Managing Medications Workshop presentation


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A presentation with guidelines on how to effectively manage medication and health.

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  • Tablet made up of binder and fillers colorings and coatings. Relay vs marathon
  • Used to inject steroids . SC used to inject insulin
  • Death by Bengay :A medical examiner blamed a 17-year-old track star’s death on the use of too much muscle cream, the kind used to soothe aching legs after exercise.
  • Most occur in the liver, but Other sites of drug metabolism include epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, kidneys, and the skin. These sites are usually responsible for localized toxicity reactions.
  • Ephedrine products have been found to contain from 0% to 100% of the amount listed on the label Side effects vary and do not correlate with the amount consumed
  • Fluid loss through sweat is about 3-8 C per hour
  • Sometimes athletes lose 8-10% of their bodyweight. Symptoms may include dizziness, labored breathing, mental confusion, and spastic muscles at this loss.
  • A sports drink can raise blood sugar levels so that your body will continue to utilize glycogen (stored carbohydrates) and utilize stored body fat for fuel. These energy sources can not be effectively accessed with a low blood sugar level.
  • The B-vitamins are called 'micronutrients' and are used to convert proteins and carbohydrates into energy. They are also used for cell repair and production. Researchers at Oregon State University found that athletes who lack B-vitamins have reduced high-intensity exercise performance and are less able to repair damaged muscles or build muscle mass than their peers who eat a diet rich with B-vitamins. The study results were published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.Individual B-vitamin requirements vary and may depend upon the type and intensity of exercise, the amount of nutrients lost through sweat, and urine, and individual differences in diet.
  • It is primarily from fish, canola, and soybean oil and found also in flax seeds and walnuts
  • Athletes who train strenuously for competition have greater nutritional needs than sedentary people.
  • Athletes lose magnesium through sweat and urine. This, combined with the fact that athletes' diets are usually low in magnesium, generally leads to the need for supplementationSODIUM This element helps cells retain water and prevents dehydration. ZINC This mineral aids in post-exertion tissue repair and in the conversion of food to fuel. Both male and female athletes have lower serum zinc levels compared with sedentary individual
  • Anecdotal reports have also suggested some central effects of the AASs, including euphoria, decreased fatigue, and, most importantly, shortened recovery time following work-outs, thus enabling athletes to increase and accelerate their training schedules. The mechanism for these effects and the potential benefits for athletic performance are UNKNOWN.
  • Testicular cancer, traumatic injury where testes are lost. Where the is wasting it is given in combination with diet and excercise
  • Managing Medications Workshop presentation

    1. 1. Managing Medication Managing Health DR MICHELLE RUSSELL PharmD
    2. 2. History of Medicines• God, demons, witches or the stars• No record of first herbs used• Shamans and apothocaries (herbalists) these made simple drugs from crushing etc powders, teas, pastes• Folk medicine i.e. word of mouth• 1800s advances in chemistry and extraction• 1900s synthetic compounds
    3. 3. Basic Medication Design Taken by mouth • Tablets coated and uncoated • Capsules • Softgels • Liquigels • Sub Lingual • Slow and extended release
    4. 4. Liquids • Syrups • Elixirs • Suspensions • Drops
    5. 5. InjectionsIntra muscular Injection Subcutaneous injection
    6. 6. Intravenous Injections
    7. 7. Topical ApplicationsTran dermal patch Creams, Ointments, Gels, Paints, Sprays & eyedrops
    8. 8. Inhalers – Metered Dose/nasal
    9. 9. Suppositories
    10. 10. How Medications Work• Absorption• Distribution• Metabolism• Excretion
    11. 11. AbsorptionIt can be absorbed :• Through And Under Your Skin• In Your Heart• Into Your Stomach• In Your Intestines• In Your Kidneys Or Liver• In Your Nose• Under Your Tongue
    12. 12. Absorption
    13. 13. Distribution• Point of absorption to site of action• Blood flow - rate and amount• Size of molecule• Attraction to other components in the blood• Crossing natural barriers e.g. blood brain barrier
    14. 14. MetabolismHow the body changes what goes in to what comes out• Enzymes• Changing charges• Breaking down• Alcohol and insulin• Toxification and Detoxification
    15. 15. Elimination• The removal of drugs from the body• Water soluble through the kidneys• Gall bladder• Skin
    16. 16. Generics and Equivalents• Identical or within an acceptable bioequivalent range to the brand name counterpart – In dose – Strength – Route of administration – Safety – Efficacy – and intended use
    17. 17. Generics and Brands• Branded products usually do not have the drugs chemical name .• Some generics have chemical name as product name• Newer generics often have a ―brand name‖ that does not include the chemical name.• A drug may have several brand names
    18. 18. Therapeutic Equivalents• A drug that has essentially the same effect in the treatment of a disease or condition as one or more other drugs.• A drug that is a therapeutic equivalent may or may not be chemically equivalent, bioequivalent, or generically equivalent.
