SLAUGHTERING,PROCESSING ANDMARKETING OF FARMANIMALSPrepared by:Mila R. AndresDepartment of Animal HusbandryCollege of AgricultureIsabela State UniversityEchague, ISabela
INTRODUCTION Animal products comprise approximately 16% of the calories and 55% of the protein in total world food supply (FAO, 2002). Large differences exist between developed countries and developing countries in both the contribution of animal products for calories and protein. Meat and milk are the major animal products contributing to the world supply of calories and protein.
Most of the world meat supply comes from cattle, buffalo, swine, sheep, goats and horses. Likewise, poultry meat and eggs are nutritious and relatively inexpensive animal products used by human throughout the world. Most of the milk and milk products comes from cows, water buffalo, goats and sheep.
Meat processing already started even before historians started to record events. The Egyptians were the first people to know that salting and sun drying can be a means of preserving meat. The Romans also found out that ice and snow could also be used to preserve meat. And as time goes by in 1809, a scientist in the name of Nicholas Appert discovered the hermetic sealing of food item and this started the canning of meat. During World War I, freezing of meat in large scale was discovered, and in World War II, antibiotic preservation, freeze drying and irradiation were discovered. Up to this moment, the same processes are practiced but they are already modified to suit the consumer’s need for processed and preserved meat.
Likewise, slaughtering and meat inspection also started during the Spanish regime by authority of a royal decree issued on May 31, 1828. Ante Mortem inspection was conducted in the afternoon while Post Mortem inspection was done in the middle of the night. Under the American regime, meat inspection was under a veterinarian from the United States Federal Meat Inspection
Proper Pre-slaughteringproceduresFACTORS TO CONSIDER ON PRE- SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS1. At the farm/backyard: a. Drug withdrawal b. Fasting2. During Transport: a. Quality of transportation b. Weather c. Stress
c.1 Long term pre-slaughter stress (fighting, cold weather, fasting and transit, which occur 12-48 hours prior to slaughter) c.2 Short term acute stress (excitement or fighting immediately prior to slaughter) d. Trauma3. At the stockyard4. At the abattoir
Selection of animals forslaughter Factors to consider in the selection of animals to be slaughtered a. Age of the animal b. Sex of the animal c. Size d. Degree of fatness e. Health of the animal
Selection of animals forslaughter a. Age of the animal Recommended ages of livestock for slaughter: swine – 6-12 months cattle and carabaos – 3 years or younger goats – 1 year In general, meat from old animals is jucier than the meat from young ones. Young animals have watery meat on first chewing but have a final impression of dryness.
Selection of animals forslaughter b. Sex of the animal Barrows and gilts – best sources of meats for curing Boars – young boars (200 days old or below) can still be used but older boars have pronounced “boar taint” (pheromone or 5 alpha androstenone) Sows – meat is tough and during the advance stage of pregnancy, the meat maybe fishy in odor.
Selection of animals forslaughter c. Size Hogs – 80-110 kg Cattle/ carabaos – 300-450 kg Goat and sheep – 25-30 kg Poultry – 1.5-2.0 kg
Selection of animals forslaughter d. Degree of fatness Most flavour compounds are found in the fatty tissue. While chewing, fat stimulates the flow of saliva thus giving the impression of juiciness. For sausages and other comminuted meat products, 30-40% fat seems to be the most acceptable.
Selection of animals forslaughter e. Health of the animal Animals for slaughter must be substantially healthy. Unhealthy animals must be first treated and brought to normal condition prior to slaughter.
Management of animalsprior to slaughter a. Fasting b. Relaxed animal c. Handling animals gently d. Clean animals
Management of animalsprior to slaughter a. Fasting It is simply the withdrawal of feed but water is given ad libitum. Pigs are fasted for 12-24 hours, ruminants for 24-48 hours and poultry 6-12 hours Advantages of fasting 1. savings of feed 2. ease of cleaning entrails 3. ease of cleaning and eviscerating carcass 4. thoroughly bled and brightly colored carcass 5. long shelf-life 6. low shrinkage
Management of animalsprior to slaughter b. Relaxed animal As much as possible, no form of stress is given to the animal prior to slaughter. If stress cannot be avoided, animals must be given enough time to relax and regain their composure before these are slaughtered. If stress is not so severe, pork tends to be pale, soft and exudative (PSE). If stress given is severe, meat tends to be dry, firm and dark (DFD).
