Chapter 11 Excretion Lesson 2 - The Mammalian Urinary System


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  • Why left kidney is higher than right kidney? Clue: check the location of other organs (especially liver)
  • Urine is found only within the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.
  • Why left kidney is higher than right kidney? Clue: check the location of other organs (especially liver)
  • Chapter 11 Excretion Lesson 2 - The Mammalian Urinary System

    1. 1. The Mammalian Urinary System <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>A pair of kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>A pair of ureters </li></ul><ul><li>A urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul>Left Right
    2. 2. The urinary system
    3. 3. The Mammalian Urinary System…. 6. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9.
    4. 4. The Mammalian Urinary System <ul><li>Functions of: </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys – remove urea & excess water from the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters – transport urine from kidneys to the bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder – stores urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra – transport urine from bladder to the exterior. </li></ul>Left Right
    5. 5. Longitudinal Section of a Kidney <ul><li>Consists of 2 main regions: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Cortex - outer </li></ul><ul><li>dark- red region. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Medulla – inner thicker region which is paler red in colour. Consists of pyramids (conical structures), projecting into renal pelvis. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Associated Blood Vessels <ul><li>Renal Arteries: </li></ul><ul><li>These brings oxygenated blood containing urea, & excess water & heat to the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Veins: </li></ul><ul><li>These take away deoxygenated blood ( urea, & excess water & heat have been removed) from the kidneys. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Mammalian Urinary System…. <ul><li>Figure 11.2 </li></ul>
    8. 8. A Kidney Tubule (Nephron) [pg.225 textbook]
    9. 9. Nephron structure 2 1 3 4 5 6 7
    10. 10. Renal artery Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus 2 nd convoluted tubule 1 st convoluted tubule Collecting duct Loop of Henle
    11. 11. The Formation of Urine <ul><li>Involves 2 Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrafiltration (only small molecules can filter through) </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Reabsorption of useful substances needed by the body. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Stages of Urine Formation <ul><li>1) Blood from renal artery brings metabolic waste (urea & excess water) & useful substances (glucose & amino acids) to the kidney tubule. </li></ul><ul><li>2) All small molecules (urea, glucose & amino acids) are forced into kidney tubule by the blood pressure (Ultrafiltration) </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Stages of Urine Formation <ul><li>3) Further down the tubule, useful substances such as glucose & amino acids are Selectively Reabsorbed into blood capillaries by active transport. Most water is reabsorbed by osmosis. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Excess water, mineral salts & urea continue down the tubule to form urine. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Formation of Urine - Ultrafiltration W ater M ineral Salts G lucose A mino Acids N itrogenous Waste Products
    15. 15. Formation of Urine…. Selective Reabsorption Selective Reabsorption Ultrafiltration
    16. 16. Constituents of Urine <ul><li>Constituents Before Selective Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Salts </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><li>Other Nitrogenous Waste Products </li></ul>
    17. 17. Constituents of Urine <ul><li>Constituents After Selective Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Excess Water </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Salts </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><li>Other Nitrogenous Waste Products </li></ul>
    18. 18. Formation of Urine…. <ul><li>Substances Reabsorbed During Selective Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>All the glucose </li></ul><ul><li>All the amino acid </li></ul>By Osmosis By Active Transport
    19. 19. Constituents of Urine…. <ul><li>Constituents of Urine can vary according to Diet </li></ul>High Protein Diet Higher Urea Concentration in Urine