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- 1. Writing and Correcting Communicative Exams JoAnn Miller Editorial Macmillan [email_address]
- 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicative testing </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Written tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral Testing </li></ul>
- 3. REASONS FOR TESTING <ul><li>Placement tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>student’s suitability to take a specific course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on specific textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proficiency tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>check students’ progress in general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOEFL, First Certificate, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>check how much a student has learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on what a student has studied in a specific course </li></ul></ul>
- 4. <ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul>What kinds of evaluations do you do?
- 5. ALTERNATIVE TESTING <ul><li>Not paper and pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Constant not punctual </li></ul>Definition: “ the ongoing process involving the student and teacher in making judgments about the student’s progress in language using non-conventional strategies “ techniques that can be used within the context of instruction and can be easily incorporated into the daily activities of the school or classroom.” The Reflective Portfolio: Two Case Studies from the United Arab Emirates, Christine Coombe and Lisa Barlow, Forum Online, http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol42/no1/p18.htm
- 6. PORTFOLIOS <ul><li>a collection of student production over time </li></ul><ul><li>shows the stages in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>and the stages of the student’s growth. </li></ul>The Reflective Portfolio: Two Case Studies from the United Arab Emirates, Christine Coombe and Lisa Barlow, Forum Online, http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol42/no1/p18.htm
- 7. PORTFOLIOS? <ul><li>more subjective </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>physical limits </li></ul>
- 8. WHY WRITTEN TESTS? <ul><li>Not the only way and maybe not the fairest. </li></ul><ul><li>But easiest with large numbers of students </li></ul><ul><li>More objective </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted by institutions, parents, students </li></ul>
- 9. EXAM BANKS <ul><li>A collection of exams for classroom use maintained by the institution itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Written by the teachers themselves or a special committee </li></ul><ul><li>Following institutional guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Could be various “cycles” covering the same material </li></ul>
- 10. THE BENEFITS OF AN EXAM BANK <ul><li>Less work for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>More standardization in large one-campus schools and in multi-campus schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria, instructions and grading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Face validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniform length </li></ul>
- 11. WHAT ARE YOUR EXAMS GOING TO BE LIKE? <ul><li>Many variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul>
- 12. TEACHERS <ul><li>Level of English </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mathematical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Time factor </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of grading </li></ul><ul><li>Answer key </li></ul>
- 13. STUDENTS <ul><li>Younger students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Older students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul>
- 14. HOW MANY POINTS FOR EACH SKILL? <ul><li>If institution tells you, just follow through </li></ul><ul><li>If not, base exam on the textbook (the common denominator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General text analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much time is spent on each skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count exercises in a few units, determine percent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep institutional goals in mind </li></ul>
- 15. CONTENT VALIDITY <ul><li>Assessment should be based on a content-analysis of the text being used </li></ul>
- 16. CONTENT ANALYSIS <ul><li>You must test only material students have seen </li></ul><ul><li>The only common denominator is the textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of percent of time spent on each topic (grammar structure, vocabulary item, function, etc.) </li></ul>
- 17. Content Analysis: Information from the contents Functions (10 points): Talking about imitation products Talking about food and food festivals Discussing the movie industry Making a business plan Grammar (5 points): Nouns in groups Indefinite Pronouns Vocabulary (10 points): Food Business language ///// /// ///// ///// ///// //// ///// /// ///// ///// /// 8 10 9 5 32 3 5 8 5 3 8 8 / 32 =__% 25% 31% 28% 16% 25% X 10 = ___pts 2.5 pts 3 pts 3 pts 1.5 pts 37% 2 pts 63% 3 pts 63% 6 pts 37% 4 pts
- 19. COMMUNICATIVE TESTING <ul><li>We teach “communicatively” but we test “traditionally”. </li></ul><ul><li>What IS communicative testing? </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative testing means testing in context . </li></ul>
- 20. GRAMMAR? What will you test?
