Use of fillers/hesitation devicesusing filling words or gambits to fill pauses and to gain time to think (e.g., well, now let me see, as a matter of fact).
Word‑coinage- creating a non-existing L2 word based on a supposed rule (e.g., vegetarianistfor vegetarian).Code switching- using a L1 word with L1 pronunciation or a L3 word with L3 pronunciation in L2.Literal translation-translating literally a lexical item, an idiom, a compound word or structure from L1 to L2.Foreignizing-using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonologically (i.e., with a L2 pronunciation) and/or morphologically (e.g., adding to it a L2 suffix).
Use of nonlinguistic means- mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation.Literal translation-translating literally a lexical item, an idiom, a compound word or structure from L1 to L2.Foreignizing-using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonologically (i.e., with a L2 pronunciation) and/or morphologically (e.g., adding to it a L2 suffix).Code switching- using a L1 word with L1 pronunciation or a L3 word with L3 pronunciation in L2.
using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible (e.g., ship for sail boat).
extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking (e.g., the use of thing, stuff, make, do, as well as using words like thingie, what‑do‑you‑call‑it.
Appeal for help‑turning to the conversation partner for help either directly - e.g., What do you call ... - or indirectly, e.g., rising intonation, pause, eye contact, puzzled expression.Appeal for help‑turning to the conversation partner for help either directly - e.g., What do you call ... - or indirectly, e.g., rising intonation, pause, eye contact, puzzled expression.
- describing or exemplifying the target object or action (e.g., the thing you open bottles with for corkscrew).
1. Getting the message across: Communication strategies<br />JoAnn Miller, Macmillan Publishers<br />www.efltasks.net<br />firstname.lastname@example.org <br />
2. A communication strategy is a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his [or her] meaning when faced with some difficulty.<br />
3. What is it??<br />Be specific.<br />
5. Communication Strategies<br />Zoltan Dornyei<br />Reductive Strategies<br />Stalling or Time‑gaining Strategies<br />Compensatory Strategies<br />Dornyei, Zoltan. "On the teaching of communication strategies." TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 29, No. 1. Spring 1995. pp. 55‑85.<br />
15. Fill in: things / stuff<br />________<br />________<br />How many ways can you say thing / stuff?<br />things<br />whatyamacallit<br />doohicky<br />thingamabob<br />gizmo<br />doodad<br />stuff<br />
16. Compensatory Strategies: Appeal for help<br />
17. How can you ask for help?<br />This is hard to explain.<br />Can you help me?<br />I don’t think I’m explaining myself…<br />I don’t know how to say….<br />What’s the difference between ….?<br />Am I making myself clear?<br />
18. Compensatory Strategies: Circumlocution<br />
19. Imagine you are in a hardware store and you need to buy these tools ¿How will you ask for them if you don’t know what they are called?<br />It’s something you use to….. / You use it to….<br />
20. How would you ask for these shoes in a shoestore?<br />I need some new shoes to …..<br />
21. How to find out the meaning without translating<br />Draw a picture on paper or in the air<br />“It’s something / It’s a thing you use to…” , “You use it for…”<br />Give an example.<br />Use synonyms or antonyms<br />Use mime or sound imitation.<br />
22. These are the basic tools a good home workshop needs:<br />Hammer. Medium weight is best for children. Be sure to get a claw which will pull nails.<br />Try Square. One of the most important tools‑for marking wood so that it can be cut square across at right angles to the length.<br />Crosscut Saw. Try to find a panel saw, measuring 20 to 24 inches. It is used primarily for cutting across the grain of the wood.<br />Vise. A portable vise is desirable, but may be both expensive and hard to get. An excellent substitute is a pair of C‑clamps with a 5‑inch opening.<br />Screw Drivers. Those from the five‑and‑ten are good. Get two or three sizes.<br />Pliers. Pick a pair with points which close tight.<br />Coping Saw. Used for small work, such as cutting out animal figures, and curves. Get one with a deep throat to allow for turning. Keep a good supply of #10 blades on hand.<br />Plane. A block plane is small and easy for children to handle. Blades canbe bought separately. Remember to get the best in edged tools.<br />The eight tools described thus far are essentials, arranged roughly in order of importance. As you work, you will need others which may be added gradually. Of the boring tools, the easiest to manage is the bradawl. A good drillstock (cheap ones do not hold the drill securely) with half a dozen assorted drills for either wood or metal will be needed eventually. also a bitstock and bits for holes over 1/8 inch. A half‑round file is inexpensive and useful. Sandpaper, while not classed as a tool. is a necessity. Keep a supply of #1 and #1/2 on hand.<br />As square sawing is one of the most difficult things for children to learn, you may wish to add a good wide miter box to your workshop. Wooden ones cost around a dollar, metal ones about three. Any device to insure square sawing is worth the money.<br />
