Smart and Connected Transport - A Case Study of Delhi


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  • With more roads, less density, rising incomes it is not surprising that vehicle numbers are increasing
  • Give latest data from RITES – 44% of locations examined by RITES traffic exceeds capacity and in another 19% it was verging on exceeding capacity
  • May 8, 2010
  • Metro (Underground) – Rs. 3.5 billion per km (44 kms) Metro (Elevated) – Rs. 1.5 billion per km (104 kms) Mono Rail – Rs. 1.5 billion per km (40.3 kms) BRT – Rs. 0.2 billion per km (394.9 kms)
  • Controlling Demand Diffusing Demand Managing assets working more efficiently.
  • SCOOT - Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique
  • Scoot -
  • Smart and Connected Transport - A Case Study of Delhi

    1. 1. Smart and Connected Transport - A Case Study of Delhi Sanjiv N. Sahai Managing Director and CEO Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Limited
    2. 2. Structure of the Presentation Current Transportation Situation in Delhi What is Smart Transportation System and how can it help deliver Integrated Public Transport Network 2021? Integrated Multi-modal Public Transport Network-2021 Connected Bus Transportation System in Delhi Conclusion
    3. 3. Private Travel Demand Rising in Delhi As of June 30 th 2009 more than 6.0 million vehicles were registered in Delhi, equivalent to the total number in Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. Two Wheelers Car/ Taxis Buses and Heavy Vehicles TSR Source: Transport Department, GNCTD
    4. 4. Traffic Condition in Delhi Cars and two-wheelers together drive less than 20% of its people -- and yet roads are choked. (Source: CSE) Courtesy: Flickers
    5. 5. Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study - without walk Trips (2007-08) Screen Line Locations – Volume Capacity Ratios (Figures in Percent) Mid Blocks – Volume Capacity Ratios (Figures in Percent) 100% = 33 Screen Line Locations 100% = 26 Mid Blocks Less than or equal to 1 24% Between 1 and 2 61% More than 2 15% Less than or equal to 1 35% Between 1 and 2 54% More than 2 12% Volume Capacity Ratio of roads at key locations in Delhi is more than 1, as per RITES Survey (2008). Volume Capacity Ratios in Delhi RITES is preparing a report “ Transport Demand Forecast Study & Development of an Integrated Road Cum Multi-modal Public Transport Network For NCT of Delhi “. It conducted a survey to find out the volume capacity ratios of key locations.
    6. 6. Traditional Problem Solving The Car Oriented Infrastructure
    7. 7. <ul><li>Population per sq. km in Delhi is less compared to other cities like Hong Kong, Seoul and Paris (City) which are more densely populated. </li></ul><ul><li>Road space as percentage of total land area is 21% in Delhi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present road length- 28,000 Kms with limited expansion possibilities. </li></ul></ul>Road Space as Percentage of Total Area Delhi is developing urban sprawl Delhi Vs. Other World Cities World Cities - Population per sq. km.
    8. 8. Modal Split - % of Person Trips in Delhi* (Figures in Percent) In last 8 years, Bus ridership has decreased by 17%, whereas number of person trips / day have increased by 22% during the same period. Modal Split in Delhi Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study - without walk Trips (2007-08) <ul><li>According to RITES Report (2008), around 46% of total personal trips in Delhi are completed by using public transport system (Bus and Metro) in 2007-08, whereas around 60% of total personal trips were completed by using public transport System (Only Bus) in 2000-01. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus ridership has decreased from 7.0 million passenger trips in 2000-01 to 6.0 million passenger trips in 2007-08. </li></ul></ul>2000-01 2007-08
    9. 9. Private Vs. Public <ul><li>Increase in air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Less road space available per commuter </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in number of road accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Rising fiscal drain </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality of life and more competitive city </li></ul><ul><li>Low Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Low congestion and more predictable journey time </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible to all </li></ul>Private Transport Public Transport
    10. 10. <ul><li>Promoting the use of mass transport through user friendly features and a city-wide network. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure balanced use of road space by 2021, and to contain the problem of pollution etc., it is essential that at least 10 million additional vehicular trips are catered to by mass transport. </li></ul>Planning Requirement There is an urgent need to augment mass transport facilities to reverse the trend of increasing use of personal vehicles. Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study - without walk Trips (2005)
    11. 11. <ul><li>GNCTD commissioned study in 2005 which identified 43 corridors (575 km) with Peak Hour Peak Direction Traffic (PHPDT) exceeding 5,000, assuming the following exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metro Phase I & II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambedkar Nagar-Delhi Gate BRT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase I IRBT corridors (2 nos.) </li></ul></ul>Corridor Identification * Based on World Bank and other studies Demand-wise Number and Length of Corridors PHPDT Length (in Kms) No. of Corridors Choice of Mode* >25,000 93 4 Metro 20,000-25,000 57 4 Elevated LRT 15,000-20,000 131 8 At grade LRT 10,000-15,000 179 13 At grade BRT / Elevated Monorail 5,000-10,000 115 14 At grade BRT Total 575 43
