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Detdialogiskeprincip Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Det dialogiske princip
  • 2. Problemstillinger ved digitalkommunikationHvad er analyseenheden?- Traditionelt foretages analyser af afgrænsede sites- chat, communities/fora, blogs, Facebook, Twitter somanalyseenhedHvordan afgrænser og analyserer man kommunikation inetværk?Hvad er et netværk, og hvordan afgrænses det?- linje, forgrening, start/slut?Hvem er modtager?Hvem er afsender?
  • 3. Traditionel kommunikationsforståelseAfsender -> ModtagerBudskab -> Forståelse/Reception ”Language is regarded from the speaker’s standpoint as if there were only one speaker who does not have any necessaryrelation to other participants in speech communication. If the role of the other is taken into account at all, it is the role of a listener, who understands the speaker only passively.” (Bakhtin 1986, s. 67)
  • 4. Ytringer som analyseenhedFokus væk fra afsenderen og modtageren – i stedet på selve ytringen; det derkommunikeresFokus væk fra ordet og sætningen – i stedet på den meningskonstruerende enhed,ytringen "The utterance as a real unit of speech communion" (s. 67)Ytringen er meningskonstruerende, idet der kan svares på den – det adskiller den fraarbitrære sætninger og ordEn ytring kan være alt fra en sætning til en hel bog – eller en hjemmeside "the boundaries of each concrete utterance as a unit of speech communication are determined by a change in speaking subjects, that is, a change of speakers" (s.71) "Any utterance – from a short (single-word) rejoinder in everyday dialogue to the largenovel or scientific treatise – has, so to speak, an absolute beginning and an absolute end: its beginning is preceded by the utterances of others, and its end is followed by the responsive utterances of others..."
  • 5. Dialog vs. traditioneltkommunikationsbegrebModtager vs. Dialogisk læsningAfsender vs. Dialogisk ytring=> Dialogisk kommunikation
  • 6. Dialogisk læsningNår vi læser, indgår vi i dialogVi fortolker ikke teksterVi stiller spørgsmål til og besvarer tekster ”Meaning always responds to particular questions. Anything that doesnot respond to something seems meaningless to us; it is removed from dialogue.” (s. 145) ”The fact is that when the listener perceives and understands the meaning (the language meaning) of speech, he simultaneously takes an active, responsive attitude toward it. He either agrees or disagrees with it [...], augments it, applies it, prepares for its execution, and so on.” (s. 68)
  • 7. Dialogisk ytringEnhver ytring indgår i dialog med andre ytringer og er en reaktion på tidligere ytringerDer eksisterer et dialogisk element i alle ytringerKommunikation/dialog har en åben og ufærdig karakterDer er ikke tale om afsender/budskab og modtager/forståelseDer er tale om løbende dialoger ”Moreover, any speaker is himself a respondent to a greater or lesser degree. He is not, after all, the first speaker, the one who disturbs the eternal silence of the universe.” (s. 69) ”Even past meanings, that is, those born in the dialogue of past centuries, can never be stable (finalized, ended once and for all) - they will always change (be renewed) in the process of subsequent, future development of the dialogue.” (s. 170) ”However monological the utterance may be [...], however much it may concentrate on its own object, it cannot but be, in some measure, a response to what has already been said about the given topic [...]” (s. 92)
  • 8. Dialogisk kommunikationDialog finder sted mellem ytringer - ikke mellem individerYtringer defineres i relation til andre ytringer - både forud og bagudEn ytring vil altid indgå i dialog med tidligere ytringerEn ytring vil altid kalde på dialog med fremtidige ytringer ”Any utterance is a link in a very complexly organized chain of other utterances.” (s. 69) "Sooner or later what is heard and actively understood will find its response in the subsequent speech or behaviour of the listener" (s.69) ”The utterance proves to be a very complex and multiplanar phenomenon if considered not in isolation and with respect to its author (the speaker) only, but as a link in the chain of speech communication and with respect to other, related utterances [...]” (s. 93) ”But from the very beginning, the utterance is constructed while taking into account possible responsive reactions [...]” (s. 94)
  • 9. Eksempler1) Hjemmeside2) Community/forum3) Netværk
  • 10. Analyse af dialog i forumDysthe, O. (2002). The Learning Potential of a Web-mediated Discussion in a University Course, Studies in HigherEducation, 27: 3, 339 — 352.
  • 11. Kony-eksempel!/search/%23kony2012
  • 12. Hvad kan det dialogiske princip irelation til digital kommunikation?Opgør med● afsender/modtager-skelnen● afgrænsning af kommunikationsenheder● lineær og "progressiv" kommunikation/dialogEn metode til analyse af netværkskommunikation