Management of animalsprior to slaughter c. Handling animals gently The part of the animal whipped, kicked or boxed prior to slaughter develops blood clots and red spots in the meat. This is due to the breaking of blood vessels in those areas. These blood clots in the meat are a good media for growth of microorganisms, which causes accelerated spoilage of meat.
Management of animalsprior to slaughter d. Clean animals Keep the animals clean. Wash off dirt on the animals to minimize possible contamination of the carcass.
Basic Requirements inSlaughtering a. Cleanliness of the meat produced b. Hygiene of production c. Efficiency of meat inspection d. Adequacy of meat preservation e. Need for skilled butchers and proper tools and equipments for slaughtering
Slaughtering Procedurea. Slaughtering Swine 1. Stunning – it is done by making the animal unconscious without killing it - recommended stunning currents for 3 seconds - hog – 1.25 to 1.3 amperes not less than 75 volts 2. Sticking – or bleeding (SSI- stun to stick interval, 15seconds) - bleeding time – 6 minutes 3. Scalding and scraping – scalding temperature = 60-71ºC for about 3-5 minutes 4. removal of the head 5. Evisceration – it refers to the removal of the visceral organs of the carcass up to the complete removal of the internal organs from the body cavity 6. Splitting 7. Post Mortem inspection/ Branding/ - Branding Stamp is circle and the diameter 4.45, ink is violet and there are 11 branding sites. 8. Chilling
Slaughtering Procedure b. Slaughtering Cattle/ Carabaos 1. Stunning (captive volt) - stunning currents for 3 seconds cattle = 1.2 ampere calves = 1.0 ampere 2. Sticking (stun to stick interval, 15 seconds) 3. Flaying/ Skinning – removal of the hide 4. Removal of the shank and head 5. Evisceration 6. Splitting/ Quartering 7. Post Mortem inspection/ branding Branding Stamp is circle and the diameter 6.335, ink is violet and there are 13 branding sites. 8. Shrouding – wrapping the carcass with a cheesecloth 9. Chilling
SLAUGHTER PROCEDUREOF POULTRY Holding (unloading area) Restraining/hanging Stunning Bleeding Scalding - 56ºC for 1 to 2 minutes Plucking/ defeathering Singeing Beheading with crop incision Feet cutting
Evisceration Washing Chilling and cutting Dripping Sorting, weighing and packing Final chilling Freezing Dispatching Issuance of NMIC certificate
Meat Fabrication a. This is the process of cutting carcasses into standard wholesale and retail cuts. b. General Principles of Fabrication 1. tender meat is separated from tough meat because the two require different methods of cooking 2. thick portion must be separated from the thin portion 3. muscles must be cut across the grain/meat fibers so that the grain breaks and separates while chewing. 4. cheap parts must be separated from the expensive parts
Meat Fabrication Meat classification a. Tender cuts b. Less tender cuts c. Tough cuts d. Variety cuts Market forms of meat a. Fresh meat b. Chilled meat/frozen meat c. Cured meat d. Dried meat e. Canned meat
Meat Fabrication c. Wholesale cuts of beef and carabeef carcass 1. Frontquarter a. ribs b. plate or short plate c. brisket d. foreshank e. Chuck 2. Hindquarter a. flank or navel b. loin c. round
Meat Fabrication d. Wholesale cuts of Pork Carcass 1. shoulder 2. Ham 3. Loin 4. Belly or side
Meat – Refers to the flesh ofanimals or the edible part ofthe muscle of the animal Two Classifications of Meat1. Red Meats ex. pork, beef, carabeef, chevon, venison,veal, lamb2. White Meats ex. fish and poultry
BEEFMeat of CattleSource:1. Steer – male cattle castrated while young (produces highest grades of meat)2. Heifer – mature female cattle has not yet born a calf (produces highest grade of meat)3. Stag – male cattle desexed after maturity4. Bull – uncastrated mature cattle
WHOLESALE CUTS OF BEEFCUT LOCAL NAME1. Hind Quarter (most desirable meat; higher in price). -Kabilugan/Pierna- Round Corta- Rump -Tapadera- Loin -Tagiliran- Flank -Kamto- Hind shank -Kinche sa Hulihan
WHOLESALE CUTS OF BEEFCUT LOCAL NAME2. Forequarter-Rib - Kadera-Chuck -Batok, paypay, kasim-Brisket -Punta y pecho-Plate - Tadyang-Foreshank -Kinche sa unahan
POULTRY Domesticated birds used for food such as chicken, turkey, pigeon and duck
POULTRY It has distinct dark and white meat Dark meat are those muscles which are active, has more fat and connective tissues, high myoglobin (Legs, thigh,and neck ). White meat has less fat, no myoglobin and does not react, with the curing agents (breast).
