UITP Asia-Pacific Assembly 2009
Hong Kong & Taipei, Taiwan
(March 09-13, 2009)
Octopus Card System .................................................................................................................................... 3
MTR Corporation .......................................................................................................................................... 7
KMB Company Ltd......................................................................................................................................... 9
Ticketing Centre of TRTC ............................................................................................................................. 11
Traffic Surveillance System - Control Management Centre (CMC)............................................................. 13
Taipei BRT System ....................................................................................................................................... 16
Easy Card Corporation ................................................................................................................................ 18
Youth Parliament – Taipei ........................................................................................................................... 20
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan ............................................................................................................................... 21
Octopus Card System
1. Persons – Contact Details
Sammy Kam, Technical Director, Octopus Cards Ltd.
Antony Morris, Head of Corporate Development, Octopus Cards Ltd.
The Octopus card is a rechargeable contactless stored value smart card used to transfer electronic
payments in online or offline systems in Hong Kong. Launched in September 1997 to collect fares for the
territory's mass transit system, the Octopus card system is the first contactless smart card system in the
world and has since grown into a widely used payment system for virtually all public transport in Hong
Kong. This is the single card used by all the operators, including Rail and Mini Bus Operators (8,000
The Octopus is also used for payment at convenience stores, supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, on-
street parking meters, car parks, and other point-of-sale applications such as service stations and
3. Types of Cards
Type Picture/Colour Cost and use
Children aged between 3 and 11. This card is sold for HK$70 with an initial
value of HK$20. Children's fares are deducted where applicable.
For students attending secondary schools and universities. Discontinued
in 2005 and replaced by Personalised Octopus Card.
The standard version of the Octopus card. This card is sold for HK$150
Adult with an initial value of HK$100. This colour is also used for the logo of
Octopus Cards Limited, the operator.
Eligibility varies between different public transport companies, and even
between operating routes of the same type of service—for example, 60
Elder years of age or above for Citybus, 65 for KMB. If no elder fares are
available, adult fares are deducted. This card is sold for HK$70 with an
initial value of HK$20.
The rainbow-coloured Personalised card is available on registration. This
card is sold for HK$100 with an initial value of HK$30 and a handling
charge of HK$20. Students may also qualify for this card at HK$90 with
their pictures and names.
4. Bus System
There are three types of Bus available in Hong Kong, operated by a multitude of companies. Double-
decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used, with single-
decker buses remaining in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower carrying capacity.
Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1 am.
Public light buses run the length and breadth of Hong Kong, through areas where standard bus lines
cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly. Van-sized public light buses carry a
maximum of 16 passengers (seats only) and come in two varieties, namely red minibuses and green
minibuses (also called maxi cabs); Route numbering is independent in six regions: bus on Hong Kong
Island/ in Kowloon and in New Territories/ on Lantau Island, green minibus on Hong Kong Island/ in
Kowloon/ in New Territories and several exceptional auxiliary buses route (red minibuses do not have a
route number). This leads to duplication of routes in different regions.
4.1. Bus services have a long history in Hong Kong. In 2005, five companies operate franchised public
bus services. Franchised in Hong Kong is route bound. Earlier, it was on Area bound. Govt.
transport policy is not favorable for the bus franchised. These are the five franchised bus
companies in Hong Kong:
4.1.1. Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited - Mainly provide service in Kowloon and New
Territories, operating total 402 routes, some of them are cross-harbour routes, and operates
more than 4,400 buses.
4.1.2. Citybus Limited - Mainly provide service on Hong Kong Island, operating 154 routes, 72 of them
are on the Hong Kong Island, 32 of them are North-Lantau and Airport routes, 50 of the route
are cross-harbour routes. Other than those, Citybus have routes B3, B3A and B3X to shuttle
between Tuen Mun and Shenzhen Bay Port; and operates more than 2,000 buses.
4.1.3. Long Win Bus Company Limited - Mainly service Tung Chung, Disneyland Resort and routes
shuttle between Airport and New Territories;
4.1.4. New World First Bus Services Limited - Mainly provide service on Hong Kong Island;
4.1.5. New Lantao Bus Company (1973) Limited - Mainly provide service on Lantau Island, operating a
total of 20 routes.
There are also a variety of non-franchised public buses services, including feeder bus services to railway
stations operated by the railway companies, and residents' services for residential estates (particularly
those in the New Territories). Green Mini Bus (16 Seaters) – 8,000 buses (Green – Fixed route, fixed
frequency and Red – No fixed route and frequency)
5. Octopus System – Shareholding Patterns
MTR has setup a separate company to operate the Octopus system where each parties owns stake in
the company. The key rationale was to design a system for low cost of operation and create trust and
understanding between different operators. It was aimed to create one system for all the companies.
