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Distributing power

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  • 1. Distributing Power: Philosophical Issues in a Cratological Evaluation of Technologies Jorge Camacho, PhD University of East London
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. “ ...clean, reliable and affordable electricity at the customer site.” (Bloom Energy)
  • 6. Distributed Generation (DG) Distributed Energy Resources (DER)
  • 7.  
  • 8. “ shifts control to the consumer” (Bloom Energy)
  • 9.  
  • 10. “ generate electricity everywhere”
  • 11. “ think negawatts, not megawatts”
  • 12. “ store power in superbatteries”
  • 13. Grid 2.0 Energy Web
  • 14.  
  • 15. Assessment of energy systems [technologies]...
  • 16. Technical (or 'internal') values: A system is... Effective Efficient Reliable
  • 17. Some 'external' values:
  • 18. (Economic) (Ecological) A system is... Cost effective Sustainable
  • 19. Cratological -> ( kratus = power)
  • 20. Objective #1: Technologies Social Power ->
  • 21. Framework: * Ontological * Normative (Evaluative) * Theoretical (Explanatory) Framework: * Ontological * Normative (Evaluative) * Theoretical (Explanatory)
  • 22. Objective #2: Electricity Supply Systems
  • 23.  
  • 24. Systems Ontology> Mario Bunge
  • 25. <(Social) Systems Ontology James S. Coleman
  • 26. Systems Ontology of Technology > Miguel A. Quintanilla
  • 27. System = Composite object (Components bonded by interactions)
  • 28. System: C > Composition E > Environment S > Structure M > Mechanism (characteristic process)
  • 29. Technological System: C > actors and artifacts E > other systems (inc. social) S > relations... M > “technological realization” (Quintanilla)
  • 30. A sequence of “ actions intentionally oriented to the transformation of things in order to achieve a valuable result.” Technological realization: (Quintanilla)
  • 31. Social ontology... < social power
  • 32. Coleman's 'social algebra'...
  • 33. Social System: C > actors and resources E > ////////////////// S > control and interest M > ...............................
  • 34. Social System: C > actors and resources E > ////////////////// S > control and interest M > social exchange
  • 35. The most interesting resources... … are the most valuable .
  • 36. Power (of a social actor) = measure of the value of the resources under her/his control.
  • 37. Power (of a social actor) = Capacity to act / decide about the system as a whole.
  • 38. Normative / Evaluative dimension> < What is the fair or just distribution of power in society?
  • 39. < Distributive Justice Ronald Dworkin James S. Coleman
  • 40. Equality... ...of what? (Amartya Sen)
  • 41. Equality of resources (R. Dworkin) >
  • 42. Equivalence of resources =
  • 43. Equality... ...of Power
  • 44. Theoretical / Explanatory dimension> < How can technological development be causally related to distribution of power?
  • 45. Economic power> < Markets and industries
  • 46.  
  • 47. <Affordance > >Social affordance < (J.J. Gibson, Don Norman, Manuel Delanda)
  • 48. Objective #2: Electricity Supply Systems
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 58. Reduction of scale> <competition, re-distribution of power?
  • 59. * Vertical re-integration * Horizontal concentration * Barriers to entry * High prices
  • 60. < affordances not realized
  • 61. < affordances not realized > political challenge
  • 62. New Paradigm: DER Distributed Energy Resources
  • 63. Promise: transfer of power> * prosumers * independent producers * local communities
  • 64. Egalitarian affordances >
  • 65. Egalitarian affordances > <philosophers of technology
  • 66. < thank you >