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Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
Functional group of organic compounds
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Functional group of organic compounds

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Discusses the different organic compounds and their functional groups …

Discusses the different organic compounds and their functional groups

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  • 1. FUNCTIONAL GROUP OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Presented By: Janine V. Samelo BSChem2
  • 2. HYDROCARBONS: >HYDROCARBONS ARE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONSISTING ENTIRELY OF CARBON AND HYDROGEN. THEY ARE A SUBSET OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. >RANGE FROM METHANE, WHICH IS JUST ONE CARBON ATOM BONDED TO FOUR HYDROGEN ATOMS, TO POLYMERS SUCH AS POLYSTYRENE, WHICH CONSISTS OF THOUSANDS OF CARBON AND HYDROGEN ATOMS.
  • 3. > THEY MAY BE GASES (METHANE AND PROPANE), LIQUIDS (HEXANE AND BENZENE), WAXES (PARAFFIN WAX), OR POLYMERS (POLYETHYLENE AND POLYSTYRENE).HYDROCARBONS CAN BE PROCESSED TO CREATE PLASTICS. >THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF HYDROCARBONS HERE ON EARTH IS THROUGH FOSSIL FUELS – COAL, OIL, AND NATURAL GAS. THESE ARE EXTRACTED FROM THE GROUND >THERE ARE FOUR MAIN TYPES OF HYDROCARBONS: SATURATED HYDROCARBONS, CONSISTING OF ONLY SINGLE BONDS BETWEEN CARBON ATOMS; UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS, WITH DOUBLE OR TRIPLE BONDS; CYCLOALKANES, WITH CONSIST OF HYDROGEN BONDED TO CARBON RINGS; AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, WHICH CONTAIN A CHEMICAL STRUCTURE KNOWN AS AN AROMATIC RING, OF WHICH BENZENE IS THE SIMPLEST EXAMPLE.
  • 4. SATURATED HYDROCARBONS: >THOSE THAT CONTAIN AS MANY HYDROGEN ATOMS AS POSSIBLE ARE SAID TO BE SATURATED. THE SATURATED HYDROCARBONS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS ALKANES. EX: THE SIMPLEST ALKANE IS METHANE: CH4. > GENERIC FORMULA CNH2N+2 EX: C4H10.
  • 5. UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS: ♫ALKENES > CARBON NOT ONLY FORMS THE STRONG CC SINGLE BONDS FOUND IN ALKANES, IT ALSO FORMS STRONG C=C DOUBLE BONDS. COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN C=C DOUBLE BONDS WERE ONCE KNOWN AS OLEFINS (LITERALLY, "TO MAKE AN OIL") BECAUSE THEY WERE HARD TO CRYSTALLIZE. (THEY TEND TO REMAIN OILY LIQUIDS WHEN COOLED.) THESE COMPOUNDS ARE NOW CALLED ALKENES EX: THE SIMPLEST ALKENE HAS THE FORMULA C2H4 AND THE FOLLOWING LEWIS STRUCTURE
  • 6. >ALKENES ARE EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS BECAUSE THEY HAVE FEWER HYDROGEN ATOMS THAN THE CORRESPONDING ALKANES. THEY WERE ONCE NAMED BY ADDING THE SUFFIX -ENE TO THE NAME OF THE SUBSTITUENT THAT CARRIED THE SAME NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS. > THE IUPAC NOMENCLATURE FOR ALKENES NAMES THESE COMPOUNDS AS DERIVATIVES OF THE PARENT ALKANES. THE PRESENCE OF THE C=C DOUBLE BOND IS INDICATED BY CHANGING THE -ANE ENDING ON THE NAME OF THE PARENT ALKANE TO -ENE.
  • 7. ♫ALKYNES > COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN CC TRIPLE BONDS ARE CALLED ALKYNES. THESE COMPOUNDS HAVE FOUR LESS HYDROGEN ATOMS THAN THE PARENT ALKANES, SO THE GENERIC FORMULA FOR AN ALKYNE WITH A SINGLE CC TRIPLE BOND IS CNH2N-2 EX; THE SIMPLEST ALKYNE HAS THE FORMULA C2H2 AND IS KNOWN BY THE COMMON NAME ACETYLENE. > THE IUPAC NOMENCLATURE FOR ALKYNES NAMES THESE COMPOUNDS AS DERIVATIVES OF THE PARENT ALKANE, WITH THE ENDING -YNE REPLACING -ANE.