- MTR – 77%
- KCR – 22% (is now part of MTR only)
- KMB and other Bus Operators – 03%
6. Octopus System - Objectives
Trust b/w entities
Compete on services not on fare collection system (can offer different fare and launch
7. Card Technology
It was originally conceived as Transport card and now it is a community card (parking / Retail).
There is no separate purse for each operator. Octopus has common purse & all transaction are
settled at the back-end. Past 10 transactions are stored on the card.
The system offers discount on the inter-modal transfer.
Octopus control the card format, the central business rule, the data, the common purse and 10
Octopus issued 3 million cards in first 3 months. Currently, there are 18 million octopus cards in
Octopus system is based on Sydney experience. Octopus cards are not personalized but it can be
done for Student cards, MTR employees’ card.
Earlier, they were using 1K card. Now, they are using 4K Sony FeliCa Card. They have installed
the Universal Reader, which can read all types of card.
All operators pay octopus for transaction basis as system charges. Operator pays to the agent to
sell and top-up the cards.
CSUT (Common Store Value Ticket) was scrapped after the introduction of Octopus Card.
Thales is supplying equipments for the new railway line (separate from the old system).
The cost of the system is low which encourage people to install the system. If you have common
platform then you can do the transport planning. For example, during SARS, the Government
used the octopus data to stop the spread the diseases.
MTR gives 10% discount on all cards except single journey card. MTR don’t want to install too
many vending machines. Thus, they prefer to have cards for multi journey card. The Card
deposit (refundable) is HK$50.
8. Legacy system
If the legacy system exists, then there are two ways:
- Change way to expand system
- Separate the front end system from the back end operation
Equipment is the interface issue (technical specifications are very critical)
9. Commission to 7/11 stores – it helps to bring customer to the retail shop. Octopus does not pay
anything to 7/11 as it help to bring new customer. The commuters can add value in the card from
10. Retail – System integration charges 2-3%. Once, you load retail payment on the card the system will
11. Octopus – International footprint
Holland (country wide) - Octopus is currently offering technology support for the system to the
Netherland. Back end system is supplied by Octopus. The octopus wants to be the supplier not
to be the consultant, but provide support to draft the tender.
1. Topics covered – MTR Rail and Bus Operation; Fare Collection System
2. About MTR
MTR is a company listed on the Hong Kong Exchange and included
in the Hang Seng Index. It is the company that owns and runs the
MTR metro system. It also invests and builds railways in different
parts in the world. In December 2006 – MTR is merged with KCR.
MTR has 4 core values which are known as 4 diamonds.
MTR carries 4.0 million passengers a day (the most dense rail
system). Trains make around 5,000 trips a day. In the morning,
there are 5 layers of people at the station. Any minor hiccup (2 mins delay) will hits the national
headlines. MTR needs to offer the perfect service. Currently, the company is offering services at the
efficiency and punctuality of 99.9%. MTR Light Rail System is based on Melbourne Tram System.
MTR do activities like “Most Cheerful Station Staff Election”
3. Global Positioning System
Hong Kong is the dense area. The signal lost due to high-buildings. The Bus companies like KMB /
City Bus has failed to implement the system.
4. MTR Railways Operations
Separate Operation Company was setup to manage the operation.
Operational Planning Unit has two key divisions:
- Engineering – also responsible for maintenance of stair cases, lifts, AFCS Gates etc.
5. Commercial Shops – Stations
MTR has setup different commercial shops in the station areas like Laundry and Cake Shop – (it is a
custom in the Hong Kong to gift cake)
6. Feeder Buses
It is operating 143 feeder buses and holds the right to provide bus service in the North West area.
MTR uses feeder service is also used in case of disturbance of rail system. Buses are mainly operates
in Morning and night (when rail services are not working). Single man operation – Driver manage
other operation also. MTR is using DENNIS Trident Enviro 500 (Euro IV) buses. MTR bus System –
Connection between two rail station is offered free of cost.
In case of conductor less buses, MTR installed CCTV cameras for bus reversing / boarding / alighting.
