Chapter 11 Excretion Lesson 2 - The Mammalian Urinary System

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  • Why left kidney is higher than right kidney? Clue: check the location of other organs (especially liver)
  • Urine is found only within the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.
  • Why left kidney is higher than right kidney? Clue: check the location of other organs (especially liver)

Transcript

  • 1. The Mammalian Urinary System
    • Consists of:
    • A pair of kidneys
    • A pair of ureters
    • A urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    Left Right
  • 2. The urinary system
  • 3. The Mammalian Urinary System…. 6. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9.
  • 4. The Mammalian Urinary System
    • Functions of:
    • Kidneys – remove urea & excess water from the blood
    • Ureters – transport urine from kidneys to the bladder.
    • Bladder – stores urine
    • Urethra – transport urine from bladder to the exterior.
    Left Right
  • 5. Longitudinal Section of a Kidney
    • Consists of 2 main regions:
    • 1) Cortex - outer
    • dark- red region.
    • 2) Medulla – inner thicker region which is paler red in colour. Consists of pyramids (conical structures), projecting into renal pelvis.
  • 6. Associated Blood Vessels
    • Renal Arteries:
    • These brings oxygenated blood containing urea, & excess water & heat to the kidneys.
    • Renal Veins:
    • These take away deoxygenated blood ( urea, & excess water & heat have been removed) from the kidneys.
  • 7. The Mammalian Urinary System….
    • Figure 11.2
  • 8. A Kidney Tubule (Nephron) [pg.225 textbook]
  • 9. Nephron structure 2 1 3 4 5 6 7
  • 10. Renal artery Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus 2 nd convoluted tubule 1 st convoluted tubule Collecting duct Loop of Henle
  • 11. The Formation of Urine
    • Involves 2 Processes:
    • Ultrafiltration (only small molecules can filter through)
    • Selective Reabsorption of useful substances needed by the body.
  • 12. The Stages of Urine Formation
    • 1) Blood from renal artery brings metabolic waste (urea & excess water) & useful substances (glucose & amino acids) to the kidney tubule.
    • 2) All small molecules (urea, glucose & amino acids) are forced into kidney tubule by the blood pressure (Ultrafiltration)
  • 13. The Stages of Urine Formation
    • 3) Further down the tubule, useful substances such as glucose & amino acids are Selectively Reabsorbed into blood capillaries by active transport. Most water is reabsorbed by osmosis.
    • 4) Excess water, mineral salts & urea continue down the tubule to form urine.
  • 14. Formation of Urine - Ultrafiltration W ater M ineral Salts G lucose A mino Acids N itrogenous Waste Products
  • 15. Formation of Urine…. Selective Reabsorption Selective Reabsorption Ultrafiltration
  • 16. Constituents of Urine
    • Constituents Before Selective Reabsorption
    • Water
    • Mineral Salts
    • Glucose
    • Amino Acids
    • Urea
    • Other Nitrogenous Waste Products
  • 17. Constituents of Urine
    • Constituents After Selective Reabsorption
    • Excess Water
    • Mineral Salts
    • Urea
    • Other Nitrogenous Waste Products
  • 18. Formation of Urine….
    • Substances Reabsorbed During Selective Reabsorption
    • Water
    • All the glucose
    • All the amino acid
    By Osmosis By Active Transport
  • 19. Constituents of Urine….
    • Constituents of Urine can vary according to Diet
    High Protein Diet Higher Urea Concentration in Urine