Cuts of Chicken MeatA. Whole Chicken marketed either fresh or frozen
Cuts of Chicken Meat1. Halves Obtained by splitting the bird through the backbone and keel resulting to two halves of approximately equal weight
Cuts of Chicken Meat2. Breast Quarters This include wings and breasts
Cuts of Chicken Meat2a. Split Breast The wing is removed
Cuts of Chicken Meat3. Whole Chicken Wing This is composed of three sections the drummette, mid-section and tip.
Cuts of Chicken Meat3a. Drummette Found between the shoulder and the elbow.
Cuts of Chicken Meat3b. Wing Mid Section The section between the elbow and the tip, sometimes called the wing flat or mid- joint
Cuts of Chicken Meat3c. Wing Mid Section with Tip
Cuts of Chicken Meat4. Whole Chicken Leg This is the drumstick-thigh combination.
Cuts of Chicken Meat5. ThighThis is the portion of the leg above the knee joint.
Cuts of Chicken Meat6. Drumsticks These include the lower portion of the leg quarter (the portion between the knee joint and the hock).
Cuts of Chicken Meat7. Giblets Includes heart, liver and neck.
Characteristics of Meat According to age According to Source
According to Age (According toMadlangsacay, 1975)
Very Young Nearing Maturity MatureLean Meat: Color Pink Rose Dark red Texture Fine grain Relatively coarse Coarse relatively firm Firmer FirmFat Color Creamy White or creamy White or creamy Texture Tinged with pink Fairly fine Coarse Fine grain Relatively firm firmer FirmDistribution of Thinmarbling noneFlavor Flavorful More flavorful More flavorfulBone White tinged White White With pink Less flexible rigid flexible
According to Source (According toMadlangsacay, 1975)
Beef Veal Carabeef Beef from Beef from Pork from old cow old bull young cowFat creamy Loose & White or Creamy creamy Gen. soft greasy white white, & oily white grey firmColor of pale Pale Dark lighter Dark Pale grayMuscle grayish reddish copper to pinkish red brown redConsisten firm Moderate Loose, firm Dry, Soft, firmcy of ly firm to soft less loosemuscle loose stickyOdor peculiar Slightly disagree milky peculiar Impulsive sour able urine odor
Characteristics of PoultryMeat -There should be no discoloration observed -The meat should be firm and springs back when touched -And it doesn’t have odor
Reject Criteria of Meat Beef Pork PoultryColor of Muscle brown or brown or Color: purple or greenish, or greenish, or greenish purple blotches; purple discoloration white or green blotches; white around the neck; spots or green spots dark wing tips (red tips are acceptable)Texture slimy, sticky or slimy, sticky or stickiness under dry dry the wings or around jointsOdor sour odor sour odor abnormal, unpleasant odor
Meat Quality Comparison Normal meat Pale Soft Exudative Meat (PSE) Dark Firm and Dry (DFD)
Meat Quality Comparison1. Pale Soft Exudative (PSE)– High Acid Content, less flavor, higher drip and cooking losses2. Dark Dry Firm (DDF) – Due to long stress of animal before slaughter, basic(ph >6), spoils quicklyNote: PSE and DFD meat are safe to eat but limited in their processing capacity.
