Notetaking will help you (1) ask effective follow-up questions, (2) remember what you hear, (3) Document the basis for your decision, and (4) record any discussion of accommodating someone to a job. If done properly, it will not be intrusive and will reflect genuine interest in the candidate. Pointers Ask permission “ I’d like to take a few notes so I can remember what we have discussed today Incline your notepad. In this way, the interviewee will not be able to read your notes upside down!
Write down positives AND Negatives. Start immediately – do not wait until you hear the first negative piece of information. A 45-minute Interview might take 4-5 sheets of lined note paper. Use key words/phrases to remember responses. Just write key words – you do not need to write everything you hear. You will develop your own “shorthand.” A quick way to shorten what you write and maintain more eye contact is to Drp vwls (drop vowels). As a rule of thumb, you should be able to write a paragraph about each factor when you finish interviewing a candidate.
WITHIN EEO/AFFIRMATIVEACTION GUIDELINES
There are several quantifiable methodsto document your decision process:1. Determine the required qualifications prior to interviewing.2. Develop an “Interview Worksheet” and use it for every interview and rate each candidate using the same standard.3. Use good interviewing skills. Know what discriminatory questions to avoid4. Stick to the standard group of job related questions, and use them for all candidates5. Document your interview6. Document the reasons for your decision
EEO CONSIDERATIONSAll Interview Questions Must Be: Relevant to Job performance If Sensitive, Asked of All Applicants For Example: Are you a legal resident of the U.S.? Do you have adequate transportation to get to the job on time?
DON’T ASK Military Discharge Citizenship National Origin Family Status Birth Place Club Membership Ancestry Religion Health Age Financial Standing
ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTSTo conduct a successful interview you must know about all factorsthat contribute to on-the-job success.All the non-physical skills, abilities and talents people bring to bearon a job will fit under one of these factors. Use all factors to describewhat you are looking for on the Job/Candidate Profile.Resume Factors Education / Experience / Knowledge Academic degrees, technical knowledge, certification or licenses, Similar work experience.Performance IntellectualFactors Capacity, application, decision making style. Interpersonal Ways of interacting with others. Motivation Goals, commitment, interests, values.
APPLICATION FORM FACTORSEducation / Experience / Knowledge Academic Degrees Technical Knowledge Certifications Licenses Similar Work Experience
Applica tion Form Re vie w Sketchy or erratic job history with many brief periods of employment. Gaps in employment record or overlaps that don’t make sense. Salary requirements higher than job can offer. Frequent moves from one part of the country to another. Past experience and education related to job specification. Reasons for leaving previous employers. Overall appearance. Inconsistencies
PERFORMANCE FACTORS INTELLECTUAL Capacity Application Decision making style INTERPERSONAL Ways of interacting with others MOTIVATION Goals Commitment Interests Values
The InterviewBe aware that interviews varytremendously and the approach andstrategy of applicants differ. Some are open, candid and forthright. Some are evasive and even falsify aspects of background. Some are glib and articulate; explanations sound logical and convincing. Some are poised and confident. Some are nervous, tense and visibly uncomfortable.
Approaching the Interview1. Establish rapport with applicant and put the person at ease.2. Be sincere, warm and friendly.3. Do not reveal or project criticism or disapproval of candidate’s actions or qualifications.4. Focus on your task to obtain information and keep opinions and value judgments to yourself.
NOTETAKING Tell the applicant what you are doing: (E.g., I’m going to be taking notes during the interview. This is my method of recalling what took place during your interview) Incline notepad (don’t reveal what you are writing)
NOTETAKING POINTERS1. Write down positives AND Negatives. Don’t wait until you hear the first negative piece of information2. Use key words/phrases to remember responses. You do not need to write everything you hear.
INTERVIEW QUESTIONSSelf-appraisal Questions ask the candidate to explain the meaning of the facts,accomplishments, and data that come up in the interview. This helps you to translatefacts about the candidate into hypotheses about future on-the-job behavior.Two Types Direct Self-appraisal Ask the candidate directly about a fact or accomplishment – “Why do you suppose you were promoted so quickly in that job? Third-party appraisal Ask the candidate to interpret the fact or accomplishment through the eyes of a knowledgeable third-party – “If I called your manager, why do you suppose she would say you were promoted so quickly?” Obtain and use the third-party’s name to raise the candor level of the candidate’s answer.
SELF-APPRAISAL QUESTIONSAlternatives For candidates who do not feel they have the right to speak for a superior, make the third-party a peer rather than a superior. “How would someone else on your team describe you?”Lead-ins There are a number of ways to phrase the direct Self- appraisal Question. “What would you say it was about you……?” “Why do you suppose…..?” “How were you able to….?”
SELF-APPRAISAL QUESTIONS ADVANTAGES1. Places the burden of interpretation of facts on the candidate, not on you.2. Keeps you objective and prevent you from jumping to conclusions about the meaning of facts.3. Encourages the candidate to elaborate on their experiences and accomplishments.4. Draws out, through third-party questions, candidates from high- context cultures where boasting about accomplishments does not come easily.5. Helps you avoid getting fooled or misled by the candidate. There are two reasons why this works: It is hard for a candidate on the spot to conjure up a more favorable or believable explanation than the truth. Use of Self-appraisal Questions throughout the interview is likely to catch inconsistent explanations of behavior.