- 21. WHICH VERSION? WHY? <ul><li>Circle the correct answer </li></ul><ul><li>1. Do you like __________? </li></ul><ul><li>swimming b. to swum c. swim </li></ul><ul><li>2. Where ________ live? </li></ul><ul><li>does she b. she does c. she </li></ul><ul><li>3. I _________ speak French. </li></ul><ul><li>no speak b. doesn’t c. don’t </li></ul><ul><li>4. What __________? </li></ul><ul><li>a. does he do b. does he c. he does do </li></ul><ul><li>Write the correct forms of the words in parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice: Where (1)______ you </li></ul><ul><li>_________ (live)? </li></ul><ul><li>Bart: Acapulco. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice: My brother (2)___________ (go) </li></ul><ul><li>there every summer on vacation, </li></ul><ul><li>but he (3)_________(not speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Bart: Acapulco (4)_________ (attract) </li></ul><ul><li>tourists from all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people there </li></ul><ul><li>(5)___________(speak) English </li></ul><ul><li>very well. What about you, </li></ul><ul><li>(6)______ you ________(speak) </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish? </li></ul><ul><li>Alice: A little. </li></ul>
- 22. VOCABULARY? What will you test?
- 23. WHICH VERSION? WHY? <ul><li>Match the letters (a to e) with the numbers (1 to 5). </li></ul><ul><li>1. Your mother’s husband is your___. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Your mother’s father is your___. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Your mother’s brother is your___. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Your uncle’s son is your___. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Your father’s sister is your ___. </li></ul><ul><li>uncle </li></ul><ul><li>cousin </li></ul><ul><li>aunt </li></ul><ul><li>father </li></ul><ul><li>grandfather </li></ul><ul><li>Underline the word in each pair that completes the conversation correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>My (1)[ uncle / aunt ] likes (2) [ playing / going to ] movies. He is my father’s (3)[ sister / brother] . He’s (4)[ heavy / average ] and he has (5)[ blue / brown ] hair. His birthday is on October (6)[twelve / twelfth ] . </li></ul>
- 24. FUNCTIONS? What will you test?
- 25. WHAT IS A FUNCTION? <ul><li>The communicative purpose of the users of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>How language is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually expressed as gerunds: introducing, apologizing, asking directions, requesting </li></ul>
- 26. EXAMPLES OF A FUNCTIONAL CYCLE <ul><li>Function: Requesting </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Open the window, please. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Would you open the window? </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Could you please open the window? </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Would you mind opening the window? </li></ul><ul><li>(5) I was wondering if you would mind opening the window. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) I’d be grateful if you opened the window. </li></ul><ul><li>Each time the difference in register is emphasized. </li></ul>
- 27. Where can you find them in your textbook?
- 28. HOW TO TEST? COMPLETE THE CONVERSATION. <ul><li>Complete the conversation logically. Use the words in parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Miriam: Tell me about your new apartment. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary: (1)____________________(big / living room). </li></ul><ul><li>Miriam: (2)___________________(how / bedrooms)? </li></ul><ul><li>Mary: There are two, but (3)________(any furniture) </li></ul><ul><li>in one of them. </li></ul>Or: Miriam: Tell me about your new apartment. Mary: (1)_______________________(living room). Or: Miriam: Tell me about your new apartment. Mary: (1)________________________________.
- 29. Practice vs Testing In class practice During exam Goals Content Learner activity Teacher activity Class-room climate learning feedback on learning process oriented product oriented open ended close ended ss know material students might not know success-oriented success/failure oriented peer teaching no peer teaching helps performance gives tasks cooperative competitive relaxed tense intrinsic motivation extrinsic motivation
- 30. BALANCE <ul><li>Ideally an exam will balance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy and fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective and subjective sections </li></ul></ul>
- 31. ACCURACY AND FLUENCY <ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to produce written and / or spoken language with ease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate ideas effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to use vocabulary chunks (phrases) to facilitate communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to produce grammatically correct sentences </li></ul></ul>
- 32. PRODUCTION AND RECOGNITION <ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student writes more than one word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be creative / involves more “mental” work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one answer may be possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student recognizes correct answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one correct answer </li></ul></ul>
- 33. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SECTIONS <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is only one answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can correct the exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No surprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No argument from students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is more than one possible answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrector must be trained and experienced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There can be surprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can protest grading </li></ul></ul>
- 34. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 35. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 36. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 37. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 38. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 39. <ul><li>Grammar / Vocabulary / Functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or fluency? </li></ul><ul><li>Production or recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective or objective? </li></ul>
- 40. WHAT IS AN EXAM SECTION? <ul><li>A certain number of items testing the same skill / aspect </li></ul><ul><li>To be communicative, they should be written as a conversation, note, letter, or some “real” type of discourse </li></ul><ul><li>All items in a section should be worth the same number of points and test a similar skill (all grammar, all vocabulary, all functions, etc.) </li></ul>