Proper Handling of Meat- Observe for qualities of good meat in terms of color, texture and tenderness and odor- When possible, put raw poultry, meat or fish in separate plastic bags before setting in your cart or basket with other unprotected foods. Occasionally, packaging on these products may allow leakage.- be sure meat and poultry are packed to prevent juice from leaking
Proper Handling of Meat- Use a cooler if you have a long drive or wont be going straight home after shopping- Foods that could spoil should not be left in a hot car any longer than it would take ice cream to melt.- Store uncooked meat in a freezer at -18 C or below, or in a refrigerator below 4 C, and separate it from other foods. Dont refrigerate fresh poultry or ground beef for more than two days - use it or freeze it.
Grading of Eggs - Refers to the process of sorting eggs having the same quality and weight into lots.
Criteria of Grading 1. Eggshell color – has no effect on quality, flavor and nutrients. 2. Weight 3. Quality – four standards of quality designated A, B, C and D depending on exterior quality (condition of shell) and interior quality (clarity and thickness of white, condition of yolk and size of air cell). Note: Candling is used to determine the interior quality of the egg.
Characteristics of Fresh Eggs- Porous, uncracked shell- Good size and shape- Firm, defined albumen- Conica; well concentrated yolk- Small air cell- No germ spot
Proper handling of Eggs - Eggs are generally stored with the blunt end up to prevent yolk from drifting toward the inner membrane. - Keep dry because they are most sensitive when wet - Buy number of eggs that can be consumed in a week or two weeks time only
Meat1. Meat – defined as those animal tissues, which are suitable for use as food. Categories of Meat 1. Red Meat – comes primarily from cattle, swine, sheep, goats and to a lesser extent, horses and other animals beef – from cattle over a year of age veal – from calves 3 months of age or younger pork – from swine mutton – from mature sheep chevon – from goat 2. poultry meat – comes from flesh of domesticated birds 3. sea foods – flesh of aquatic organisms of which the bulk are fish 4. game meat – flesh of non-domesticated animals
MeatCOMPOSITION1. Physical the major physical components of meat are lean (muscle), fat, bone and connective tissue. Connective tissue, which to a large extent determines meat tenderness, exists in several different forms and locations. The lean or muscles facilitates movement and/or gives support to the body. This is the major component of the carcass. Adipose or fat tissue can be seen deposited around the organs, under the skin and between the muscles.
Meat2. Chemical The chemical composition is important because it largely determines the value of meat. Muscle consists of approximately 65-75% water, 15- 20% protein, 2-12% fat and 1%minerals (ash). As the animal increases in weight, water and protein percentages decrease and fat percentage increases. Fat soluble vitamins are contained in the fat component of the meat. Most B vitamins (water soluble) are abundant in muscle. Most of the other nitrogenous extracts in meats are relatively unimportant nutritionally. However, these other extracts provide aroma and flavor in meat, which stimulate the flow of gastric juices. Simple carbohydrates in muscle are less than 1%. Glucose and glycogen are concentrated in the liver.
Meatc. Nutritive Value Red meats are abundant sources of iron, zinc and B vitamins Excellent source of protein
Egga. Composition of Egg The mineralized shell surrounds the contents of the egg. Immediately inside the shell are two membranes; one is attached to the shell itself and the other tightly encloses the content of the egg. An air cell is usually formed between the membranes in the blunt end of an egg shortly after it is laid. The shell is covered with a protective covering called the cuticle or bloom. By blocking the pores, the cuticle helps to preserve freshness and prevent microbial contamination of the contents of egg.
Egg The egg white or albumen surrounds the yolk and keeps the yolk in the center of the egg. The yellowish-colored yolk is in the center of the egg, its contents surrounded by a thin, transparent membrane called the vitelline membrane. Egg weight varies from 52-58 grams with the average egg weighing approximately 58 grams. The component parts of the egg are shell and membranes (11%), albumen (58%) and yolk (31%). The mineral content of the shell is approximately 94% calcium carbonate.
Eggb. Nutritive Value Eggs are specially nutritious. The albumen is very high in protein and the protein is of very high quality because of the excellent balance of amino acids. The yolk contains fats and cholesterol. It is also high in protein and contains fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and the B vitamins (folic acid, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin and pantothenic acid) and the element iron, phosphorus, sulfur, copper, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, chlorine, and manganese. A large egg contains 4.5 grams of fat and 213 miligrams of cholesterol, 6.25 grams of protein and about 70 calories each.
