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Chapter 15 Hormones Lesson 2 - Effects of Adrenaline and Table of comparison btw nervous and hormonal
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Chapter 15 Hormones Lesson 2 - Effects of Adrenaline and Table of comparison btw nervous and hormonal

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  • 1. Insulin
  • 2. Islet of Langerhans (in pancreas)
    • produce insulin
    • during increase in blood glucose concentration
    • Effects of insulin: [overall increase in cell glucose utilization]
    • Increased cell membrane permeability to glucose -> increasing rate of glucose uptake by cells
    • Cause increased oxidation of glucose during tissue respiration
    • Causes conversion of EXCESS glucose to glycogen for storage in liver and muscles
  • 3. Effects of lack of secretion
    • Blood glucose conc. rises
    • -> not utilized by cells
    • -> diabetes mellitus
    • Body weakness
    • -> no glycogen reserves
    • -> continuous loss of weight
    • Fat oxidation preferred
    • -> formation of ketones (poisonous)
    • -> excreted in urine ( ketonuria )
    • -> death may occur
  • 4. Effects of oversecretion
    • Abnormal decrease in blood glucose conc.
    • Shock results
    • Coma and death ensues
  • 5. Diabetes mellitus
    • Body unable to control its blood glucose conc. within safe limits
    • Kidney unable to reabsorb all the glucose
    • Glucose not reabsorbed is excreted in the urine
    • 2 main types:
    • Type 1
    • Type 2
  • 6. Type 1 diabetes
    • Juvenile/early-onset diabetes (occurs early in life)
    • Due to inability of pancreas to produce sufficient insulin
  • 7. Type 2 diabetes
    • Late-onset diabetes (occurs later in life)
    • Overweight people more prone
    • Due to failure of target cells (e.g. muscle cells) to respond to insulin
  • 8.  
  • 9. Treatment
    • Measure blood glucose conc.
    • Test urine regularly
    • Watch diet carefully (not too much carbohydrate intake)
    • Type 1 :
    • Inject insulin into veins daily
    • Ensure supply of sugary foods
    • -> too low (due to too much insulin,
    • exercise too much or eat too little
    • -> coma
    • Type 2 :
    • Watch carbohydrate content in diet
    • Seldom need for insulin jabs
  • 10. Adrenaline
  • 11. Scenario:
    • The examinations are only one week away and yet Daniel had not started revising his work.
    • Describe how he would be feeling now and the changes that are taking place in his body due to this feelings.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Adrenal medulla
    • Produces adrenaline
    • During conditions of fear, anxiety and stress
  • 14. Effects: (prepares body for “fight or flight”/states of emergency)
    • Breakdown of glycogen -> glucose (in liver and muscles)
    • -> increases blood glucose concentration (to heart + skeletal muscles)
    • Increases metabolic rate (↑ energy release in tissue respiration)
    • ↑ heartbeat rate; ↑ blood pressure (faster transport of glucose + O 2 )
    • Constricts arteries in skin (pallor) -> more blood to muscles
    • ↑ coagulation rate of blood
    • Relaxes bronchioles (↑ air flow to lungs)
    • Pupil dilation (enhances vision)
    • Hair muscle contraction (“goose pimples”)
  • 15.  
  • 16. Sex Hormones
  • 17. Gonads
    • Testes produce testosterone
    • Stimulated by hormone from pituitary gland
    • Effects:
    • Controls male body characteristics development (fetal stage)
    • Development of primary (maturation of sex organs) + secondary (voice deepening + growth of facial + pubic hair) sexual characteristics
  • 18. Ovaries
    • produces oestrogen + progesterone
    • stimulated by hormone from pituitary gland
    • Effects:
    • Oestrogen :
    • -> controls female sex organ development
    • -> secondary sexual characteristics (breasts development + broadening of pelvis)
    • Progesterone :
    • -> uterus preparation for embryo implantation
    • -> enlargement of mammary glands (pregnancy)
    • -> prevents ovulation
  • 19. Similarities btw hormonal and nervous control
    • Both serve as a means of coordination within the body
    Stimulus Transmission of message Effector (response)
  • 20. Differences between nervous and hormonal controls