- 41. FORMATS
- 42. MULTIPLE CHOICE <ul><li>Parts of question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YYYYYYYYY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZZZZZZZZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AAAAAAAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul></ul>Correct answer
- 43. STEMS <ul><li>1. Before writing, identify the one point to be tested by that item. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The stem should either be an incomplete statement or a direct question </li></ul><ul><li>3. Don’t include words that do not contribute to the basis for choosing among the options. For example, </li></ul><ul><li>The American flag has three colors. One of them is (1) red (2) green (3) black </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the colors of the American flag is (1) red (2) green (3) black </li></ul>Kehoe, Jerard. Writing Multiple-Choice Test Items. ERIC/AE Digest Series EDO-TM-95-3, October 1995. http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-1/test.html
- 44. <ul><li>4. Include as much information in the stem and as little in the options as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Restrict the use of negatives in the stem. Negatives in the stem usually require that the answer be a false statement. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Avoid irrelevant clues to the correct option. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical construction </li></ul>
- 45. OPTIONS (KEHOE) <ul><li>1. Use three or four options. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Construct distractors that are comparable in </li></ul><ul><li>length </li></ul><ul><li>complexity </li></ul><ul><li>grammatical form </li></ul><ul><li>3. After the options are written, vary the location of the answer randomly. </li></ul>
- 46. ORDERING MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS <ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. 1939 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. 1940 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. 1941 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. 1942 </li></ul></ul>Burton, Steven J. Richard R. Sudweeks, Paul F. Merrill, Bud Wood. How to Prepare Better Multiple-Choice Test Items: Guidelines for University Faculty , Brigham Young University Testing Services and The Department of Instructional Science. 1991. http://testing.byu.edu/info/handbooks/betteritems.pdf Sequential a. Heating ice from -100°C to 0°C. b. Melting ice at 0°C. c. Heating water from 0°C to 100°C. d. Evaporating water at 100°C. e. Heating steam from 100°C to 200°C. Sequential a. Heating ice from -100°C to 0°C . b. Melting ice at 0°C . c. Heating water from 0°C to 100°C. d. Evaporating water at 100°C . e. Heating steam from 100°C to 200°C. Alphabetical a. C hanging a from .01 to .05. b. D ecreasing the degrees of freedom. c. I ncreasing the spread of the exam scores. d. R educing the size of the treatment effect.
- 47. <ul><li>1. California: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Contains the tallest mountain in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>b. Has an eagle on its state flag. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Is the second largest state in terms of area. </li></ul><ul><li>*d. Was the location of the Gold Rush of 1849. </li></ul>
- 48. TRUE / FALSE <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Can test large amounts of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can answer 3-4 questions per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>They are easy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students have a 50-50 chance of getting the right answer by guessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is difficult to discriminate between students that know the material and students who don't </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need a large number of items for high reliability </li></ul>Designing Test Questions, Grayson H. Walker Teaching Resource Center, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, h ttp://www.utc.edu/Administration/WalkerTeachingResourceCenter/FacultyDevelopment/Assessment/test-questions.html
- 49. TIPS FOR WRITING GOOD TRUE/FALSE ITEMS <ul><li>Avoid double negatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid long/complex sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Use specific determinants with caution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>never, only, all, none, always, could, might, can, may, sometimes, generally, some, few. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use only one central idea in each item; don't emphasize the trivial. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't lift items straight from the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Make more false than true (60/40). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Students are more likely to answer true.) </li></ul></ul>
- 50. HOW TO “SAVE” A T/F SECTION… <ul><li>Add a third option </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Not mentioned” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Have student correct F answers </li></ul><ul><li>But only if students have practiced this version in the textbook </li></ul>
- 51. CLOZE-TYPE SECTIONS <ul><li>Write words or phrases from a box </li></ul><ul><li>Write the correct forms of verbs, comparatives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Even Complete the Conversation </li></ul>
- 52. TRUE CLOZE <ul><li>A cloze test is a special type of fill-in exercise where, for example, every 5th word in a paragraph of about 150 words is deleted. (It could be every 6th word, or every 7th word, and so on.) </li></ul>
- 53. BOXES <ul><li>In these sections, students are given a text with certain words omitted </li></ul><ul><li>The omitted words / phrases (and perhaps some distractors) are put in a box at the top or side of the text </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult if extra options are supplied </li></ul><ul><li>The student completes the “Cloze” exercise with the words presented </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with grammar, vocabulary or functions (chunks) </li></ul>
- 54. FILL IN THE BLANK <ul><li>A set of sentences or a text which has blanks in it for the students to complete with the correct or appropriate word. Example: He walked _____ school. </li></ul><ul><li>He ______ (walk) to school. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill-in-the blank exercises are a good way of reinforcing new grammar and vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called: fill-in the gap, fill-in </li></ul>