    19. 19. Over The Counter – OTC List One List Two• Free sale • Patient must• Patient makes request item choice• Package sizes • Some intervention limited • Package size• No intervention limited may occur
    20. 20. Meds & Athletic Performance Ergolytic Actions Ergogenic Actions improves performance decreases performance • Alcohol and Marijuana• Performance • cocaine enhancing • Some blood pressure• Stimulants meds• Pain killers • eye drops, and diuretics.• Anti-inflammatory • Some antidepressants • some antihistamines • even caffeine--
    21. 21. Ergogenic DrugsCaffeine• Improves athletic performance• Increases energy and delays fatigue – (T)• Improves fat burning by increasing fat metabolism (F)• Spares muscle glycogen ( slightly)• Enhances body fat loss (F)• Acts as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant (T)• Raises epinephrine levels (T)• Increases alertness (T)
    22. 22. Ergogenic Drugs• Ephedrine Claims – Increases body fat loss – Improves athletic performance – Improves concentration• Research Shows – Research has found no effect of ephedrine on strength, endurance, reaction time, anaerobic capacity, or recovery time after prolonged exercise – Caffeine potentiates the effect of Ephedrine and the combination can be dangerous
    23. 23. Ergolytic Drugs in SportsAlcoholImpairs motor skills including :• reaction time, balance, accuracy, hand-eye coordination and complex coordination• may impair strength, power, speed and both muscular and cardiovascular endurance as it reduces the force of hearts contraction
    24. 24. Ergolytics Con’tCocaine and Marijuana.• Both increases the work of the heart• Decreases performance.• Cocaine can also lead to more serious complications, including – Heart attack – Cardiac arrhythmia (heart rate changes) – Seizure (fits) – Stroke and death.
    25. 25. Ergolytics Con’tNicotine• While nicotine will give athletes a "high" and they may feel more alert, their performance decreases.• Negative changes in the hearts performance that impair heart function.
    26. 26. Ergolytics Cont’tDiuretics (water tablets)• Throw off the bodys electrolyte balance• Causes muscle cramps• Reductions in strength and power• They also affect hydration• Cardiovascular performance decreases Diuretic use has played a role in the collapse of runners during hot-weather races .
    27. 27. Ergolytics Cont’tBlood pressure pills and eye drops• Beta-blocker reduces the hearts ability to respond to exercise stress.• It can reduce maximal oxygen uptake by up to 15 percent among elite athletes.• The same thing happens to performance capacity during exercise.• Competitive athletes should avoid beta-blockers; calcium channel blockers, seem to have very little negative effect on exercise capacity.
    28. 28. Ergolythics Cont’t Ergolytics Con’tOther drugs• Sleeping tablets- hangover effect• Tranquilizers• Most anti allergy –cause drowsiness and listlessness• Caffeine high then low, sleep disruption
    29. 29. Storing MedicationsFactors affecting medication stability• Heat• Cold• Dampness• Drying out because left open• Keep out of the reach of children
    30. 30. How to take Medications• Route, frequency, and duration• Before , during or after meals• Breaking and crushing and dissolving tablets ANY QUESTIONS?
