Han Wiskerke EMILA Presention
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  • 1. Evolving rural landscapes
    Prof.dr. Han Wiskerke
    Sub-department Sociology & Anthropology of Development
    Rural Sociology Group
  • 2. Land use
  • 3. Land use
    Built environment
    Nature
    Greenhouse horticulture
    Agriculture
    Water
  • 4. Land use
    Spatial segregation of land use functions
    Mental and physical barrier between urban and rural
  • 5. Introduction
    Post WW2 modernization of the countryside
    Characteristics and impact on rural landscapes
    Competing claims & reorientation of agricultural development
    Characteristics and impact on rural landscapes
    Future developments
  • 6. Post WW2 agriculturalmodernisation
    Embedded in overall policy objective of fast export-oriented industrialisation:
    Self sufficiency in food supply at low prices for consumers
    Enhancement of the export of agricultural products through increase of production (in order to improve the national balance of payments)
    Two important lines in agricultural policy
    Intensification of production
    Structural development of the agricultural sector (1958-1972)
    Land reallocation / reconstruction measures
    Development and reconstruction funds
    Reduction of manual labour
    Specialisation
  • 7. Agricultural modernisation
    Aim of land reallocation and reconstruction measures
  • 8. Land reallocation / reconstruction measures (1961-1975)
    Noord-Beveland as example
    Changes in rural landscape
    Changes in agricultural structure
    Reconstruction works started after finalisation of ´Delta-works´
    Agricultural modernisation
  • 9. Agricultural modernisation
    Landscape before reconstruction
  • 10. Agricultural modernisation
  • 11. Agricultural modernisation
  • 12. Agricultural modernisation
  • 13. Agricultural modernisation
  • 14. Reconstruction works
    Agricultural modernisation
  • 15. Agricultural modernisation
  • 16. Agricultural modernisation
  • 17. Agricultural modernisation
  • 18. Agricultural modernisation
  • 19. Landscape after reconstruction
    Agricultural modernisation
  • 20. Agricultural modernisation
  • 21. Agricultural modernisation
  • 22. Agricultural modernisation
  • 23. Agricultural modernisation
  • 24. Agricultural modernisation
  • 25. The impact of land reallocation / reconstruction measures
    (example Noord-Beveland – Province of Zeeland)
    Before (1961) After (1975)
    No. of farms 233 147
    No. of plots 1000 423
    Average no. of plots/farm 4.3 2.9
    Average plot size (ha) 6.3 14.5
    Average farm size (ha) 24.8 41.4
    Agricultural modernisation
  • 26. For decades the primary function of the countryside was agriculture (production of food, feed and fibre)
    In recent decades agricultural land is increasingly needed for:
    Housing
    Industry and businesses
    Infrastructure (roads, railways)
    Nature
    Recreation
    Competing claims & modern agriculture in crisis
  • 27. From the 1980s onwards the negative side-effects of modernisationgradually gained importance in the public debate
    In the 1990s agriculture was considered to be in a threefold crisis:
    Economic crisis (increasing costs, decreasing revenues)
    Ecological crisis (environmental pollution, deterioration of nature and landscape, degradation of (agro)biodiversity)
    Socio-cultural crisis (lack of trust in food quality and safety, agriculture disconnected from society; animal welfare concerns)
    Competing claims & modern agriculture in crisis
  • 28. Growing demand for different land use in the countryside AND modern agriculture in crisis:
    Is there a solution to address both challenges at the same time?
    What are the implications for landscape?
    Two trendss:
    Change of land use (from agriculture to living, infrastructure, industry, nature, water) by maintaining spatial segregation of functions.
    Change of land use combined with diversification of on-farm activities through spatial integration of functions (multifunctional agriculture / land use)
    Change of land use
  • 29. Change of land use – spatialsegregation
  • 30. Change of land use – spatialsegregation
  • 31. Change of land use – spatialsegregation
  • 32. Change of land use – spatialsegregation
  • 33. Change of land use – multifunctional land use
    Agrarian nature & landscape management
  • 34. Change of land use – multifunctional land use
    Agri-tourism
  • 35. Change of land use – multifunctional land use
    Green care
  • 36. Change of land use – multifunctional land use
    Combination of activities:
  • Multifunctional land use is increasing as more and more farms are diversifying
    This is supported by EU Rural Development policies (but quite often hampered by spatial planning regulations, especially at municipal level)
    Change of land use – multifunctional land use
  • 42. A shift from multifunctional land use at farm level to multifunctional land use at regional level:
    A shift from a business model to a regional development model based on the concept of economies of synergies (region branding)
    Requires consultation and negotiation with many actors (private, public and civic sector)
    Successful examples: GroeneWoud (Netherlands), Wine routes in Tuscany (Italy), Fuchsia brands (West Cork, Ireland)
    Futuredevelopments (1)
  • 43. Fuchsia Brands (Ireland)
    • Initiative of West Cork LEADER Co-op Society
    • 44. Revive regional economy by creating synergies between agriculture, food SMEs, tourism, crafts, culture and arts
    • 45. Utilize and valorize endogenous resources (territorial capital) through regional brand (Fuchsia)
    • 46. Generate additional value added (€ 107 million) and employment (> 1100 jobs)
  • Wineroutes in Tuscany (Italy)
    • Switch from unbranded table wine to high quality wines of denominated origin,
    • 47. Intertwine on-farm sales of wine with other activities: gastronomy based on locality and tradition, luxury farmhouse accommodation, information about viticulture, hiking routes, cultural history
    • 48. Activities are offered along a ‘wine route’: a tour of vineyards and wine cellars and of varied landscapes and cultural and historical attractions.
    • 49. Significant resource in the marketing of Tuscany as a region where the good life can be found.
  • Futuredevelopments (2)
    Gradual disappearance of the urban-rural divide:
    Urban food production
    Continuous productive landscapes (based on Viljoen & Bohn’s CPULS concept: continuous productive urban landscapes)
  • 50. Urban food production
  • 51. Continuousproductive landscapes
  • 52. Thank you for your attention
    © Wageningen UR