Chapter 8 Lesson 1 - The Components of Blood

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  • Red blood cells move in single file through the capillaries. Each red blood cell is a biconcave disk containing many molecules of hemoglobin, the respiratory pigment. Hemoglobin contains four polypeptide chains (in blue). There is an iron-containing heme group in the center of each chain. Oxygen loosely combines with hemoglobin when oxygenated. Oxyhemoglobin is bright red, and deoxyhemoglobin is a dark maroon color.
  • Monocyte-derived macrophages are the body’s scavengers. They engulf microbes and debris in the body’s fluids and tissues, as illustrated in this colorized scanning electron micrograph. The macrophage is in red, and the bacteria are in green.
  • Chapter 8 Lesson 1 - The Components of Blood

    1. 1. Transport in Mammals Chapter 8
    2. 2. Lesson objectives <ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels – artery, vein, capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>- structure & function </li></ul><ul><li>- mode of action </li></ul><ul><li>- diseases & relation to our diet </li></ul>
    3. 3. The mammalian circulatory system 3 main parts: Blood vessels <ul><li>tubes for blood to flow along </li></ul>Blood <ul><li>dissolves and carries materials </li></ul>Heart <ul><li>works as pump </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1) Blood
    5. 5. Warning!!! Do NOT come into contact with the blood of another person The danger of disease transmission is much too great
    6. 6. Composition of Blood
    7. 7. Four main components in blood Blood cells
    8. 8. Composition of blood Plasma Blood cells Platelets WBC (leucocytes) RBC (erythrocytes) Blood
    9. 9. Normal Blood
    10. 10. Types of blood cells (red blood cell) (white blood cells) Any difference between the two?
    11. 11. RBC <ul><li>circular biconcave shape </li></ul><ul><li>no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>diameter less than 0.01mm </li></ul><ul><li>elastic (can squeeze through capillary) </li></ul><ul><li>~5 million RBC/mm 3 of blood </li></ul><ul><li>produced by bone marrow </li></ul>
    12. 12. Physiology of red blood cells Each haemoglobin molecule can bind up to 4 molecules of oxygen
    13. 13. How RBCs transport O 2
    14. 14. RBC <ul><li>contain haemoglobin (red pigment) </li></ul><ul><li>enables O 2 transport (from lungs to rest of body) </li></ul><ul><li>lifespan 3-4 months </li></ul><ul><li>destroyed in spleen & liver </li></ul>haemoglobin breakdown Iron released Bile pigments <ul><li>stored in liver </li></ul><ul><li>excreted in gut in the bile </li></ul>
    15. 15. WBC <ul><li>colourless (no haemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><li>larger than RBC </li></ul><ul><li>ratio RBC:WBC = ~700:1 </li></ul><ul><li>irregular in shape </li></ul><ul><li>has nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>can move and change shape (able to squeeze) </li></ul><ul><li>lifespan few days </li></ul>
    16. 16. White blood cells (WBC) 2 main kinds lymphocytes phagocytes <ul><li>produced by lymph glands/nodes </li></ul><ul><li>has large rounded nucleus + small amt. of non-granular cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>produce antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>produced by bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>able to 1 engulf and 2 ingest foreign particles ( phagocytosis ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 types : monocytes & polymorphs </li></ul>
    17. 17. Platelets <ul><li>fragments of cytoplasm from certain bone marrow cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function: clotting of blood </li></ul>
    18. 18. Functions of blood <ul><li>Transport function </li></ul><ul><li>Protective function </li></ul>
    19. 19. Function of blood <ul><li>Transport function </li></ul><ul><li>Digested food substances </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory products (from tissues to excretory organs) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. nitrogenous waste products -> kidneys </li></ul><ul><li> carbon dioxide (bicarbonate ions) -> lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 (from lungs to rest of body) </li></ul><ul><li>Protective function </li></ul><ul><li>Guards against infection </li></ul><ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul>plasma RBC WBC platelets
    20. 20. Protective function <ul><li>Phagocytosis – process of engulfing & ingesting foreign particles e.g. bacteria by WBC </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody production (anti-toxins + agglutination) </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting/ coagulation of blood </li></ul>lymphocytes phagocytes
