Based on the fact that in every cycle there is a fertile period when ovulation is most likely to occur ( 12 th -16 th day from beginning of menstruation )
Sexual intercourse should be avoided during this period if pregnancy is to be prevented
Women using this method have to keep regular records of their menstrual cycles, recording their daily temperature for the whole cycle as the body temperature is usually higher during ovulation
Intra-uterine device (IUD)
Detrimental side effects
There is no direct contact between the penis and the vagina.
The woman is not aware of warm fluid entering her body (important to some women, not to others)
Friction of the condom may diminish clitoral stimulation and reduce lubrication, making intercourse less enjoyable or even uncomfortable
The condom may make noise
Irritation and allergic reactions may occur
The estimated effectiveness of the female condom is between 75% and 82%. The reasons for failure are the same as those for the male condom:
A rip or tear in a condom (can be made before or during intercourse)
Spillage of semen from a condom while removing it
Delayed placement of a condom in the vagina ( penis comes into contact with vagina before condom is in place)
Rarely, failure due to manufacturing defects
Failure to use a condom during each act of intercourse
Prevents the implantation of the fertilized egg unto the uterine wall
Chemicals used to kill sperms
Form of jelly, cream, foam or tablet
Can be placed high above the vagina before intercourse or used together with condoms or diaphragms for greater protection
Contain progesterone and oestrogen-like hormones that prevent ovulation
One pill taken every 24 hrs from 5 th – 25 th day from the onset of menstruation
The women then stops taking the pill for menstruation to occur
She starts taking the pill again on the 5 th day from the start of menstruation
Most reliable contraceptive method (but it’s irreversible!!!)
Vasectomy : sterilization of the male
The sperm ducts are cut and tied
Preventing sperms from reaching the penis so no sperms are discharged
Tubal ligation : sterilization of the female
Both the oviducts are cut and tied back
This prevents the sperms in the uterus from reaching the egg
Vasectomy (for males)
Tubal Ligation (for females)
the premature termination of a pregnancy associated with the death of an embryo or a fetus .
(i) occur spontaneously, in the form of a miscarriage , or
(ii) be intentionally induced through chemical , surgical , or other means.
Spontaneous abortion ( miscarriage ): An abortion due to accidental trauma or natural causes .
Induced abortion : An abortion deliberately caused.
(i) Therapeutic abortion :
To save the life of the pregnant woman.
To preserve the woman's physical or mental health.
To terminate a pregnancy that would result in a child born with a congenital disorder which would be fatal or associated with significant morbidity .
To selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy .
(ii) Elective abortion : An abortion performed for any other reason
Summary Abstinence saves us these unnecessary worries & increases our value when we reserve ourselves for that someone special! Promiscuity Unwanted pregnancy STDs Belittles the value of relationships doN’T u AgReE?