  • 8. AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: >ALL AROMATIC COMPOUNDS ARE BASED ON BENZENE, C6H6, WHICH HAS A RING OF SIX CARBON ATOMS AND HAS THE SYMBOL: EACH CORNER OF THE HEXAGON HAS A CARBON ATOM WITH A HYDROGEN ATTACHED. > . THE BENZENE RING IS VERY STABLE, SURVIVING UNCHANGED IN MOST CHEMICAL REACTIONS. IT IS VERY DIFFERENT IN REACTIVITY AND SHAPE FROM THE PUCKERED SIX-MEMBERED RINGS FOUND IN CYCLOALKANES
  • 9. CYCLOALKANES: > IF THE CARBON CHAIN THAT FORMS THE BACKBONE OF A STRAIGHT-CHAIN HYDROCARBON IS LONG ENOUGH, WE CAN ENVISION THE TWO ENDS COMING TOGETHER TO FORM A CYCLOALKANE. > CYCLOALKANES THEREFORE HAVE TWO LESS HYDROGEN ATOMS THAN THE PARENT ALKANE AND A GENERIC FORMULA OF CNH2N. >THE SMALLEST ALKANE THAT CAN FORM A RING IS CYCLOPROPANE, C3H6, IN WHICH THE THREE CARBON ATOMS LIE IN THE SAME PLANE. THE ANGLE BETWEEN ADJACENT CC BONDS IS ONLY 60, WHICH IS VERY MUCH SMALLER THAN THE 109.5 ANGLE IN A TETRAHEDRON, AS SHOWN IN THE FIGURE BELOW.
  • 10. HYDROCARBON DERIVATIVES ☼ALCOHOLS > FAMILY OF COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN ONE OR MORE HYDROXYL (-OH) GROUPS ATTACHED TO A SINGLE BONDED ALKANE. > REPRESENTED BY THE GENERAL FORMULA R-OH EX: ♂PRIMARY ALCOHOLS IN A PRIMARY (1°) ALCOHOL, THE CARBON WHICH CARRIES THE - OH GROUP IS ONLY ATTACHED TO ONE ALKYL GROUP. NOTE: AN ALKYL GROUP IS A GROUP SUCH AS METHYL, CH3, OR ETHYL, CH3CH2. THESE ARE GROUPS CONTAINING CHAINS OF CARBON ATOMS WHICH MAY BE BRANCHED. ALKYL GROUPS ARE GIVEN THE GENERAL SYMBOL R.
  • 11. EX: ♂ SECONDARY ALCOHOLS IN A SECONDARY (2°) ALCOHOL, THE CARBON WITH THE -OH GROUP ATTACHED IS JOINED DIRECTLY TO TWO ALKYL GROUPS, WHICH MAY BE THE SAME OR DIFFERENT.
  • 12. ♂TERTIARY ALCOHOLS IN A TERTIARY (3°) ALCOHOL, THE CARBON ATOM HOLDING THE -OH GROUP IS ATTACHED DIRECTLY TO THREE ALKYL GROUPS, WHICH MAY BE ANY COMBINATION OF SAME OR DIFFERENT.
  • 13. ☼ ALDEHYDES AND KETONES AS CARBONYL COMPOUNDS ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ARE SIMPLE COMPOUNDS WHICH CONTAIN ACARBONYL GROUP - A CARBON-OXYGEN DOUBLE BOND. THEY ARE SIMPLE IN THE SENSE THAT THEY DON'T HAVE OTHER REACTIVE GROUPS LIKE -OH OR -CL ATTACHED DIRECTLY TO THE CARBON ATOM IN THE CARBONYL GROUP - AS YOU MIGHT FIND, FOR EXAMPLE, IN CARBOXYLIC ACIDS CONTAINING -COOH. EX OF ALDEHYDES: N ALDEHYDES, THE CARBONYL GROUP HAS A HYDROGEN ATOM ATTACHED TO IT TOGETHER WITH EITHER >>A SECOND HYDROGEN ATOM >>A HYDROCARBON GROUP WHICH MIGHT BE AN ALKYL GROUP OR ONE CONTAINING A BENZENE RING.
