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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins
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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins

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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins Presentation Transcript

  • Fats
  • Question:
    • Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass?
  • Lesson objectives:
    • Function of fats
    • Structure of fats
    • Occurrence of fats
    • Saturated vs unsaturated fats
    • Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass?
  • Activity:
    • In pairs, list the possible functions of fats in animals
  • Function of fats
    • Fats serve as:
    • An efficient source & storage of energy
    • As an insulating material (beneath the skin to prevent excessive heat loss) e.g. blubber in whales
    • As a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins , sex hormones & related hormones
    • As a constituent of protoplasm (esp. in protoplasmic mb)
    • As a means to restrict water loss from skin surface -> oily secretion by sebaceous glands in skin forms thin layer over surface ; reduces rate of water evaporation & heat loss
  • Fats
    • Energy-providing foods
    • Commonly used as food stores (esp. animals)
    • Consists of elements -> carbon, hydrogen, oxygen [ less O:H than carbohydrates ]
  • Fats
    • Split by hydrolysis into simpler compounds
  • Occurrence
    • Food rich in fats e.g. butter, cheese, fatty meat, nuts, leguminous plants
    • Liver of fish e.g. sharks
    • Fish like herring fish, salmon (oily fish)
    • Humans & other mammals can manufacture own fat requirements (not essential in diet)
  • Saturated vs unsaturated fats
    • Saturated fats:
    • Cholesterol (fatty substance) found together with saturated fats
    • Deposition of cholesterol in arteries -> heart attack
    • Unsaturated fats:
    • Vegetable oil
    • Do not cause heart diseases (should be used as substitutes for animal fats)
  • Question:
    • Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass?
    No!
  • Sumo wrestlers fatten up on chankonabe
    • caloric staple of the sumo diet of sumo
    • consider chanko a nutritious food that helps make your bones denser
    • Ingredients: tofu, carrots, cabbages, leeks, potatoes, lotus roots, daikon radishes, shiitake mushrooms, and giant burdock into a boiling chicken broth
    • form their MoonPie-shaped sumo bodies by swilling prodigious portions, along with rice, beer, and an occasional side dish of omelets, shrimp dumplings, and fried chicken. Then they take a long nap
  • Proteins
  • Lesson objectives:
    • Structure of proteins
    • Function of proteins
    • Protein deficiency
  • Proteins
    • Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (often sulphur & phosphorus present)
    • Molecules largest & most complex
    • Basic units = amino acids (a.a)
    • a.a. possess an amino grp.(-NH 2 ) + acidic grp (-COOH) + a hydrocarbon side chain (R)
  • Structure of proteins
  • Amino acids
  • Proteins
    • 22 naturally occurring a.a. in plant & animal proteins
    • a.a. link with each other to form long chains
    • If ≥ 3 a.a link up by peptide bonds = polypeptide/ peptone
  • Proteins
    • Protein molecules made of one or more polypeptide chains
    • Chains are coiled up to give a distinctive 3D shape
    • Coils are held in place by weak cross-links ( H bonds) -> broken easily by heat, acids & alkalis -> denaturation
  • Functions of proteins
    • Essential for protoplasm synthesis
    • Used for enzyme & hormone synthesis
    • Used for antibodies formation to combat disease
    • Source of energy
  • Protein deficiency
    • Average adult requires 50-100g of proteins a day
    • Deficiency -> kwashiorkor
    • Symptoms:
    • swollen abdomen (children)
    • Cracked scaly skin