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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 3 - Vitamins, water, fibre and a balanced diet
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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 3 - Vitamins, water, fibre and a balanced diet

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  • 1. Vitamins
  • 2. Vitamins
    • Organic compounds
    • Not built in a definite pattern
    • Not energy providing
    • Required in small amts (for normal growth & development)
    • Diff. vitamins found in diff. foods (varied diet -> ensure we get most of our vitamins )
  • 3. Vitamins
    • Amt. required varies with age
    • Water soluble vs fat soluble vitamins
    • Symptoms (characteristic signs) appear if vitamin deficient (mild/severe)
    • Mild deficiency (symptoms: person irritable/feels run-down)
    Cannot be stored in body -> need to be supplied in diet Can be stored in fats of the body
  • 4. Vitamins A (Pg. 69 Biology Textbook)
    • Functions:
    • formation of retina
    • Maintaining healthy epithelial tissues
    • Sources:
    • Dairy products
    • Fish liver-oils
    • Green leafy vegetables
  • 5. Vitamin A deficiency
  • 6. Vit. B complex
    • Function:
    • Important co-enzymes in cellular respiration (several)
    • Sources :
    • Yeast
    • Liver
    • Bran
  • 7. Vit. B deficiency
    • Anemia is a condition where RBCs are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues
    • Many types and causes of anemia
    • Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a substance needed to absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract
    • Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells
    - large, dense, oversized, red blood cells (RBCs) - occur when there is a deficiency of vitamin B-12.
  • 8. Vit. B deficiency
  • 9. Vit. C
    • Water soluble vitamin
    • Function(s):
    • Needed for formation of intercellular substances (btw cells; hold cells together)
    • Necessary for maintaining healthy epithelial tissues
    • Sources :
    • Fresh citrus fruits (oranges, lemons) + fruits (bananas, guava, papaya, tomatoes)
    • Fresh green vegetables
    • Fruits juices (blackcurrent + rose hip syrups)
    • Note: Easily destroyed by heat; excess is excreted by body
  • 10. Scurvy
    • caused by a dietary lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    • Ascorbic acid is important in the formation of collagen (an element of normal tissues), and any deficiency interferes with normal tissue synthesis
  • 11. Scurvy "warning signs" Gingival Hemorrhage Corkscrew Hair Periungual Hemorrhage (swollen and bleeding gums with loosened teeth) (soreness and stiffness of the joints)
  • 12. Vit. D
    • Fat-soluble vitamin
    • Function:
    • Promotes absorption of calcium + phosphorous (from intestine) -> form teeth + bones
    • Sources :
    • Fish liver oils (cod & halibut), eggs, yolk, milk & margarine
    • Ultraviolet rays in sunlight ( ergosterol in skin -> Vitamin D)
  • 13. Rickets Knock knee deformity (genu valgum) Bowleg deformity (genu varum) Wrist enlargement Ankle enlargement - Poor teeth and bone formation - Childrens’ bones are soft; pliable; bent under body weight
  • 14. Excess Vit. D
    • Demineralisation of bones -> multiple fractures -> widespread calcification of soft tissues
    • Calcification:
    • 99% of calcium entering the body is deposited in bones and teeth
    • Remaining 1% of calcium is dissolved in the blood
    • When a disorder affects the balance between calcium and other minerals or hormones, calcium can be deposited in other parts of the body, such as arteries, kidneys, lungs, and brain.
    • Calcium deposits in these parts of the body can cause problems with the function of these organs.
  • 15. Water
  • 16. Water
    • Essential component of protoplasm (very impt.)
    • Functions :
    • Medium in which various chemical rxns take place
    • Transporting agent for
    • - digested food substances (intestines -> other parts of body)
    • - excretory products (tissue cells -> excretory organs)
    • - hormones (from place of origin -> regions of body that require them)
    • Major/essential component of
    • - lubricant found in joints
    • - digestive juices
    • - blood
  • 17. Water requirements
    • Depends on:
    • Activity of person (active?)
    • Environmental conditions (hot & dry -> more water required)
    • Suffering from disease? (e.g. diabetes -> water lost through urine)
  • 18. Minerals
  • 19. Minerals
    • Inorganic salts
    • Do not provide energy
    • Indispensable to bodily functions
    • Obtained from animals or plants
    • Requirements vary for diff. minerals
    • (K, Na, Cl, P, Fe -> large amts.)
    • Trace elements (minerals required in minute amts.) e.g. I, Zn, Mn
  • 20. Minerals
    • Refer to pg. 71 of textbook
  • 21. Dietary fibre (roughage)
  • 22. Dietary fibre
    • Refers to indigestible fibrous materials present in diet e.g. cellulose
    • Functions :
    • Provides bulk to intestinal contents
    • Helps peristalsis (wavelike, muscular contractions of walls of digestive tract -> propels food to move along digestive canal )
    • -> lack will cause constipation
    • Sources :
    • Fresh fruit
    • Vegetables
    • Bran
    • Cereals
    • Wholemeal bread
  • 23. Balanced diet
  • 24. Balanced diet
    • Definition :
    • Contains the right amount of carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water and roughage to meet the daily requirements of the body
    • - Varies with lifestyle, activities and age
  • 25. Basal metabolic rate
    • Definition :
    • Amount of energy required to carry on vital life processes of the body when it is in complete rest
    • Affected by:
    • Climate (cold -> lose more heat -> more energy to maintain body temp.)
    • Body size (big/small; big -> more energy for basal metablism) )
    • Age (young/old; young -> more energy needed for growth )
    • Sex (male/female; males have higher heat production because they have less amt. of fatty tissue)
    • Health of individual (thyroxine levels determined by activity of thyroid gland; more thyroxine -> high basal metabolic rate)
    • Occupation (active -> more energy -> higher basal metabolic rate)
  • 26. Energy balance
    • Ideally there should be a balance between energy intake and expenditure
    • If energy intake high; expenditure low -> body gains weight
  • 27. Losing weight
    • Reduced intake of fats and carbohydrates (not other food nutrients e.g. protein)
    • High protein intake discouraged -> excessive amt. of nitrogen -> removed by liver (urea) -> excreted by kidneys in urine (overwork liver and kidneys -> damage)