    12. 12. Transport Demand Forecast Study 2008 <ul><li>DIMTS, on behalf of Transport Department, commissioned “Transport Demand Forecast Study” in 2008. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop a Transport Demand Forecast Model and Identification of a Road cum Public Transport Network to meet the city demand by 2021 & beyond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The study identified a total length of 583.4 kms for the development of different public transport systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choice of mode depends mainly on demand level on a corridor, capacity of the mode and the available Road/Right Of Way (ROW). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other considerations are the land-use along the corridor, the location of building lines, and the potential for increasing the ROW . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>148.2 kms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>394.9 kms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono Rail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40.3 kms </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Progress to date * Inclusive of Civil work of Airport Express line. Source: Delhi Metro Investment focus on one mode of public transport and minor investment in other modes. Mode Length (Kms) Budget (in Rs.) Metro – Phase I 65.1 Kms Rs. 105. 7 billion Metro – Phase II 128.0 Kms Rs. 190.0 billion* BRT – First Corridor 14.5 Kms Rs. 2.0 billion
    15. 15. Missing Link… <ul><li>Nearly 100% of trips to a bus stops start and end on foot. </li></ul><ul><li>78% of trips from a metro station are walk trips. </li></ul><ul><li>12% of trips to a metro station use cycle rickshaws. </li></ul><ul><li>35% of trips are walk only trips. </li></ul><ul><li>12.5% of trips are by bicycles. </li></ul>Both reducing demand for ‘hard’ infrastructure and saving money Public Transport trips are multi-modal, usually involve non-motorized travel at either end of the journey.
    16. 16. More Effective in Tackling New Challenges Possible Impact on CO2(woodcock J et al, Lancet, 2009) BAU - Business-as-usual LCD – Low Carbon Development AT – Active Transport (Cycle and Walk) ST – Sustainable Transport (LDC + AT) London Delhi Aggregate Transport CO2 Emissions (tonnes) Transport CO2 Emissions Per Person (tCO2/ person) CO2 Emissions Reduction on 1990 (%) Aggregate Transport CO2 Emissions Transport CO2 Emissions Per Person (tCO2/ person) CO2 Emissions Increase on 1990 (%) 2006 London 2004 Delhi 9,647,900 1.3 -2.50% 6,146,651 0.4 97% 2010 BAU 9,935,897 1.3 0% 8,268,298 0.5 165% 2030 Scenario 1 BAU 10,381,318 1.2 4.80% 19,550,693 0.8 526% 2030 Scenario 2 LCD 6,480,565 0.7 -39% 17,069,668 0.7 447% 2030 Scenario 3 AT 6,120,306 0.7 -43% 10,458,736 0.4 235% 2030 Scenario 4 ST 3,608,226 0.4 -65% 9,327,207 0.4 199% London Population Delhi Population 2006 = 7.5m 2004 = 14.8m 2030 = 9.0m 2030 = 26.0m
    17. 17. ‘ Smart’ and ‘Connected’ Transport <ul><li>Connected Transport Infrastructure requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Smart and Connected Approaches <ul><li>Physical infrastructure requires ‘soft’ investments to make public transport user-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Technology to use assets more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Technology to manage demand for private vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal measures to manage demand for private vehicles </li></ul>Supply Side Enhancement Demand Side Management TO IMPROVE TRANSPORT
    19. 19. What is Smart Transportation System Automated Vehicle Location System Automated Fare Collection System Intelligent Signaling System Parking Information System Real-Time Traffic Information System Real-time Monitoring System Interactive journey planner for all modes Car Sharing Cycle Sharing Systems
    20. 20. Smart Connected Benefits <ul><li>Journey time and transaction savings for individuals </li></ul><ul><li>More predictable journey times by public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Journeys using multiple modes become less complicated and easier to plan </li></ul><ul><li>Journey transfers occur seamlessly </li></ul><ul><li>An easing of peak time traffic flow </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Information feedback loops to further improve transit delivery </li></ul>
    21. 21. Rationalize and Optimize Resources Resource Requirement With the distribution of traffic, the deployment of resources will be rationalized at the operator level, compared to resource deployment as per peak hour demand. Time Peak Hour Demand Distributed Demand
    22. 22. Real-time Passenger Information System <ul><li>To reduce passenger waiting anxiety, PIS boards have been installed at 96 Bus Shelters and will be installed at 500 shelters in Delhi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to determine location and time of the bus, predicting the expected time of arrival at stops en-route. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMTS has currently installed GPS devices on more than 200 buses in Delhi, increasing to 11,000 by 2011. </li></ul></ul>GPS Tracking System GPS GPRS Bus Remote Location Data Center Communication Network GPRS Modem GIS / Vehicle Data Base GIS Web Server Internet User tracks vehicles on the Web from anywhere anytime
    23. 23. Real-time Bus Information - BQS
    24. 24. Real-time Bus Information - SMS <TRAKO PIS Chirag Delhi> 419DN-2, 522UP-6, 419UP-7, 419ACUP-14, 423ACDN – 28 mins Info by DIMTS Mobile user needs to send simple message: TRAKO <SPACE> PIS <SPACE> BUS STOP NAME to 54545 (You will instantly receive a SMS response: Next Bus at Bus Stop for Route Number expected in ‘X’ minutes)
    25. 25. Real-time Bus Information - Online
    26. 26. <ul><li>Delhi Government is also planning to create an Integrated Multi-Modal Ticketing system, comprising DTC, Private Buses and Delhi Metro. </li></ul>Automated Fare Collection System DMRC System COMMUNICATIONS Central System (CCHS) DTC Private Buses Delhi Transport Corporation
    27. 27. Automatic Fare Collection System - Delhi <ul><li>AFCS implemented on Dwarka Circular Sewa, inter-connecting key destinations in Dwarka sub-city such as metro stations, shopping centres, schools………… </li></ul><ul><li>The system is operational in 6 low-floor A/C buses. </li></ul>DIMTS, in partnership with Transport Department and DTC, introduced the AFCS in November 2009 on pilot basis.