- 55. ORDERING: TEXT AND SENTENCE <ul><li>Writing a text in order (paragraph, story, conversation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates the student’s ability to recognize discourse cues (pronouns, connectors, chunks, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing a sentence in the correct order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates a students knowledge of syntax, which is considered part of grammar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cream / I / ice / like </li></ul></ul>
- 56. COMPLETE THE CONVERSATION <ul><li>These sections evaluate a student’s ability to communicate ideas if they are corrected for communication and not for accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be written with different degrees of cueing. </li></ul>Complete the conversation logically. Use the words in parentheses. Miriam: Tell me about your new apartment. Mary: (1)____________________(big / living room). Miriam: (2)___________________(how / bedrooms)? Mary: There are two, but (3)________(any furniture) in one of them.
- 57. POINT VALUES <ul><li>Give more points to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give fewer points to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give partial credit in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency / Production sections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use fractions only if your teachers are mathematical </li></ul>
- 58. INSTRUCTIONS <ul><li>Keep them simple </li></ul><ul><li>You can use Spanish in lower levels </li></ul><ul><li>You can translate them into Spanish whenever necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the same wording in all your exams </li></ul><ul><li>Use examples whenever necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But be careful they don’t give away the pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember: The instructions are NOT part of the exam… </li></ul>
- 59. CORRECTING COMMUNICATIVE SECTIONS
- 60. CORRECTING <ul><li>Grammar, Reading, Vocabulary, Listening </li></ul><ul><li>In general these sections are all right or all wrong . </li></ul><ul><li>We rarely give partial credit. </li></ul><ul><li>These sections test accuracy . </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative sections </li></ul><ul><li>You can give partial credit </li></ul><ul><li>These sections test fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself if the S’s answer communicates what the S wants to say . </li></ul>
- 61. EXAMPLES OF PARTIAL CREDIT <ul><li>Correct answer: What’s your name? </li></ul><ul><li>Student writes: What you name? </li></ul><ul><li>Correct answer: If you invited me, I’d go. </li></ul><ul><li>Student writes: If you invite me, I go. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct answer: I went to the movies yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>Student writes: I go to the movies yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li> I go to the movies. </li></ul>
- 62. IV. The clerk knows Cleopatra. Caesar asks the clerk about Cleo. Complete the conversation. Use the words in parentheses. ( 4 points, .5 each) Clerk : Yes, I know her. Julius : (1) _______________________________________ (work) ? Clerk : (2) ________________________________ ( palace downtown). Julius : (3) _______________________________________ ( do) ? Clerk : (4) ___________________________________ ( help people). Julius : (5) ___________________________________ ( close friend)? Clerk : Yes, (6) ____________________________________ (funny). Julius : (7) _______________________________________ ( sports)? Clerk : Yes, (8) ___________________________________ ( tennis ). Actual Student Responses on the worksheet
- 63. EXAMPLE 1 <ul><li>Clerk : Yes, I know her. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (1) Where does she works? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (2) She does work palace downtown . </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (3) Where do she does? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (4) She does help people. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (5) Where does she close friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (6) she does funny. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (7) Where does she lift sports ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (8) she does play tennis. </li></ul>
- 64. EXAMPLE 2 <ul><li>Clerk : Yes, I know her. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (1) You do? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (2) I’m work in the palace downtown . </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (3) What do you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (4) I’m help help people. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (5) How you close friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (6) they are funny </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (7) ar you play sports ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (8) I’m play. </li></ul>
- 65. EXAMPLE 3 <ul><li> Clerk : Yes, I know her. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (1) Where does she work? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (2) She work at the palace downtown . </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (3) What does she does? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (4) She helps people. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (5) Does she have a close friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (6) she does. She’s very funny.. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (7) Does she like sports ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (8) she play tennis. </li></ul>
- 66. EXAMPLE 4 <ul><li> Clerk : Yes, I know her. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (1) What does she works? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (2) She works in palace downtown . </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (3) What does she do? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : (4) Work with help people. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (5) Are you close friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (6) she is funny. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius : (7) Are you practice sports ? </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk : Yes, (8) she plays tennis. </li></ul>
- 67. SPEAKING <ul><li>Fluency: “concerns the learner’s capacity to produce language in real time without undue pausing or hesitation.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy: “how well language is produced in relation to the rule system of the target language.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student needs preparation time </li></ul></ul>Peter Skehan, “Second language acquisition research and task-based instruction”, Challenge and Change in Language Teaching, J. Willis and D. Willis, ed. Heinemann, 1996. P. 22.