  • 14. EXAMPLES OF KETONES: IN KETONES, THE CARBONYL GROUP HAS TWO HYDROCARBON GROUPS ATTACHED. AGAIN, THESE CAN BE EITHER ALKYL GROUPS OR ONES CONTAINING BENZENE RINGS.
  • 15. ☼ETHERS ETHERS ARE BASICALLY TWO ALKYL GROUPS JOINED TO ONE OXYGEN. CH3OCH3- DIMETHYL ETHER CH3CH2OCH2CH3- DIETHYL ETHER CH3OCH2CH3- METHYL ETHYL ETHER ETHER GENERAL FORMULA: ☼ESTERS: ESTERS ARE DERIVED FROM CARBOXYLIC ACIDS. A CARBOXYLIC ACID CONTAINS THE -COOH GROUP, AND IN AN ESTER THE HYDROGEN IN THIS GROUP IS REPLACED BY A HYDROCARBON GROUP OF SOME KIND. THIS COULD BE AN ALKYL GROUP LIKE METHYL OR ETHYL, OR ONE CONTAINING A BENZENE RING LIKE PHENYL.
  • 16. ☼AMINES >>DERIVED FROM AMMONIA (NH3) WHEN MORE OF THE HYDROGEN ATOMS IS REPLACED BY A HYDROCARBON GROUP. >>A NITROGEN ATOM IS THE FUNCTIONAL GROUP. >>PRIMARY AMINES - THOSE THAT CONSIST OF ONE HYDROCARBON GROUP BONDED TO AN AMINO GROUP (-NH2). >>GENERAL FORMULA RNH2 WHERE R REPRESENTS AN ALKYL GROUP. >>TO NAME AN AMINE, IDENTIFY THE ALKYL GROUP AND ADD THE SUFFIX -AMINE TO ITS NAME EX: BUTYLAMINE.
  • 17. ☼AMIDES >>THE FUNCTIONAL GROUP OF AN AMIDE CONSISTS OF A CARBONYL GROUP AND AN AMINO GROUP. >> CAN BE PRODUCED BY REACTING A CARBOXYLIC ACID WITH AMMONIA (NH3). >> GENERAL FORMULA FOR AMIDES IS RCONR'R'', WHERE R, R', AND R'' REPRESENT ALKYL GROUPS OR HYDROGEN. EX: BUTANAMIDE.
  • 18. ISOMERISM: > THE EXISTENCE OF TWO OR MORE COMPOUNDS WITH SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT PROPERTIES (PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL OR BOTH) IS KNOWN AS ISOMERISM; AND THE COMPOUNDS THEMSELVES ARE CALLED ISOMERS. > HE TERM WAS GIVEN BY BERZELIUS. > THE DIFFERENCE IN PROPERTIES OF TWO ISOMERS IS DUE TO THE DIFFERENCE IN THE ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS WITHIN THEIR MOLECULES
  • 19. ♪CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERISM >> OCCURS WHEN THE ATOMS IN A MOLECULE CAN BE REARRANGED SUCH THAT DIFFERENT ATOMS ARE BOUND TO ONE ANOTHER (I.E. THE ATOM CONNECTIVITY IS THE SAME). FOR EXAMPLE THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERS OF C6H12:
  • 20. ♪STEREOISOMERS >>HAVE THE SAME ATOMS ARE BOUND TO ONE ANOTHER, BUT THEIR ORIENTATION IN SPACE DIFFERS.
  • 21. REFERENCES: >HTTP://WWW.WISEGEEK.COM/WHAT-ARE-HYDROCARBONS.HTM >HTTP://CHEMED.CHEM.PURDUE.EDU/GENCHEM/TOPICREVIEW/ BP/1ORGANIC/ORGANIC.HTML >HTTP://CHEMED.CHEM.WISC.EDU/CHEMPATHS/GENCHEM- TEXTBOOK/AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS-918.HTML >HTTP://WWW.CHEMGUIDE.CO.UK/BASICORG/CONVENTIONS/NA MES3.HTML >HTTP://SCIENCE.MARSHALL.EDU/CASTELLA/CHM204/CHAP17.P DF >HTTP://EN.WIKIBOOKS.ORG/WIKI/ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY/ALCO HOLS >HTTPS://WWW.CDLI.CA/COURSES/CHEM2202/UNIT03_ORG03_ ILO05/B_ACTIVITY.HTML

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