MTR ply buses in early morning & late evening. Drivers can leave & go in hours between. Daily
service hours span for 19 hrs and it maintains minimum headway of 4 mins. Drivers attend classes in
At the start of the shift, the driver needs to select the route. Some sections are fixed and others are
stage fare. Driver need to manually charge the setting (in the fare collection system). Ticketing
Inspector to oversee that passenger pays the correct fare. Buses transfer fare data to Depot
computers. At the interchange, the commuter needs to pay the higher one between two modes, e.g.
Rail - Bus (higher of the two). The system prohibits the back journey.
7. Indirect Subsidy
Fuel tax (100%) is exempt on all public transport buses (only franchised buses). Policy initiatives to
promote public transport investment. Also, franchised buses don’t need to pay registration tax (15%
of total vehicle cost). If the bus is sold to other operator in the later year, the buyer needs to refund
the whole tax amount to the govt., i.e. 15% of the total value. Bus life is around 17 years in Hong
KMB Company Ltd.
1. About KMB
KMB is operating around 4,400 buses. It has 8 depots,
including new bus depot at West Kowloon. KMB has built
Multi-story depots which also has separate space for Office.
The largest bus depot is located at Kowloon Bay (3 story),
which has a capacity to park 800 buses. Waste water system
is installed at all depots.
It has develop its own IT system including – Schedule, Time
Tables, Routes etc. It has setup Customer Care Hotline and
attends around 0.5 million call every month. KMB Website has 5 million hits per day.
2. Driver Training
It has its own Driver training school. Driver training is conducted in Chinese.
All buses are air-conditioned and manufacture by UK based company. Approx cost per bus is HK$3.0
million. Chinese buses are not as good as British buses. KMB import buses mainly from U.K.
4. Control Room
KMB does not have Centralised Control Center. It has setup the
small – small operational control center. KMB is working to install
GPS system for last 5 years. Due to high rise building, they can’t
able to get any benefit out of it. IPSID – LED Boards display the
departure time of the bus. It is operated manually.
KMB has fixed the frequency. It is not possible to adhere to the schedule. It is not possible due to
traffic condition. Operation is the key backbone.
6. Revenue and Fare
KMB is the private company and only income is fare and advertising revenue. Fare is decided by the
Transport Department – Transport Advisory Authority (TAC). The operator applied for 5% hike in the
last year but only got 4.5%.
7. New Routes – Bidding System
If the new routes are introduced the operator applied to get the franchise. If the government want
to introduce the new routes, the government float the tender and the operator need to give details
like no. of buses, types of buses, frequency, number of passenger, etc. The franchised for 10 years.
It the operator wants to change the frequency, they need to apply to the government.
Ticketing Centre of TRTC
1. Ticketing Center Unit (TCU)
Ticketing center unit provide maintenance and support to the Taipei Metropolitan Rapid Transit
(TRTC) AFCS System. TRTC started the whole idea and started the operation.
2. Organization Structure
Total number of employees 125
3. Role of TCU
Most of the staff in Easy Card Corporation was from TRTC,
including the board of directors. Now, ECC has independent
directors and management.
Ticketing unit basic role is the calculation of service charges,
contract management, hardware procurement, audit daily data,
and overall maintenance of data collecting system and AFC
4. Card Technology
Easy Card (Taipei Metro) is using Mifare 1K Card. ECC is planning to shift to Sony FeliCa or Desfire.
Easy Card can be used for Parking, Taxi, Bus, Metro and Retail stores. Maximum value on Easy Card
can be stored upto NTD$10,000.
Integrating the Transportation card with other retail and consumption system like credit card/stores
helps to increase the circulation.
In case the commuters want to return the new card back to TRTC. The commuter will need to pay
the penalty of NTD$20 if he has not completed atleast 5 transactions.
Metro Taipei holds 28% in Easy Card Corporation.
6. Inter-Modal Fare Discount
Taipei Metro has introduced two-way fare discount. Taipei Metro budgets all discount under the
marketing budget since 2001.
- Metro to Bus
- Bus to Metro
Traffic Surveillance System - Control Management Centre (CMC)
Taipei City Government established an Incident Detecting Control System in
order to increase the Traffic safety. FM Channel air the news of Traffic Jams /
Accident / Congestion.
Theme - “Once you control traffic, you can control Life”.
2. Vehicle identification System
Vehicle Detection in the city is done to record vehicle quantity and journey time. The identification is
- Loop Coil
3. Closed Circuit Television System
The city govt. has installed 2,200 cameras at traffic signals. CCTV at each main station monitors the
operation for 24 hours. CCTV, Vehicle Detection and CMS are linked with Fire Department, Police
and Ambulance Services.