- 68. THE TEACHING SITUATION <ul><li>Private, multi-level (high school, university, post-grad) university in Mexico (17 campuses throughout country) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional EFL programs </li></ul><ul><li>Total 35,000+ students </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of 25-30 in language lab </li></ul><ul><li>Native and non-native teachers with varying abilities and experience </li></ul>
- 69. GRADING <ul><li>Objective grading required as much as possible (by government, school and parents) </li></ul><ul><li>Each course: 2 written exams in classroom (functions, structures, vocabulary, reading, writing); 2 exams in lab (listening comprehension and oral production) </li></ul>
- 70. ORAL EXAM <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Role play </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutes+ preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Perform for teacher </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 minutes maximum </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Role play with teacher and another student </li></ul><ul><li>No preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Cues only </li></ul>
- 71. ORAL EXAM ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Students (pairs) given role cards as they enter classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Told to prepare—when finish exam, can leave </li></ul><ul><li>Can use any reference or ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Come to the front of the class, talk only to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Perform </li></ul><ul><li>Either stay together or separate for second role-play </li></ul>
- 72. 5 POINT SCALE <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---Little or no language produced. </li></ul><ul><li>2 --Poor vocabulary, serious mistakes in grammar, poor pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>3 --Adequate vocabulary, mistakes in grammar, adequate pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>4 --Good vocabulary, occasional errors in grammar, good pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>5 --Wide vocabulary, very few errors in grammar, very good pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---Little or no communication. </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---Very hesitant and brief utterances, sometimes difficult to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---Communicates ideas, but hesitantly and briefly </li></ul><ul><li>4 ---Effective communication, but does not elaborate on response. </li></ul><ul><li>5 ---Easy and efficient communication. Elaborates on responses. </li></ul>
- 73. Student A: Imagine you are at a meeting and not in an exam. All of your classmates are at the meeting too. Your partner doesn’t know anyone. Tell him who the people are. Student B: Imagine you are at a meeting and not in an exam. All of your classmates are at the meeting too. You don’t know anyone. Ask your partner who the people are. Student A: Tell your partner about an accident you or some member of your family had. When he/she tells you, ask some intelligent questions or make relevant comments. Student B: Tell your partner about an accident you or some member of your family had. When he/she tells you, ask some intelligent questions or make relevant comments. Student A: You are making a survey about what people think they will be able to do with telecommunications in twenty years. Ask your partner at least three questions about the topic. Student B: Your partner is making a survey. Answer his/her questions.
- 74. <ul><li>II. Roleplay with the teacher. Use to grade fluency. (5 points) (Do not show these questions to the Ss. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep students together. Ask them what they plan to do when they finish school. Then ask them to tell you the pros and cons of that job. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate students for a moment. You are going to give one student a message for the other student. For example, ask Student A to tell Student B you are going to meet him/her after class. Then have the student pass on the message. Make the messages a little bit complicated. When you finish, give Student B messages for Student A. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Separate students. Tell student to imagine his girlfriend / her boyfriend is angry. Ask him / her what he / she will do. Then ask a “what if” question: What if he doesn’t believe you? What if he goes out with someone else?, etc. </li></ul>
- 75. <ul><li>II. Oral Exam (10 points) </li></ul><ul><li>Role Play 1: 5 4 3 2 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Role Play 2: 5 4 3 2 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Oral points: ___/10 </li></ul>Part I is the listening comprehension exam. It is on the same page.
- 77. THANK YOU VERY MUCH <ul><li>JoAnn Miller </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] / [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.efltasks.net </li></ul>

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