    31. 31. Exercise because…• Sufficient Flexibility• Adequate Muscular Endurance• Adequate Strength• Cardiovascular Endurance• Healthy Body Composition
    32. 32. What & How Much To Eat?• Learn the body’s nutrient needs• Categorize the body’s nutrient needs• Learn the foods that meet these needs• Learn how to think critically about food choices, read labels, and evaluate foods
    33. 33. Causes of Athlete’s Fatigue• Glycogen depletion (stored carbohydrate )• Hypoglycemia• Dehydration• Lactic acid accumulation• Electrolyte imbalances• Amino acid imbalances• Muscle overuse• Lack of muscle recovery
    34. 34. How much do you need• Active people and athletes should consume a majority (65-75%) of their Calories from Carbohydrates. Average person 55% may be enough• The government recommends less that 30% of Calories come from Lipids, but many nutritionists recommend less than 20%.• Proteins should be approximately 10-15% of one’s Calories
    35. 35. Functions of Carbohydrates• Blood glucose maintenance (80 Calories)• Glycogen storage in the liver (400 Calories)• Glycogen storage in the muscle (1400-1800 Calories)• Primary brain fuel• Protein-sparing; prevents ketosis• Essential for athletes, especially endurance athletes
    36. 36. Wholesome Unrefined Complex Carbohydrates• Whole-grain cereals, waffles, and breads• Beans and legumes• Pastas• Brown rice• Barley, quinoa, oats• Fresh veggies• Fresh fruits• Polenta (coarse cornmeal)
    37. 37. Functions of Fat• Stores energy• Cushions vital organs• Insulates the body and maintain body temperature• Transports essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins• Part of cell membrane structure• Offers satiety in meals• Enhances food flavor and aroma
    38. 38. Water• Vital to life• Is a solvent, lubricant, m edium for transport, and temperature regulator• Makes up majority (2/3) of our body• Yields no energy
    39. 39. Dehydration Causes Fatigue
    40. 40. Hydration• Thirst is not a reliable indicator of fluid needs• General guideline: 2-3 Cups of fluids per each pound of weight loss during activity• Drink fluid freely 24 hours before the event• Drink 1.5-2.5 Cups two-three hours before the event• Consume 3-8 ounces every 15 minutes for events lasting longer than 30 min.• At 3% water loss, performance shown to decrease 10%
    41. 41. Rehydration• Water good for first 90 minutes• >90 mins blood sugar falls• Sodium and potassium lost through sweat• Sports drink can raise blood sugar levels• Not all sports drinks are created equal• Juice and sodas too sugary need to be diluted
    42. 42. Supplements• Something added to the diet, to make up for a nutritional deficiency.• Supplements include the following: – Vitamins – Amino Acids – Minerals – Herbs – Other Botanicals
    43. 43. Supplements are not• Required to meet the same safety requirements as over-the- counter or prescription drugs or food ingredients• Held to specific manufacturing standards• Guaranteed to meet product potency or purity ratings• Required to prove the effectiveness of any health claim they make• Required to meet safety or efficacy testing prior to going to the market
    44. 44. Supplement Facts SheetSupplement FactsServing Size 1 TabletAmount Per Serving % Daily ValueThiamin (Vitamin B-1)(as Thiamin Yeast) 7 mg 467%Hydrochloride and Brewer’sRiboflavin (Vitamin B-2)(as Riboflavin and Yeast) 14 mg 824%Brewer’sNiacin (as Niacin and Brewer’s Yeast) 4.5 mg 23%Vitamin B-12 (as Cyanocobalamin and Yeast) 25 mcg 417%Brewer’sProtease (as Papain Powder) 10 mg **
    45. 45. SupplementsVitamin Bs• May be a link between the B- vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B- 6, B-12 and folate) and performance in high-level athletes• Even a small B-vitamin deficiency can result in reduced performance and recovery.