Milk Milk, with its well-balanced assortment of nutrients, is sometimes called the “nature’s perfect food”. Milk ranges in color from bluish- white to an almost golden-yellow depending on the breed, the amount of fat and solids present and nature of feed of cow. It has no pronounced taste. Freshly drawn has a characteristic but not very pronounced odor, which is quite volatile which practically, disappears when the milk is exposed to air. Fresh milk has a pH of 6.5.
Milk Milk appears unchanged by heating until a point near the boiling point is reached when a tough film form on the surface. Prolonged boiling results in a brown shade of color or a change in tatse. The addition of acids results in the formation of a precipitate which appears as a soft, white jelly-like mass known as “curd” with a more or less separation of nearly clear fluid or “whey”.
Milk When the portion of the fresh milk is allowed to stand undisturbed for a few hours, a layer forms on the surface – cream. It is due to the gathering of fat globules in a portion of the milk. If the milk is allowed to remain at ordinary temperature for 24 hours or longer, usually it will have a pronounced acid taste and sooner or later will coagulate as soft, jelly-like mass.
Milk a. Composition of Milk Milk is colloidal suspension of solids in liquid. The fluid whole milk is approximately 88% water, 8.6% solids-non-fat (SNF) and 3-4% milk fat. The SNF is the total solids minus the milk fat. It contains protein, lactose and minerals. Milk contains approximately 3.3% protein. Lactose is the predominant carbohydrate in milk. Approximately 4.8% of cow’s milk is lactose. Whole milk contains approximately 3- 4% milk fat. Fat soluble vitamins are in the milk fat portion of the milk and water-soluble vitamins are in the non-fat portion. Milk is a rich source of calcium and reasonably good source of phosphorus and zinc.
Milk The first milk a female produces after the young is born is called colostrum. Colostrum is higher in protein, minerals and milk fat but less lactose than milk.
Milk b. Nutritive Value Milk and other dairy products make a significant contribution to the nation’s supply of dietary nutrients. Particularly noteworthy are the relatively large percentages of calcium, phosphorus, protein and B vitamins. Cow’s milk for infant feeding is modified to meet the nutrient and physical requirement of infants. Cow’s milk is heated, homogenized or acidified so infants can utilize the nutrients efficiently. Sugar is usually added for infant feeding to make the milk more nearly like human milk. Milk is low in iron.
Milk Milk and milk products are excellent sources of nutrients to meet the dietary requirements of young children, adolescents and adults. Also, milk owing to its content of calcium and other nutrients is an important food for aging individuals who have osteoporosis. Furthermore, for the elderly as well as for the infant and young child, milk is an efficient source of nutrients readily tolerated by a sometimes weakened digestive system.
Basic Principles of ProperHandling and Processing ofMeat and Milk 1. Causes of milk deterioration the micro organisms which are most important in dairying are the bacteria, yeast and molds. The growth of this microbes is influenced by the following factors: food supply, moisture, atmosphere, chemical and physical environment and temperature. They found out that milk is the best place for their nutrition, hence if there is no temperature regulation given to milk like processing them into powdered milk, pasteurized, etc., then they spoil the milk immediately.
2. Causes of meat deterioration 3 causes of meat spoilage a. chemical b. biological c. physical
3. Processing of Milk a. Pasteurization it is the process of heating milk or other dairy products to a temperature which destroys nearly all the micro organisms present in that product without seriously affecting the composition or properties of the product. Milk is commonly pasteurized at 161ºF for 15 seconds. b. Homogenization this is a process of making a stable emulsion of milk fat and milk serum by chemical treatment. c. Cream separation this is the process of removing the cream portion of the milk.
d. Processed dairy products: 1. whole milk – a lacteal secretion and when it is packaged for beverage use it must contain not less than 3.25% milk fat and not less than 8.25% milk SNF or solids not-fat. 2. Skim milk – had most of the milk fat removed (it contains less than 0.5% milk fat). It must contain at least 8.25 SNF and may be fortified with non-fat solids to 10.25% 3. evaporated milk – produced by preheating to stabilize proteins and removing about 60% of the water. It is sealed in the container and then heat-treated to sterilize its conetents. 4. condensed milk – whole milk from which a portion of water is removed but it is not subjected to further heat treatment.
