/periodicals/CD-ROM
    conduct an interview based on your topic
    media-radio, TV, internet
    movies and documentaries
    visual art
    discussion and brainstorming
    responding to literature
    role playing
    personal interest inventories
    class interest inventory
    How can they get ideas?
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 15. Pre-writing activities
    free writing
    “journalling “
    image streaming
    transplant yourselfto another place or time and describe from a first person point of view)
    individually or as a group
    webbing / mapping / clustering
    graphic organizers
    topic or word chart
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 16. Graphic Organizers
    Chain of Events
    Fishbone Mapping
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 17. Stage Two: Focusing
    Students write without much attention to the accuracy of their work or the organization.
    Most important feature is meaning.
    Concentrate on the content of the writing.
    Is it coherent?
    Is there anything missing?
    Anything extra?
  • 18. Fast writing
    students write quickly for five to ten minutes without worrying about correct language or punctuation.
    Later this text is revised.
    Group compositions
    Working together in groups, sharing ideas.
    involves other skills (speaking in particular.)
    Changing Viewpoints
    follow a role-play or storytelling activity.
    students choose different points of view
    discuss what character would write in a diary, witness statement, etc.
    Varying form
    different text types are selected.
    how would the text be different as a letter, or a newspaper article, etc.
    Focusing activities
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Stage Three: First Draft
    Ideas are composed on paper. 
    focus on the content, not the mechanics. 
    ideas should flow easily and the words be written quickly. 
    (Antifaiff )
  • 22. Questions for writers
    What is my purpose for writing this piece?
    What will my audience want to know about my topic?
    How can I best arrange my information?
    What are the main ideas I want to present?
    What details can I add to support my main ideas?
    What will make a good lead to catch the reader's attention?
    How can I end the piece effectively?
    (Antifaiff )
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Stage Four: Revision
    Revising is . . .
    Making decisions about how to improve writing
    Looking at writing from a different point of view
    Picking places where writing could be clearer, more interesting, more informative and more convincing.
    It's important to note that revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling.
    (Antifaiff )
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 26. “A cultivation of a sense of responsibility for being one’s own critic”
    Writer must realize he/she will be read by other people, not just graded
    (White, Arndt, 1991)
  • 27. Conferencing
    Conferencing can be with another student or with the teacher. 
    The conferencing will involve each person rereading and sharing ideas that will enhance and clarify the writing. 
    Students should be taught to conference effectively. 
    (Antifaiff )
  • 28. Stages
    First reading:
    Put your pen down and read the composition for content
    Comment on content
    Second reading
    Pick up pen
    Comment on writing, communication, not picky details
  • 29. Revising Activities
    A.R.R.R. - four types of changes.Adding: What else does the reader need to know?
    Rearranging: Is the information in the most logical order?
    Removing: What extra details are in this pieceof writing?
    Replacing: What words could be replaced by clearer or stronger expressions?
    R.A.G. - Read Around Group (3-5 writers / group
    Anonymous compositions  
    Everyone reads each paper once to get a general idea. Nothing is written on papers.
    On separate paper, graded on a scale of 1-4 and write comments for later discussion
    Same group: second reading. More detail.
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 30. Proofread for mechanics and grammar. 
    beginning stages of writing, focus on one area at a time to edit
    More advanced students can focus on more areas. 
    can conference with other students and provide proofreading support for each other
    Stage Five: Editing
    (Antifaiff )
  • 31. Editing Activities
    Self Edit
    Read your own work backwards.
    Read the last sentence, then the secondlast sentence, etc.
    Does each sentence make sense when you read it on it's own?
    Do you see or hear any errors in the sentence?
    Peer Edit
    Checklist for students
    (Lipkewich, Mazurenko 1999)
  • 32. Name________________________ Project____________Peer Editor ____________________Date ______________                  Peer Editing ChecklistUse this list to check your paper carefully.
    Louisiana Department of Education
  • 33. General Editing Strategies
    See errors as friends, not enemies
    Use errors in students’ writing to plan ahead
    Learn to expect errors that regularly occur at certain stages in a student’s learning
    Devise a system for indicating some or all of the errors in the student’s second or third drafts.
    (Raimes 1983)
  • 34.
  • 35. Correcting all errors!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • 36. Circling Errors
  • 37. Symbols for Correction
  • 38.
  • 39. Stage Six: Publishing
    Students prepare final version
    Then they need to have response to their writing.  
    helps clarify their work, generate new ideas, and most importantly validate the piece of writing.  
    involves sharing a piece of writing with an audience. 
    (Antifaiff )
  • 40. Where to publish?
    Author's chair
    Students sit on a designated chair for "authors" and read their writing to an audience.
    On-Line publishing
    An on-line magazine
    Printed class newspaper
    Bulletin Board
    Tape oral versions
    (Antifaiff )
  • 41. Blogs
     Weblogs--spaces on the web where you can write and publish (post) about a topic or several topics. 
    Weblogs ("blogs“)
    act of publishing (posting) to a weblog is often called "blogging."  
    In educational circles, "EduBlogs" or "Schoolblogs." 
    An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis:$33
  • 42. Common Features
    Easy and quick to create
    Organized by time (chronologically backwards) or posts
    The posts are usually short and frequently posted.
    Readers can often respond or react through a 'comments' feature.
    Instant web publishing
    Maintained by one person or as a multi-person blog
    Free or very low-cost to create.
    An Overview of Weblogs: Quoting Anne Davis:$33
  • 43. Why use blogs?
    promote verbal and visual literacy
    dialogue and storytelling
    allow opportunities for collaborative learning
    accessible and equitable to a variety of age groups and developmental stages in education.
    Huffaker, D. (2005). Let Them Blog: Using Weblogs to Promote Listening in K-12 Education. In L. T. W. Hin and R. Subramaniam (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Literacy in Technology at the K-12 Level. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
  • 44. Tutorial Blog
  • 45. Class blog
  • 46. OK….how do I start?
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. Thank you very much
    JoAnn Miller
    Copies of the handout are available at: (Presentations)