Insulin
Islet of Langerhans  (in pancreas) <ul><li>produce insulin </li></ul><ul><li>during increase in blood glucose concentratio...
Effects of lack of secretion <ul><li>Blood glucose conc. rises  </li></ul><ul><li>->  not utilized by cells   </li></ul><u...
Effects of oversecretion <ul><li>Abnormal decrease in blood glucose conc. </li></ul><ul><li>Shock results </li></ul><ul><l...
Diabetes mellitus <ul><li>Body unable to control its blood glucose conc. within safe limits </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney unabl...
Type 1 diabetes <ul><li>Juvenile/early-onset diabetes (occurs early in life) </li></ul><ul><li>Due to  inability of pancre...
Type 2 diabetes <ul><li>Late-onset diabetes (occurs later in life) </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight people more prone </li></u...
 
Treatment <ul><li>Measure blood glucose conc.  </li></ul><ul><li>Test urine regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Watch diet careful...
Adrenaline
Scenario: <ul><li>The examinations are only one week away and yet Daniel had not started revising his work.  </li></ul><ul...
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Chapter 15 Hormones Lesson 2 - Effects of Adrenaline and Table of comparison btw nervous and hormonal

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Chapter 15 Hormones Lesson 2 - Effects of Adrenaline and Table of comparison btw nervous and hormonal

  1. 1. Insulin
  2. 2. Islet of Langerhans (in pancreas) <ul><li>produce insulin </li></ul><ul><li>during increase in blood glucose concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of insulin: [overall increase in cell glucose utilization] </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cell membrane permeability to glucose -> increasing rate of glucose uptake by cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cause increased oxidation of glucose during tissue respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Causes conversion of EXCESS glucose to glycogen for storage in liver and muscles </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effects of lack of secretion <ul><li>Blood glucose conc. rises </li></ul><ul><li>-> not utilized by cells </li></ul><ul><li>-> diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>Body weakness </li></ul><ul><li>-> no glycogen reserves </li></ul><ul><li>-> continuous loss of weight </li></ul><ul><li>Fat oxidation preferred </li></ul><ul><li>-> formation of ketones (poisonous) </li></ul><ul><li>-> excreted in urine ( ketonuria ) </li></ul><ul><li>-> death may occur </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effects of oversecretion <ul><li>Abnormal decrease in blood glucose conc. </li></ul><ul><li>Shock results </li></ul><ul><li>Coma and death ensues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Diabetes mellitus <ul><li>Body unable to control its blood glucose conc. within safe limits </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney unable to reabsorb all the glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose not reabsorbed is excreted in the urine </li></ul><ul><li>2 main types: </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Type 1 diabetes <ul><li>Juvenile/early-onset diabetes (occurs early in life) </li></ul><ul><li>Due to inability of pancreas to produce sufficient insulin </li></ul>
  7. 7. Type 2 diabetes <ul><li>Late-onset diabetes (occurs later in life) </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight people more prone </li></ul><ul><li>Due to failure of target cells (e.g. muscle cells) to respond to insulin </li></ul>
  8. 9. Treatment <ul><li>Measure blood glucose conc. </li></ul><ul><li>Test urine regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Watch diet carefully (not too much carbohydrate intake) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 : </li></ul><ul><li>Inject insulin into veins daily </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure supply of sugary foods </li></ul><ul><li>-> too low (due to too much insulin, </li></ul><ul><li>exercise too much or eat too little </li></ul><ul><li>-> coma </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 : </li></ul><ul><li>Watch carbohydrate content in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom need for insulin jabs </li></ul>
  9. 10. Adrenaline
  10. 11. Scenario: <ul><li>The examinations are only one week away and yet Daniel had not started revising his work. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how he would be feeling now and the changes that are taking place in his body due to this feelings. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Adrenal medulla <ul><li>Produces adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>During conditions of fear, anxiety and stress </li></ul>
  12. 14. Effects: (prepares body for “fight or flight”/states of emergency) <ul><li>Breakdown of glycogen -> glucose (in liver and muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>-> increases blood glucose concentration (to heart + skeletal muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases metabolic rate (↑ energy release in tissue respiration) </li></ul><ul><li>↑ heartbeat rate; ↑ blood pressure (faster transport of glucose + O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Constricts arteries in skin (pallor) -> more blood to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>↑ coagulation rate of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxes bronchioles (↑ air flow to lungs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil dilation (enhances vision) </li></ul><ul><li>Hair muscle contraction (“goose pimples”) </li></ul>
  13. 16. Sex Hormones
  14. 17. Gonads <ul><li>Testes produce testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulated by hormone from pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Controls male body characteristics development (fetal stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of primary (maturation of sex organs) + secondary (voice deepening + growth of facial + pubic hair) sexual characteristics </li></ul>
  15. 18. Ovaries <ul><li>produces oestrogen + progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>stimulated by hormone from pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrogen : </li></ul><ul><li>-> controls female sex organ development </li></ul><ul><li>-> secondary sexual characteristics (breasts development + broadening of pelvis) </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone : </li></ul><ul><li>-> uterus preparation for embryo implantation </li></ul><ul><li>-> enlargement of mammary glands (pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>-> prevents ovulation </li></ul>
  16. 19. Similarities btw hormonal and nervous control <ul><li>Both serve as a means of coordination within the body </li></ul>Stimulus Transmission of message Effector (response)
  17. 20. Differences between nervous and hormonal controls

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