23. Procedure<br />Skim the text and underline words you don’t understand<br />Call out unknown words and teacher writes 10 or so on the board XXX<br />Find out what the words mean from each other without relying on translation. <br />Have students explain what the words mean to the whole group…using the strategies<br />
24. Noticing<br />if learners pay attention to the form and meaning of certain language structures in input, this will contribute to the internalization of the rule<br />(Batstone, 1996)<br />
25. Noticing Language<br />How do we l learn new lexis in our native language?<br />Encourage students to NOTICE language<br />“involves the intake both of meaning and form, and it takes time for learners to progress from initial recognition to the point where they can internalize the underlying [form].”<br />Rob Blastone, Key Concepts in ELT: Noticing. ELT Journal 50(3) 273. 1996.<br />
26. How?<br />Noticing guided by the teacher <br />Explicit (text items highlighted)<br />Implicit (teacher reformulates)<br />Self-directed<br />Carlos Islam, Ivor Timmis. Lexical Approach 1—What does the lexical approach look like? BBC/British Council teaching English, www.teachingenglish.org.ok/think .<br />
27. Language Awareness<br />Paying deliberate attention can help Ss notice the gap between their performance and that of native speakers<br />Can give salience to a feature…more noticeable later<br />Main objective=help learners notice for themselves how language is used.<br />Carlos Islam, Ivor Timmis. Lexical Approach 1—What does the lexical approach look like? BBC/British Council teaching English, www.teachingenglish.org.ok/think .<br />
34. How to teach Communicative Strategies (CS)(Dörnyei, 58)<br />Raise learner awareness about the nature and communicative potential of CS's<br />Provide L2 models of the use of some CS's‑videos, examples<br />Highlight cross‑cultural differences uh / este<br />Teach Communication Strategies directly.<br />Provide opportunities for practice in strategy use.<br />Encourage students to be willing to take risks and use them<br />
35. But it isn’t just the students’ responsibility...<br />What can a teacher do to help?<br />
36. Teacher – Student Interaction<br /><ul><li>Ask questions rather than giving explanations
37. When you want students to discuss something, ask “open” questions (e.g., where, what, who, why, how, when) rather than “closed” questions (e.g., verb-subject questions).</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
38. Teacher – Student Interaction<br /><ul><li>Allow time for students to listen, think, process their answer and speak.
39. Allow talking time without talking over it.
40. Allow silence.
41. Really listen to what they say. Let what they say really affect what you do next.
42. Work on listening to the person, and the meaning, as well as to the language and the mistakes.</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
52. Plan them well so that you don’t confuse the students. They probably understand what you are saying from a few key words anyway.</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
53. Student / Student Interaction<br /><ul><li>Make use of pairs and small groups to maximize opportunities for students to speak.
54. If possible, arrange seating so that students can all see each other and talk to each other(i. e., circles, squares and horseshoes rather than parallel rows.)
55. Remember that the teacher doesn’t always need to be at the front of the class.
56. Try out seating arrangements that allow the whole class to be the focus</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
57. Student / Student Interaction<br /><ul><li>Encourage interaction between students rather than only between student and teacher and teacher and student.
58. Get students to ask questions, give explanations, etc. to each other rather than always to you.
59. Use gestures and facial expressions to encourage them to speak and listen to each other.</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
60. Student / Student Interaction<br /><ul><li>Encourage co-operation rather than competition; you may want to encourage students to copy ideas from others or “cheat”--we learn from others and from working through our own mistakes.
61. Teachers can concentrate more on the process of learning than simply on a plunge towards the “right answers”. The result of a learning exercise becomes less important than the getting there.</li></ul>Revised from Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 1994. p. 21-23<br />
62. Take time to look around….there are a number of downloadable and online activities for all levels<br />Handout available at: www.efltasks.net<br />
64. Thank you very much<br />email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org<br />Copies of the handout are available at:<br />www.efltasks.net(Presentations)<br />You can consult the presentation at<br />www.slideshare.net/jabbusch<br />