They have also installed 188 cameras at different locations, of which 32 cameras are equipped with
Incident Detection and Object Detection system. The system releases warning within 10 Sec.
4. Changeable Messaging System (CMS)
- Content deployed on CMS can be changed by TCC.
- Can display the information, which are important for the driver.
5. Weblink - www.bote.taipei.gov.tw
6. Traffic Engineering Office Organization
Live roads points to see traffic condition.
7. Signal Interlock system
- Can adjust the traffic signal directly
- Peak hours Reversible Lane Control System (PHRLCS)
- Avoid Traffic congestion & Road Accident.
- Trigger type Signals – ensure traffic safety to passengers.
- Centralised Traffic Maintenance System
8. Route Planning Function
- Shortest route
- Shortest journey time
- Possible Route
9. Traffic Control Strategies
- Ramp Metering Control
- Traffic Surveillance
- Automated Incident Detection
- Travel Time Prediction System
- Signal Control
- Vehicle Passenger
Taipei Metro – Central Control Station
Taipei Metro has a Central Control Station which controls all the station. There are with 15 people each
in two shifts. The key divisions are:
- Information Assistant (3)
- Power Controller (1)
- Engineering Controller (1)
- Train Controller (3)
- Line Controller (3)
- Environmental Controller (3)
- Chief Controller (1)
Taipei BRT System
The total population of Taipei is 2.6 million and number of buses are 5,000. Taipei city has a lot of
earthquakes. All building in the city are earth quake proofed. Metro can bear the earthquake at 4.0
reactor scale and subways can bear the earthquake at 6.0 reactor scale. Taipei city is also planning
to digout road to bring out river. Taipei 101 has 1,000 car parking spaces. Taxis are allowed to go to
the basement and drop the passenger. Taipei City government has stopped spending more money
2. Taipei Bus Lane
Taipei city has the bus lane system. Taipei built first lane in 1989. The BRT System in Taiwan exists in
the southern cities. All bus lanes are made of Cement Concrete. Minimum Right-of-Way (ROW)
should be 30 meters.
Motor Vehicle Lane Bus Lane Motor Vehicle Lane Bus Lane
There are total 10 bus lanes in Taipei with 60 Kms of length. Currently, there
is no bus priority signaling at junctions and no physical barriers. Bus stops are
closer to signals for convenience of the passenger to walk across the city.
Temporary bus stations are built in 3 days.
BRT system selection is done on the basis of route length. Bus Lane must be
connecting 4 subways. Each lane should connect Metro Station. There is no
physical segregation for the Bus lane. Taipei city initially deployed policemen
in the initial period and issued lot of challens.
3. Bus System
They have 4,300 buses operated by 14 operators. The largest of them
operates around 1/3rd of the total fleet. Most of the companies get
subsidy from the Govt. to operate buses in rural area. Buses –
Standard Floor Size (more than 650 mm – 4 steps) although all new buses are low floor.
Yellow stickers are post in the front of buses for rating the services of the particular operator.
Number of stars show that which operator is performing well.
4. Taxis in Bus Lane
Authorities did not allow taxis to use the Bus lane because Taxis without passengers are very fast
and Taxi without passenger are very slow. They were allowed to run in the bus lane only if they will
run along the complete lane. During non-peak hours, there is not much traffic in the Motor-vehicle
lane, thus, Taxis don’t need to run in Bus Lane.
5. Fare Revision
In case of discount for integration b/w two modes – Metro & Bus. The Metro System bears the
subsidy burden (only for feeder buses) and offered a discount of 50%. Subsidy burden for the last
year was NT$1.2 billion.
In Taipei, there is a Unified Fare Committee, which fixes up fare for all type of modes – Metro, Bus
and Taxi. (Bureaucrats fix the fare amount and govt. just decides about the subsidy). Bus fares are
revised after every 2 years. Every 2 years, Bus Operators have meeting with the Govt. Sometime,
Govt. decides to bear the difference between Cost and Fare collection through subsidy.
Easy Card Corporation
Easy Card Corporation (ECC) was established in March 2000. Largest Smart Card Company in Taiwan
with 15 million cards issued till date. Easy Card can also be used to make micro payment – Retails,
convenience stores, MacDonald etc. Easy Card is functioning like Bank and has obtained the bank
ECC has tie-up with 4 banks. There are many other players in Taiwan.
The Government setup meeting with Metro/Bus Operator to combine the all the operation to start
IC Card. In the beginning, Taipei city govt. owned 48% stake in the company and decrease the
holding later on. Bus operator has 25% stake in the company. One operator owns the shareholding
on the basis of number of buses it owned.
