Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 1 - Human Reproductive System

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  • As a follicle matures, the oocyte enlarges and is surrounded by layers of follicular cells and fluid. Eventually, ovulation occurs, the mature follicle ruptures, and the secondary oocyte is released. A single follicle actually goes through all stages in one place within the ovary. Primary follicles contain the oocyte and begin producing the sex hormone estrogen. Secondary follicles contain the secondary oocyte and produce the sex hormones estrogen and some progesterone. The vesicular (Graafian) follicle develops. Ovulation: The secondary oocyte is released. The corpus luteum produces the sex hormones progesterone and some estrogen. The corpus luteum degenerates.
  • Chapter 17 Reproduction in Humans Lesson 1 - Human Reproductive System

    1. 1. Reproduction in Humans Chapter 21 <ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction in Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually Transmitted Diseases </li></ul>
    2. 2. Why Biology lessons are interesting… <ul><li>The 10th grade teacher asks Jessica: &quot;What part of the human body increases to 10 times it's normal size when excited?&quot; Jessica responds: &quot;That's disgusting! I don't have to answer that question!&quot; So the teacher asks little Johnny, who responds: &quot;That's easy...the pupil of the eye.&quot; &quot;That's correct, Johnny. Very good!&quot; And turning to Jessica, she says: &quot;I've three things to say to you, young lady... first, you didn't do your homework; second, you have a dirty mind; and third, you're in for a big disappointment!&quot; </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview 2 types of reproduction Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction - the process where two cells (gametes) fuse to form one fertilized cell or zygote - any type of reproduction not involving the union of gametes
    4. 4. Animal Reproduction Budding: reproduction Fission: regeneration & reproduction Asexual Reproduction Parthenogenesis: Haploid eggs develop into adults without fertilization e.g. male honeybees
    5. 5. Animal Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union of egg and sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) External </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spawning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dioecious versus Monoecious organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hermaphrodites </li></ul></ul>- a reproductive strategy where eggs and sperm are released into the water, where fertilization takes place - The act of mating for reproduction - animals or plants having both male and female reproductive organs - having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
    6. 6. Gametes involved in sexual reproduction: <ul><li>Sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Egg (Ovum) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Male and female gametes <ul><li>Produced by gonads </li></ul>testes Male gonad sperm Female gonad ovaries ova (plural) ovum (singular) meiosis
    8. 8. Question: <ul><li>How many chromosomes does a human have? </li></ul><ul><li>So if that is the case how many chromosomes does the gametes contain? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the number of chromosomes the same for all living organisms? </li></ul>23 pairs of chromosomes (diploid, 2n) 23 chromosomes each (haploid, n) NO!!!
    9. 9. Sperm production 46 chromosomes 23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes 23 chromosomes diploid (2n) haploid (n) haploid (n) haploid (n) haploid (n) Definition of gamete : A reproductive cell containing the haploid number of chromosomes
    10. 10. Sperm Anatomy 1. 3. 4. 5. 2.
    11. 11. Sperm Anatomy - sac containing enzymes that break down egg membrane so that sperm can penetrate during fertilization - provides energy for sperm activity - enables sperm to swim towards egg - carries haploid number of chromosomes
    12. 13. Anatomy of ovary and follicle <ul><li>eggs/ ova develop within ovaries of mature female </li></ul><ul><li>only about 500 mature ova mature from 70 000 potential cells present at birth </li></ul><ul><li>- released from puberty to menopause </li></ul><ul><li>- usually one egg is released every month </li></ul><ul><li>- the ovaries take turns to release eggs </li></ul>
    13. 14. Production of Eggs 46 chromosomes diploid (2n) 23 chromosomes haploid (n) Variations in the gametes, together with random fertilization produce variations in the offspring
    14. 15. Summary Cells in gonads of male and female parents sperm (n) egg (n) + Fertilization zygote (2n) (undergoes mitosis to form the embryo )
    15. 17. The Human Reproductive System
    16. 18. The Male Reproductive System Large intestine Rectum Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s gland Epididymis Testis Scrotum Penis Urethra Vas deferens Pubic bone Urinary bladder 1. 2. 3. 4.
    17. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Parts of the Male Reproductive System
    18. 20. Function of structures Large intestine Rectum Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s gland Epididymis Testis Scrotum Penis Urethra Vas deferens (sperm duct) Pubic bone Urinary bladder 1. 2. 3. 4. <ul><li>outside main body cavity -> sperm development requires a temperature lower than that of the body </li></ul><ul><li>produces sperms </li></ul><ul><li>produces testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>temporarily stores inactive sperms before ejaculation </li></ul><ul><li>secretes semen </li></ul><ul><li>[mixture of fluid (containing nutrients and enzymes -> nourish & activate sperms ) + sperms] </li></ul><ul><li>erectile organ </li></ul><ul><li>contain erectile tissue with numerous blood spaces </li></ul><ul><li>when blood spaces filled with blood, penis becomes erect and hard </li></ul><ul><li>tube through which semen and urine pass out of the body </li></ul><ul><li>they do not pass out of the at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>the sphincter muscle prevents urine from coming out of the bladder during ejaculation </li></ul>
    19. 21. The Female Reproductive System Fallopian tube Ovary Urinary bladder Pubic bone Urethra Vagina Uterus Cervix Rectum Vagina Fallopian tube Ovary 1. 2. 3. 4.
    20. 22. Ovary (oviducts) (womb) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5.
    21. 23. <ul><li>eggs (ova) develop inside the ovaries of a mature female </li></ul><ul><li>only one egg released every month from puberty to menopause </li></ul><ul><li>ovaries take turns to release an egg </li></ul>Ovary (oviducts) <ul><li>narrow, muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>leads from ovary to uterus </li></ul><ul><li>the egg is fertilized here </li></ul><ul><li>circular ring of muscle </li></ul><ul><li>it enlarges to allow passage of the fetus during birth </li></ul>(womb) <ul><li>this is where the baby develops during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>has muscular walls </li></ul><ul><li>inner lining ( endometrium ) is soft and smooth </li></ul><ul><li>part of this is sloughed off every month during menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>birth canal </li></ul><ul><li>opening called vulva </li></ul><ul><li>semen deposited here during intercourse </li></ul>
    22. 24. Ovum <ul><li>Spherical </li></ul><ul><li>~120 µm wide </li></ul><ul><li>Has a large nucleus containing one haploid set of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Has abundant cytoplasm which may contain a small amt of yolk </li></ul><ul><li>Is surrounded by a cell surface membrane. The cell surface membrane is surrounded by an outer membrane </li></ul>
    23. 25. Puberty
    24. 26. Puberty <ul><li>Stage of human growth and development in which a person becomes physically mature </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive system begins to function properly </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of puberty for girls at age ~11 </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of puberty for boys at age ~14 </li></ul>
    25. 27. Secondary sexual characteristics <ul><li>Brought about by sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Female sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>-> oestrogen + progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Male sex hormone </li></ul><ul><li> -> testosterone </li></ul>

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