5. Sweetened condensed milk – the addition of sufficient sugar to plain whole or skim milk to insure preservation of the concentrated milk.6. Dry whole milk – whole milk which contains a normal percentage of milk fat but the moisture has been removed by a drying process.7. Ice cream – frozen product made from cream and sugar with or without a natural flavouring and containing not less than 14%milk fat.8. Cheese – consists of concentration of the constituents of milk, principally casein, insoluble salts together with water in which small amounts of soluble salts, lactose and albumin are found.9. Cream – is a liquid milk product high in fat that has been separated from milk.10. Butter – made exclusively milk or cream or both and contains not less than 80% milk fat by weight.11. fermented milk beverages
4. Processing of Meat Meat processing includes all processes utilized in altering fresh meat except for simple grinding, cutting, mixing. It is important from the standpoint of preservation because through processing, stability or shelf life of meat products are prolonged. In addition to preventing spoilage, meat processing leads to the production of flavourful and nutritious products. It has also taken on the additional aspects of providing both convenience and variety. In addition, marketability of products is also enhanced.
Types of processed meat a. Cured meat – Ham, bacon, tocino, and tapa are classic examples of cured meat products. Curing is the application of salt, sugar, nitrite, and other preservatives and adjuncts to prolong the keeping quality and develop desired flavor of meat products. Three methods of curing: 1. Dry Cure 2. Sweet Pickle Cure 3. Combination Method
Classification of Meat ProductsAccording to Processing Noncomminuted Products Example: Ham and Bacon Comminuted Products Example: Sausages and restructured meat products
b. Sausages – are meat products that are ground, salted and usually seasoned. It is also stuffed in casing/ formed in molds.c. Restructured meat products – are generally made from flaked, ground or sectioned beef or pork which is shaped into roasts, steaks or loaves. Examples of restructured meat are smoked sliced beef and boneless hams.
5. By- Products of Meat Animals by products are products of considerably less value than the major product. In other developed countries, meat animals produce meat as the major product; hides, fats, bones, and internal organs are considered by- products. In other countries, primary products may be draft (work), milk, hides, and skins, with meat considered a by product when old, less useful animals are several by-products.
a. Edible by-products variety meats are edible products originating from organs and body parts other than the carcass. Liver, heart, tongue, tripe, and sweetbread are among the typical variety meats. Tripe comes from the lining of the stomach; sweetbread is the thymus gland.b. Inedible by products Tallow, hides (skins), and inedible organs are the higher valued inedible by-products. Hides and skins are valuable as by-products or as major products on a worldwide basis. Cattle and buffalo hides comprise 80% of the farm animal hides skins produced in the world.
Non-meat ingredientsused in Meat Preservation 1. Salt – The most important curing ingredient 2. Sugar – adds flavor to meat; helps overcome saltiness and counteracts the toughening effect of salt 3. Nitrate / nitrite – helps develop the proper color in cured meat product 4. Phosphate – increase the water holding capacity of cured meat products 5. Ascorbates – speed up the curing reaction 6. Spices – consists of leaves, flowers, buds, seeds bark and other plant parts which have been dried 7. Binders/fillers/emulsifiers – helps improve the texture, appearance, plumpness and ease of slicing the processed product. 8. Vinegar – used for its antiseptic value 9. Extenders – they are used for increasing the bulk of the product
Methods of meatpreservation Drying – the oldest and most widely used method of preservation Smoking – subjecting meat to smoke produced by burning wood, saw dust, or guava leaves Salting – simple method of dehydration Chilling and freezing – chilling is subjecting meat to a range of 0-4ºC (32-40ºF) Canning – is hermetically sealed in a container and subjected to a thermal process Curing – centers on one basic principle that curing ingredients inhibit the growth of micro organisms
Consumer Product Qualityand Safety Standard 1. Meat Standards – meat products a. Meat selection - physical property of fresh meat should conform to the standards, set by the NMIC b. Meat cuts - should conform to the standards set by the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) and NMIC requirements c. Meat branding - logo bearing inspected and passed including the name of province, town/city, accreditation number of SLH in accordance to rules and regulations provided by the NMIC.