    28. 28. Benefits <ul><li>AFCS will reduce journey times by ensuring quicker boarding and alighting. </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘Seamless Journey’ as commuters can use the same card for travel in Metro, Bus, Para-transit etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger movement data through the system will help to rationalize and optimize the bus routes in the city bringing buses closer to where people live and saving the city money. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Intelligent Signaling System <ul><li>The Intelligent Signaling System at the Delhi BRT Corridor will be the first of its kind in India. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMTS is installing ISS on the BRT Corridor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal installation will be complete by 10th June 2010. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Benefits to the Commuters <ul><li>The system will give priority to buses. </li></ul><ul><li>The ISS works on contact-less detection system-RADAR vehicle detection technology for detecting Vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>The system will be capable of exercising real-time traffic control and monitoring the operation in minute detail. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Operations Control Centre DIMTS is setting up a Operations Control Centre, which will be the key hub for all bus-based transportation activity.
    32. 32. Future Plans VMS (Variable Messaging System) Congestion Pricing On-Demand Autorickshaw GreenCAB - Dial-a-Rickshaw Facility
    33. 33. VMS (Variable Messaging System) Congestion Ahead <ul><ul><li>A city-wide project will be launched and large LED boards will be installed at various points in the city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages will be controlled through a central command centre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commuters will obtain information to assist their journeys including traffic conditions, traffic advisory, route diversions etc. </li></ul></ul>DIMTS is currently finalizing the proposal to install VMS in Delhi.
    34. 34. Congestion Pricing Delhi Government is currently thinking to introduce congestion pricing as a means of managing travel demand on certain roads in Delhi. <ul><ul><li>Delhi Government will identify critically congested arteries where public transport facilities are available for road user charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the initial phase, only the CBD area will be covered . A staged roll out will then occur in other parts of the city </li></ul></ul>Singapore – Electronic Road Pricing
    35. 35. On-Demand Autorickshaw <ul><ul><li>Transport Department is planning to cover Autorickshaws and Taxis under the ambit of a Vehicle Tracking System. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A separate call centre will be setup for booking and the despatch of autorickshaws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A similar service will be launched in other cities including Ahmedabad, Pune, Chandigarh and Chennai. </li></ul></ul>Transport Department, GNCTD will install GPS-based Vehicle Tracking System in all 55,000 auto rickshaw in the city and will establish a call-centre facility.
    36. 36. GreenCAB - Dial-a-Rickshaw Facility <ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GreenCAB is an idea to provide door-to-door mobility for all classes of people along public transit corridors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a pilot GreenCAB could use mobile phones to provide a feeder from your doorstep to public transit along the Delhi BRT corridor or other local destinations like schools, shops, etc </li></ul></ul>DIMTS is planning to introduce Dial-a-Rickshaw facility “GreenCAB” as a feeder service for the commuters along the BRT Corridor.
    37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>Significant transport challenges face mega-cities like Delhi as we move into the 21st Century </li></ul><ul><li>While the car and motorcycle have widened travel choices for many it is not possible to develop a transport system centered on these modes </li></ul><ul><li>Alongside the ‘hard’ infrastructure challenge to develop a system based around public transport comes other challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of information and technology to reduce the need to travel for work and to avail local services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making multimodal trips as seamless as possible through different technologies and the provision of journey planning information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing information to private vehicle users so that they choose to travel with multiple occupants, on less congested routes at less busy times </li></ul></ul>