    21. 21. Functions of antibodies <ul><li>Destroy the bacteria by attaching to them, causing the bacterial surface membrane to rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Causes agglutination i.e. the clumping together of bacteria so that they can be easily ingested by the phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralizing the toxins produced by bacteria (act as anti-toxins ) </li></ul><ul><li>Attaching to viruses, making them unable to bind to the host cell </li></ul>
    22. 22. Clotting of blood
    23. 26. WBC (neutrophil) YEAST CELL Phagocytosis
    24. 27. Macrophage engulfing bacteria
    25. 28. Organ transplant and tissue rejection <ul><li>Organ transplants involve the replacement of a damaged/diseased organ/tissue with a healthy one </li></ul><ul><li>Chances of new organ/tissue being rejected by the immune system of the recipient </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue rejection would not be a problem if the tissue to be transplanted comes from the same person e.g. coronary artery being replaced by artery from another part of the person’s body </li></ul>
    26. 29. Preventing tissue rejection <ul><li>Obtaining a tissue match . Tissue of donor and recipient has to be genetically as close as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Using immunosuppressive drugs which inhibit the activity of the recipient’s immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Recipient becomes susceptible to many kinds of infections </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Recipient has to continue treatment for the rest of his life </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray radiation of the bone marrow and lymphoid tissue may inhibit the production of blood cells -> slows down the rejection process </li></ul>
    27. 30. Blood Groups
    28. 31. Types of blood groups <ul><li>Blood group A </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group B </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group AB ( universal recipient ) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group O ( universal donor ) </li></ul>What is the difference between the different blood groups?
    29. 32. What causes agglutination of red blood cells? <ul><li>The surfaces of red blood cells contain special proteins called antigens </li></ul><ul><li>The blood plasma (a.k.a. serum) contains natural antibodies which are always in the blood (unlike the antibodies produced by lymphocytes ) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural antibodies will not react with the antigens on our red blood cells, but they may react with the antigens from another person causing agglutination (clumping). </li></ul>
    30. 33. What happens when blood groups are incompatible during a blood transfusion? <ul><li>Agglutination occurs i.e. clumping together of RBCs (due the reaction of antibodies with antigens -> special proteins found on the surface of the RBCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks up small blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents the flow of blood </li></ul><ul><li>May result in death </li></ul>
    31. 34. Differences between the blood groups A antigen A antibody b B AB O antigen B antigen A and B no antigen antibody a no antibodies antibody a and b (universal donor) (universal recipient) Note: Antigens represented by capital letters A and B Antibodies represented by small letters a and b Antibody in serum Antigen on RBC Blood group
    32. 37. Agglutinated blood
    33. 38. ***Why is blood group O the universal donor? <ul><li>When blood group O blood is transfused into a person of blood group A, the recipient’s antibodies will not agglutinate with the donor’s red blood cells since the latter has no antigens . </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, the donor’s (group O) antibodies a and b will be so diluted by the recipient’s blood that they do not have any effect on the recipient’s red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Note: When a transfusion is carried out, we consider only the effect the recipient’s plasma has on the donor’s red blood cells </li></ul>
    34. 39. ***Why is blood group AB the universal acceptor? <ul><li>When blood group A or blood group B blood is transfused into a person of blood group AB, the recipient’s antibodies will not agglutinate with the donor’s red blood cells since the former has no antibodies . </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, the donor’s (group A and B) antibodies a and b will be so diluted by the recipient’s blood that they do not have any effect on the recipient’s red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Note: When a transfusion is carried out, we consider only the effect the recipient’s plasma has on the donor’s red blood cells </li></ul>

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