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Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
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Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes

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  • 1. Chapter 4 Enzymes
  • 2. Lesson Objectives
    • Definition of catalysts
    • Definition of enzymes
    • Roles of enzymes
    • Enzymes found at home
    • Characteristics of enzymes
  • 3. BBQ
  • 4.
    • Qn : Why do chefs add pineapple juice/ unripe papaya juice to meat?
    Qn : What is the purpose of adding the juices? Qn : Can any juice be used for the same function?
  • 5. Marinades
    • Tenderizing marinades makes leaner cuts of meat more tender and juicy
    • Contents in the marinade that tenderize the meat can come from
    • 1) acidic foods like lemon juice, yogurt, wine, or vinegar
    • OR
    • 2) natural enzymes found in fresh papaya, ginger, pineapple, and figs.
  • 6. What are enzymes?
    • Protein in nature (most enzymes!)
    • biological catalysts
    • (A catalyst is a substance that alters or speeds up a chemical reaction , without itself being chemically changed at the end of the reaction)
    •  therefore required in small quantities
  • 7. How do enzymes alter the rate of chemical reactions?
    • The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called activation energy
    • Enzymes lower the activation energy required to start a chemical reaction
  • 8. time
  • 9. Terms to know: substrate : substances on which enzymes act upon Note the surface configuration/shape of the substrate & enzymes Enzyme-substrate complex
  • 10. Lock & Key Hypothesis
  • 11.  
  • 12. +
  • 13. synthetase hydrolase
  • 14. Based on lock and key hypothesis…
    • Enzymes
    • alter the rates of reaction
    • are specific
    • are required in minute amounts
  • 15. Roles of enzymes
    • digestion
    • synthesis of complex substances
    • hydrolysis of complex substances
    • e.g. hydrolysis by catalase
  • 16. 1) Digestion
    • 3 main classes of food we eat
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Fats
    • Molecules are:
    • Large
    • Insoluble
    • Non-diffusible molecules
  • 17. Digestion
    • Involves breakdown of
    • Carbohydrates  simple sugars
    • Proteins  amino acids
    • Fats  fatty acids + glycerol
    • Brought about by action of digestive enzymes
    • Converted into:
    • small
    • soluble
    • diffusible molecules
  • 18. Carbohydrate Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides (simple sugars) (complex sugars) starch cellulose glycogen e.g. maltose, lactose, sucrose e.g. glucose, galactose, fructose
  • 19. Disaccharides & Monosaccharides maltase lactase sucrase glucose + fructose Sucrose glucose + galactose Lactose glucose + glucose Maltose Monosaccharide Disaccharide
  • 20. Hydrolysis
    • Break down of complex molecules into simpler molecules
    • Water molecules are needed for the process
  • 21. Enzymes Active site : the substrate binding site of an enzyme The shape of the substrate has to be complementary to the active site for the chemical reaction to take place
  • 22. 2) Synthesis of complex substances
    • Composed entirely of glucose units
    • Yet have different properties
    • Due to differential arrangement
    (plants) (plants) (humans)
  • 23. 3) Breakdown of complex substances Chemical reactions produce H 2 O 2 H 2 O 2 is toxic to tissues Cells produce catalase Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide  water and oxygen
  • 24. Potato + hydrogen peroxide
    • Where is the source of catalase?
    • A slice of potato or a drop of blood will cause hydrogen peroxide to fizz (form bubbles)
    source of catalase Hydrogen peroxide Bubbling in H 2 O 2
  • 25. Classification of enzymes
  • 26. Many classes
    • Hydrolases e.g. digestive enzymes
      • - carbohydrases e.g. amylase (digest starch), cellulase (digest cellulose)
      • - proteases (digest proteins)
      • - lipases (digest fats a.k.a lipids)
    • Oxidation-reduction enzymes