- Inspected meat must be covered byveterinary Quarantine Certificate andmust bear inspected by the controllingauthorities.- all meat to be exported must comefrom a SLH/PDR accredited by theNMIC as class “AA”
Labelling and PackagingPackaging is an important step or process in the distribution or sale of meat and meat products1. Meat products Wrapping and packaging should take place in hygienic condition (designed flow line)2. Materials needed should be strong to protect the products during handling and transport3. Uncolored transparent covering such as cellophane which bear no written, printed or graphic matter should not be re-used for other meat products.
4. Labels of all products shall show the following - name of product - accurate quantity contents - ingredients - name and address of manufacturer, packed and distributor - if the wrappings are intended solely to protect the product against soiling and excessive drying during transportation/storage. - wrappings should bear no information except company brand name, trade name, code number.
Processed meat products 1. Packaging - packaging processes and materials shall not transmit contaminated or objectionable substances to the product - shall conform to any applicable food additive regulation - should provide adequate protection from contamination
Characteristics of a good packaging material: An oxygen barrier Moisture barrier Moldable and pliable Flavorless and tasteless High wet strength and resistant to scraping/tearing Adaptable to labelling Stripability Attractive Not expensive and time saving to apply
Materials available for packaging of meat and meat products1. Glass and metal containers2. Aluminum foil3. Paper and paper board4. Films or plastic like cellophane, polyethylene5. Saran6. Chemically treated rubber
2. Labelling The following pointers must be considered if labelling is done: Label should be legible and indelible Label should be informative - name of product - ingredients - quantity - inspection stamp - name and address of processor - date prepared - consumption/ expiry date Label must be accurate Unnecessary information should be avoided
Marketing of livestock andLivestock products 1. Marketing live animals Markets – are the link between animal products and processor as well as a link between producers. This is also where buyer and seller meet. This is maybe a physical facility or it maybe by phone, contract or other means of communication.
Marketing live animalsWays of marketing live animals: a. Direct marketing – direct transaction between the livestock producer and the meat processing establishment in the sale of animals. There is no intermediate agent involved in the transaction. b. Auctions – a sale where successive bills are received and the animal is sold to the highest bidder. Sales are made with a nod of the head, displaying a number or by spoken word.
Marketing live animalsc. Terminal markets or public stockyards – a market where animals are gathered and sold by commission agents on behalf of the owner. These are livestock trading center with complete facilities for receiving, caring for, handling and selling livestock on a private treaty basis. All buyers and sellers are privileged to use the facilities. A nod of the head or a spoken word is used in place of a written contract. Livestock are sold on a live basis.
2. Marketing livestock products Eggs are classified according to size and graded according to standards of quality. After that, they are cased or packaged in retail containers. The milk producer has two methods of merchandising milk. One is processing it and selling it directly to the consumer and the second is to sell it to a handler, who processes the milk either as fluid products or manufacturing products and sells to the consumer. Meat carcasses are however sold based on classes and grades.
References Asian Livestock. 1995. Milk for All. 20(10) 128-130. FAO Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand. Asian Livestock.1996.World Outlook on meat for 1996. 21(7) 73-77. FAO Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand. Animal Science and Industry. Duane, Acker and Merle Cunningham. 2001. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Meat Processing for Small and Medium Scale Operations. P. I. Ibarra. 1983 The Science of Animal Husbandry. 6th Ed. Blakely, J and D.H. Bade. 1994. xvi +656 pp. Prentice Hall Inc., USA The Philippines Recommends for Dairy Products Manufacture. PCARRD. 1991. Series 75. DOST, Los Baños, Laguna. Teacher’s guide Student’s Laboratory Manual on Ruminant Production Management. Robles, A.Y. and S. T. Manceto. 1991. 258 pp. ATEP- ADPITAF- DECS, Philippines. Scientific Farm Animal Production: An Introduction to Animal Science. 7th Ed. Taylor, R.E. 2001. Prentice Hall, USA.