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Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 4 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Family Planning
 

Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 4 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Family Planning

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  • These photos show the effect of an HIV infection in one individual who progressed through all the stages of AIDS. On the left, AID patient Tom Moran is shown in July, 1987. In the center, Tom Moran is shown again, in early January 1988. On the right, Tom is shown in late January 1988.
  • A graph depicting the incidence of new cases of gonorrhea in the United States from 1945 to 1998 is superimposed on a photomicrograph of a urethral discharge from an infected male. Gonorrheal bacteria ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae ) occur in pairs; for this reason, they are called diplococci.
  • A graph depicting the incidence of new reported cases of genital herpes in the United States from 1972 to 1998 is superimposed on a photomicrograph of cells infected with the herpesvirus.
  • A graph depicting the incidence of new cases of genital warts reported in the United States from 1972 to 1998 superimposed on a photomicrograph of human papillomaviruses.

Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 4 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Family Planning Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 4 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Family Planning Presentation Transcript

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • AIDS virus acts to destroy the victim’s immune system
    • The body is unable to produce sufficient antibodies to provide the immunity needed to protect the person against other diseases (immune deficient)
    • Therefore, infections which are normally mild may prove fatal to a person with AIDS
  • The course of an AIDS infection
  • Signs and symptoms
    • Chronic fever
    • Severe diarrhoea (lasting for months)
    • Pneumonia
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma (cancer of blood vessels)
    • Brain infection
    • Widespread tuberculosis (affecting many organs at the same time)
    • Note: Victims of AIDS normally die within 2 years and currently there is no cure for it
  • Methods of HIV transmission
  • Prevention and control
    • Keep to one sex partner and avoid promiscuous sexual behaviour
    • Males should wear a condom if they are not sure whether their partners or themselves are infected with AIDS. This reduces the risk of infection
    • Avoid drug abuse (sharing of hypodermic needles)
    • Avoid sharing instruments that are likely to break the skin and be contaminated with blood e.g. razors and toothbrushes
    • If you require acupuncture, ear-piercing or tattooing, you should go to reliable operators. Make sure the needles used are sterilized or insist on using disposable instruments
  • Syphilis
    • Passed on to partner by a person infected with spirochete (corkscrew-shaped bacterium)
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Stage 1 : painless sore appears at site of entry of the bacteria (on the penis for males or in the vagina or cervix for females)
    • May disappear in a few weeks without treatment
    • Stage 2 :
    • Non-itchy rashes, sores on the mouth, throat and genitals
    • Bald patches may appear on the head
    • Swollen lymph glands
    • Signs may disappear after some time but the bacteria remains dormant in the body till the third stage of the disease
    • Stage 3 :
    • Internal organs become affected
    • Patients die from heart failure and blindness
    • Brain and spinal cord may be damaged resulting in paralysis, insanity and even death
  •  
  • Prevention and control
    • Use antibiotics e.g. penicillin to treat infected persons
    • Advising infected persons to refrain from intercourse
    • Tracing the contacts with whom an infected person has had intercourse and treating them promptly
    • Advising males to wear a condom during intercourse
    • Discouraging promiscuous sexual behaviour and keeping to one sex partner
  • Gonorrhea
  •  
  • Genital herpes
  • Genital warts
  • Family Planning Birth control
  • Family planning
    • For the benefit of both parents and children
    • For financial and health reasons, many couples want to space out their children
  • What is birth control?
    • Definition :
    • Birth control means things you can do to ensure that pregnancy only happens if and when you want it to
    • Can mean abstinence
    • - Abstinence is deciding not to do something, and abstaining from having sexual intercourse will ensure that pregnancy does not occur
    • Can also mean using a method of contraception to ensure that pregnancy does not occur when you do have sexual intercourse
    http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/Mosby_factsheets/contraception.html
  • How would contraception work?
  • Methods of contraception
    • Natural method
    • Mechanical methods
    • Chemical methods
    • Surgical methods
  • Natural method
    • Called the rhythm method
    • Based on the fact that in every cycle there is a fertile period when ovulation is most likely to occur ( 12 th -16 th day from beginning of menstruation )
    • Sexual intercourse should be avoided during this period if pregnancy is to be prevented
    • Women using this method have to keep regular records of their menstrual cycles, recording their daily temperature for the whole cycle as the body temperature is usually higher during ovulation
  • Mechanical method
    • Condoms
    • Diaphragm
    • Intra-uterine device (IUD)
  • Male condom
  • Detrimental side effects
    • There is no direct contact between the penis and the vagina.
    • The woman is not aware of warm fluid entering her body (important to some women, not to others)
    • Friction of the condom may diminish clitoral stimulation and reduce lubrication, making intercourse less enjoyable or even uncomfortable
    • The condom may make noise
    • Irritation and allergic reactions may occur
  •  
  • Female condom
    • The estimated effectiveness of the female condom is between 75% and 82%. The reasons for failure are the same as those for the male condom:
    • A rip or tear in a condom (can be made before or during intercourse)
    • Spillage of semen from a condom while removing it
    • Delayed placement of a condom in the vagina ( penis comes into contact with vagina before condom is in place)
    • Rarely, failure due to manufacturing defects
    • Failure to use a condom during each act of intercourse
  •  
  • Prevents the implantation of the fertilized egg unto the uterine wall
  • Chemical method
    • Spermicides
    • Chemicals used to kill sperms
    • Form of jelly, cream, foam or tablet
    • Can be placed high above the vagina before intercourse or used together with condoms or diaphragms for greater protection
    • Contraceptive pills
    • Contain progesterone and oestrogen-like hormones that prevent ovulation
    • One pill taken every 24 hrs from 5 th – 25 th day from the onset of menstruation
    • The women then stops taking the pill for menstruation to occur
    • She starts taking the pill again on the 5 th day from the start of menstruation
  • Hormone-based contraceptives
  • Surgical method
    • Most reliable contraceptive method (but it’s irreversible!!!)
    • Vasectomy : sterilization of the male
    • The sperm ducts are cut and tied
    • Preventing sperms from reaching the penis so no sperms are discharged
    • Tubal ligation : sterilization of the female
    • Both the oviducts are cut and tied back
    • This prevents the sperms in the uterus from reaching the egg
  • Vasectomy (for males)
  • Tubal Ligation (for females)
  • Summary
  • Abortion
  • Abortion
    • Definition:
    • the premature termination of a pregnancy associated with the death of an embryo or a fetus .
    • This can
    • (i) occur spontaneously, in the form of a miscarriage , or
    • (ii) be intentionally induced through chemical , surgical , or other means.
    • Spontaneous abortion ( miscarriage ): An abortion due to accidental trauma or natural causes .
    • Induced abortion : An abortion deliberately caused.
    • (i) Therapeutic abortion :
      • To save the life of the pregnant woman.
      • To preserve the woman's physical or mental health.
      • To terminate a pregnancy that would result in a child born with a congenital disorder which would be fatal or associated with significant morbidity .
      • To selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy .
    • (ii) Elective abortion : An abortion performed for any other reason
  •  
  • 7 weeks
  • 8 weeks
  • 9 weeks
  • 10 weeks
  •  
  • Summary Abstinence saves us these unnecessary worries & increases our value when we reserve ourselves for that someone special! Promiscuity Unwanted pregnancy STDs Belittles the value of relationships doN’T u AgReE?