Od Aki


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Od Aki

  2. 2. Concept of Organization Development <ul><li>OD is a process of planed change </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at enhancing congruence between organization, structure, strategy people & culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to develop creative solutions & self renewing capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>OD is a long term effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Led & supported by top management. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Concept of Organization Development <ul><li>Visionary process- </li></ul><ul><li>Future of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment process- </li></ul><ul><li>Towards leadership behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Learning process- </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting, listening, self examining </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving process- </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying cause </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing collaborative management of organization’s culture – </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the involvement. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concept of Organization Development <ul><li>Intact work team configuration- </li></ul><ul><li>Effective performance & high job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing consultant facilitator role- </li></ul><ul><li>Professional OD practitioner. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory & technology of applied behavioral science- </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding & predicting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Action research- </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratively problem solving </li></ul>
  5. 5. Approaches to OD <ul><li>Laboratory training ( sensitivity training) </li></ul><ul><li>T- groups </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 10-16 participants along with 1-2 trainers. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are strangers to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting once or twice a day 1 hr. without any fixed agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly interactions starts through role plays, situations, cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers job is to observe & give feedback to the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer act as a change agent- ( should avoid criticism ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted away from the job </li></ul><ul><li>Changed perception after the training program </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives of sensitivity programs <ul><li>According to Strauss & Sayles </li></ul><ul><li>To give more self awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Insights into group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>To Improve interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>To develop collaborative relationship </li></ul><ul><li>To bring improvement in organizational functioning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. T group-Constitution <ul><li>Cousin t-group – </li></ul><ul><li>Includes people working in the same organization who may not know each other. Ex Different departments, plants etc </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster-t group – </li></ul><ul><li>People from the same organization, sharing direct working group relationship with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Family-t group – </li></ul><ul><li>Members of an intact work team </li></ul><ul><li>Stranger-t group- </li></ul><ul><li>People belonging to different organizations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Approaches to OD <ul><li>Survey research & feedback </li></ul><ul><li>People comprising a unit of analysis such as work groups, departments or organization are surveyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion is collected & forwarded to the designer of the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of problem is identified </li></ul><ul><li>External consultant is hired for survey to get unbaised feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective in implementation of changes in the organization, strategic shifts in structure, policies etc </li></ul>
  9. 9. Survey feedback
  10. 10. Approaches to OD <ul><li>Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of following steps </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of data </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback about the data </li></ul><ul><li>Development of action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Versions of Action research </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic- Root cause </li></ul><ul><li>Participant- participants are involved in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical – Based on observation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental - Based on experiments </li></ul>
  11. 11. Approaches to OD <ul><li>Tavistock Sociotechnical & Socioclinical Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at helping groups & organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Set up in London in 1920 by Dr. Crichton- Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer in providing psychological treatment to emotionally disturbed individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Northfield experiment –Every soldier had to be a member of group. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided insight in human behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nature of Organizational development <ul><li>OD is an interactive ongoing program </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced based & emphasizes goal setting & planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of series of actions & reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Effective feedback loop to monitor the reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness for change </li></ul><ul><li>Effective solution to problem </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the efficiency </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nature of Organizational development <ul><li>OD is a form of applied behavioral science </li></ul><ul><li>Applies psychological, sociological, social anthropological concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>OD as a normative re-educative strategy of change </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at improving effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to change beliefs that hinder them from becoming more productive. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Strategies for bringing change <ul><li>Introduced by R. Chin & K. Benne </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical rational </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that people are rational in their behavior & are interested to adopt changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Normative re-educative strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Change can be brought about by re-educating so that they give up old norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Power-Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Change through power </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implication of normative re-educative strategies <ul><li>Client suggests the desired improvement & change </li></ul><ul><li>The change agent & the agent defines problem , develop solutions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. System perspective towards OD <ul><li>Emphasizes on interrelatedness, connectedness, Interdependence & their interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic picture can be viewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail evaluation of recent events & forces to implement the change in the system. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data based approach to planned change <ul><li>Emphasize on data </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity of employees with the methods of data collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding strengths & weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to identify individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of functional/ dysfunctional data. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are taken on the basis of facts </li></ul>
  18. 18. Approaches to OD <ul><li>OD is experienced based. </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement in the learning through experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions based on the experience are asked. </li></ul><ul><li>OD emphasizes goal setting & planning </li></ul><ul><li>Structured learning activities to improve goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, specific & measurable, realistic goals. </li></ul><ul><li>MBO </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting - Action plan - Decision towards achieving goal </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on intact work team </li></ul><ul><li>Better results than strange groups </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the relationships, processes, & task performance </li></ul>
  19. 19. OD Process <ul><li>Diagnosis of system & problem identification </li></ul><ul><li>Critical evaluation of results </li></ul><ul><li>Solution to problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying new issues & preparing action plan </li></ul>
  20. 20. Component of OD process <ul><li>Diagnostic component </li></ul><ul><li>Action or intervention component. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying learning aspect/ action aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Learning followed by action </li></ul><ul><li>Action followed by learning ( Deficiency model) </li></ul><ul><li>Action taken are directed towards achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Action or intervention component </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective action for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Process maintenance component. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on managing the conflict during implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the success of OD program </li></ul>
  21. 21. Client-Consultant relationship <ul><li>Entry & contracting </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary discussion with executives </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion on important matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing on terms </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological or financial contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the client system </li></ul><ul><li>Views entire organization as client </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant becomes Interested in improving effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust between client & consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Information should be kept confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding about good guy- bad guy syndrome </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Nature of the client’s expertise </li></ul><ul><li>A consultant should give the client the range of options to choose. </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant should play the role of facilitator—educator instead of content expert </li></ul><ul><li>Proper diagnosis & use of appropriate interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Careful application of consultants expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the depth of the intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Depends upon the knowledge passed on by the consultant on various conceptual models. </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on effective & lasting solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul>Client-Consultant relationship
  23. 23. Client-Consultant relationship <ul><li>Risk of being influenced by the clients organization culture </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants involvement in some dysfunctional characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquaintance to the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of the consultant to be a model </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant should give constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Should be able to convey right meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Should be supportive & encouraging </li></ul>
  24. 24. Client-Consultant relationship <ul><li>Consultant team as a microcosm (representation) </li></ul><ul><li>Should project the team as a cohesive & effective unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be able to build credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of the team reflects the quality of diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Action research & OD process </li></ul><ul><li>Use of feedback-Loop in the various interventions & stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of questionnaires & interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency & termination of contract </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive dependency on consultant & decision of termination </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant should play the role of facilitator </li></ul>
  25. 25. Client-Consultant relationship <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas in OD consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of data by consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Forcing for sensitive information </li></ul><ul><li>Falls information about the expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Falls promises </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion of the data </li></ul><ul><li>Implementations of OD for the client </li></ul><ul><li>Better understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Resolves conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Develop expertise & knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Aligns the informal organizations with formal </li></ul><ul><li>Brings overall effectiveness </li></ul>