    46. 46. Essential Fatty AcidsOmega 3, 6 and 9• Body can’t make it• Needed for immune function• Vision• Cell membrane• Production of hormone-like compounds
    47. 47. Nutrient needsAdequate nutrients can mean• Quicker recovery time• Lower infection rates• Less fatigue• Ultimately, can help athletes reach their desired performance levels.
    48. 48. The Female Athlete Triad (orTriple Threat to Female Athletes1. Eating Disorders2. Cessation of Menstruation (Amennorhea)3. Bone Fractures (and ultimately osteoporosis
    49. 49. Supplements –The Good Antioxidants Anti -Inflammatory • Omega 3 • Turmeric• A • Bromelian• C • Capsaicin• E • Pycnogenol• Co-enzyme Q 10 • Glucosamine and chondrotin & MSM
    50. 50. Supplements –the good Supplements –The Good Minerals• Calcium 1000 - 1500/d• Iron > 6 hours/week 10- 15mg/d• Magnesium 500-800mg/d• Potassium• Selenium 100-200mcg• Sodium• Zinc May 1999 Issue of Nutrition Science News
    51. 51. Health ,Harm or Rip Off?• Energy drinks — which are often loaded with caffeine, sugar and herbal stimulants may pose various health risks, including: – Restlessness and irritability head aches n&v – Increased blood pressure – Possible dehydration – Weight gain – Excessive amounts of energy drinks have been associated with manic episodes, seizures, chest pain, heart attacks and sudden cardiac death Mayo clinic
    52. 52. Supplements – The Dangerous• All athletes need to be proactive in asking questions so they don’t jeopardize their sporting careers.• If you have a question - ASK!• If you cannot be 100% sure of the ingredients or don’t know the status of a substance – DON’T TAKE IT! WADA
    53. 53. www .easy access. com We sell only the highest quality pharmaceutical grade anabolics. ** Warning: Deca- Durabolan, Dianabol, Winstrol, Clenbuteral, Anavar, and Trenbolone are toxic Anabolic Steroids
    54. 54. Too good to be True • Performance enhancing • Bulk and cut • Extreme muscle development • Quicker recovery time • Less injury • More power • Muscular development
    55. 55. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS• They increase protein synthesis within cells• They reduce the rate of muscle breakdown• Muscle cells formed preferentially over fat cells• Increase of Basal Metabolic Rate ( BMR) burning fat stores
    56. 56. MEDICINAL USES• Replace testosterone after surgery or cancer• Adolescent males with pituitary malfunction• After certain kinds of surgery and cancer. Anabolic steroids are used , with exercise and diet, to build up lost muscle tissue.• AAS are given by mouth, via injections or by adhesive patches.
    57. 57. SPECIFIC USES OF AAS• Danazol –Endometriosis• Mesterolone (Proviron) – low sperm count• Stanozolol - anemia and hereditary angioedema• Oxymetholone (Anadrol) –anemia osteoporosis
    58. 58. Beta Blockers• Asthma• High blood pressure• Glaucoma in the eye• Racing heart Beta blocker widen blood vessels and reduce muscle spasms.
    59. 59. Aromatase InhibitorsEstroBlock Anti-Estrogen/Aromatase Inhibitor� Conquers Estrogen Bodybuilders and strength athletes are well aware that the female hormone estrogen can seriously harm their attempts to build muscle and strength. Estrogen MUST be kept under control or some pretty undesirable conditions may arise in the body.
    60. 60. Hormone Antagonists and Modulators• Many used to treat various forms of breast cancer• Low sperm count• Infertility in both men and women
    61. 61. Stimulants• Appetite suppression• Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity• Narcolepsy
    62. 62. • May 1999 Issue of Nutrition Science News