- Taipei City – 12%
- TRTC – 28%
- Bus Operators – 25%
- Civilians – 20%
- Banks – 12%
3. Easy Cards – Hardware & Software
- Hardware – Thales
- Software – Alstom
- Clearing House – Headstrong
- Card - Mifare 1K Card
Discussing with NXP to introduce new types of card.
4. 5 Types of cards
- Adult – normal Passenger
- Senior – Senior people
- Student – For students
- Concession Card – For children
- Charity Card – For Disable people
Enquiry machines are installed at all Metro station, the commuter can see the last 6 transactions.
20% discount on MRT fare and additional discount when transferring between Metro & Bus. Student
fare is not revised for last 15 years.
5. Operational Situation
- Stations - 69
- Buses – 5,459
- Parking Lots – 154
- Road Parking Spaces – 3,000
System handles 3 million transactions per day. Reload Channel – Card vending machines (188
machines) and 7/11 stores (2,000 stores)
6. Easy Card Revenue
- Service Charges per transaction (ECC needs to take approval from the govt. before increasing
the service charges. ECC negotiates with TRTC and Bus operators) – NT$0.2 per transaction.
- Concession Support (Triple the amount of the Investment) – NT$ 1.5 billion for 4 years
7. Global Footprint
ECC is consulting to Bangkok (ADB is funding the project)
Youth Parliament – Taipei
Theme – “Meet our needs”
Logo represent 4 E – Environment, Efficiency, Energy and ??
Public Transportation Facility in Rural Area
Don’t need to provide Priority Seat, educate people that every seat is a priority seat.
Public Bike Rental
BMW to BBMW
B - Bicycle
B - Bus
M - Metro
W – Walk
Integrating all fare collection system in the country for seamless travel.
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
1. About the city
Kaohsiung is located at the hub of Southern Taiwan. Regarding the air transportation, Kaohsiung
International Airport is now undergoing great changes and it has 14 airlines flying worldwide via 12 air
routes to Tokyo, Hong Kong, Macau, Manila, Subic Bay, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur,
Singapore, Bali, Kota Kinabalu and Phuket Island. Unfolding the future map of Kaohsiung, striking images
of several new landmarks will pop out
2. Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System
Kaohsiung MRT system is on Build-Operate-Transfer basis. The concession period is for 36 years, of
which 6 years was initial construction period. The train frequency is 6 minutes in peak hours and 10
minutes in non-peak hours.
2.1. O5/R10 Station
The main building of the O5/R10 Station on Zhongshan Road and
Zhongzheng Road traffic circle where the Red and Orange Lines
intersect is a house of display. The four ground-level exits of this
especially tremendous construct utilize the ‘Praying’ design by the
world-renowned Japanese architect, Shin Takamatsu.
The government has asked the resident to restructure their building.
The resident can apply for the subsidy and loan to renovate their
The underground concourse level is topped with a structure called ‘The Dome of Light’, which was
designed by the highly acclaimed Italian artist, Narcissus Quagliata, whose architectural art glass works
have received international fame and recognition. The station has 11 entry / exits doors. The Dome of
Light, 30 meters in diameter, is a piece of artwork consisting of glass, colored drawing and lighting.
Artwork has 6,400 piece of glass with each one has the unique number. The approximate cost is $20
million. Hopefully, when the hard-working citizens of Kaohsiung are on their way home, to the library or
to a coffee shop, they will take the time to look up at the kaleidoscope-like dome which will bring the
city a wonderful ambiance.
The structure has two main pillars – Ying (Red – Power/Fire) and Yong (Blue –
Water). The key message of the dome is “Welcome to Dream under the Dome”.
The picture depicts that the God’s greatest gift to human being is the
hand. Animals can’t use their hand and walk on all 4 foots. These
hands enable a person to be creative and create the world around
The picture shows that a woman, who does not have eyes and ears,
is crying hard to show her pain. She does not want to see war and
blood again in the city of Kaohsiung.
2.2. Central Park Reconstruction
Situated in the core of Kaohsiung City, on Zhongshan Road and Beautiful Island Boulevard, the 12.27-
hectare park has a long history, plagued by problems due to improper environmental planning. The new
transit system, however, will give Central Park
an opportunity for a makeover.
The waterfall just falls down inside the Metro
station. Some commuters throw coins in the
water and make a wish. Metro official claims
that they on an average collect around
NT$1,000 per day. The Metro donates the
money to one of the charity organization in the