INTERVIEW QUESTIONSDocument AccomplishmentsUsing PAR Format Problem Action Results
ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONSTo identify meaningful accomplishments (what the persondid) and draw out behavioral evidence (how and why theydid it).PAR MODELUse the PAR Model (Problem – Action – Result) to confirmyou have a meaningful accomplishment.“Let’s talk about one of your recent accomplishments….”“What problem (or challenge) required your attention?”Determine whether there was a special need to deal withthis or was it really just part of the job.
ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONS (Continued)•“What action did you take?”How did the candidate accomplish this?Ask them to explain the actions in terms of “I”rather than “we.”•“What were the results?”Get specifics – dates, names, quantifiableresults.
ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONS (Continued)Pointers• Ask for the name (not just the title) of the person’s manager at the time of the accomplishment.“If I called your major customer, Betty Gonzales, how would she say you handled the problems with the inventory?”• More recent accomplishments have a greater predictive value for future performance.
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIESTRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example:Ambitious “Let’s talk about ambition as Give me an example of a situation a quality you have.” ….where your ambition was reflected in the goals you set for yourself.”Career- “How career-minded would Give me an example of a situationminded you say you are?” ….when your career-mindedness led you to avoid a short-term opportunity.”(Wants a) “What can you tell me about Give me an example of a situationChallenge wanting a challenge?” ….where you sought out a problem to solve because it represented a challenge for you.”
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIESTRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example:Committed “What can you tell me about Give me an example of a situation your being committed to where your level of commitment things or ideas?” sustained you in the face of numerous obstacles.”Customer- “Some people see themselves Give me an example of a situationoriented as being customer-oriented. where you were especially attentive What can you tell me about or responsive to customer concerns.” that quality in you?”Determined “How determined would you Give me an example of a situation say you are?” where your determination made something happen.”
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIESTRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example:Enthusiastic “Some people would Give me an example of a describe themselves as being situation… where your enthusiasm enthusiastic, what can you for what you were doing sustained tell me about that quality in you in the face of disappointment.” you?”Entrepre- “How entrepreneurial would Give me an example of a situationneurial you say you are?” ….where you gave up some security and took a risk.”Goal- “Some people think of Give me an example of a situationoriented themselves as being goal ….where a goal you achieved was oriented, what can you tell me because you wanted to, not because about that quality in you?” others expected it of you.”
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIESTRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example:Go-for-it “Tell me about you having a go- Give me an example of a situationAttitude for-it attitude.” ….where others hesitated but you went for it.”Hard- “How hard working would you Give me an example of a situationworking say you are?” ….where hard work accounted for an accomplishment you are proud of.”Interested “How would you describe your Give me an example of a situationin_____ interest in ______?” ….where you picked a job or volunteered to handle a project calling for ___________.”
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIESTRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example:Persistent “I’d like to know how Give me an example of a situation persistent you are.” ….where others gave up but you persisted.”Quality “How does having a quality Give me an example of a situationCommitment commitment describe you?” ….where your commitment is reflected in how you shop for or maintain the things you own.”Resourceful “Let’s talk about resource- Give me an example of a situation fulness as a quality you have.” ….where resources to complete a job were not available and you had to be resourceful to get it done.”Responsive “Tell me about your Give me an example of a situation responsiveness.” ….where your responsiveness won a customer.”
PROBE FOR UNSEEN BEHAVIOR QUALITIES TRAIT Don’t Ask A Question Request An Example: Self- “Let’s talk about you being Give me an example of a situation motivated self-motivated.” ….where being self-motivated led you to initiate something without being told to do so.” (Seeks) “Some people think of Give me an example of a situation Variety themselves as seeking variety. ….where you changed jobs or What can you tell me about assignments in the hope of achieving that quality in you?” more variety in your work.” Willing to “Tell me about your Give me an example of a situation Travel willingness to travel.” ….where you traveled a great deal on the job.”Note – These questions can be revised to make them more appropriate to your job situation.
MAKING THE DECISION Specifically identify key strengths Specifically identify key limitations Relevant to job? Offset by strength? Subject to training and development? Assess strengths and weakness
Rejecting the Person Not Selected Never….Never…Never…….Never reject the applicant.To begin with, non-selection notification is an awkward, if notimpossible task. Some applicants are hostile or aggressive. Many applicants are well prepared for rejection with excuses and rationalizations. At the very least, a time-consuming argument is likely to take place, which the interviewer cannot win. You want to convey the message that the applicant was not found unqualified; rather, someone else was selected who most closely matched the desired qualifications. It is safer to say “we went through a selection process, not a rejection process so I do not have any reasons to give you on why you were not selected. I can tell you that we have selected the person we think is the best match for the position”.