The Mark Of The Beast


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Bible prophecy tells us that the time is coming when the world will be united under an incredibly intelligent, charismatic, powerful, evil man. This antichrist will exalt himself above all that is worshiped or called God and he will force everyone to take a mark (called the mark of the beast) or they will be killed. The bible gives a stern warning and demands that no one is to take this mark.

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The Mark Of The Beast

  1. 1. The Mark Of The Beast By Gary Coggins
  2. 2. Table Of ContentsThe Antichrist 1The Coming Mark Of The Beast 10End Time Signs 12Charts (Seventy Weeks Of Daniel) 16,17Tribulation Judgements 18Newspaper Headlines 19Total Surveillance 22Biometrics 23Rfid Technology 24New Advances In Technology 32Current Trends Towards AGlobal Government And Economy 63Conclusion 86
  3. 3. The AntichristAdolf Hitler used the power of propaganda. He railed againstthings that he knew the people feared and perceived asthreats. In return, those who followed him began to treatHitler with almost religious adoration. After Martial law wasdeclared in Berlin, the people all over Germany turned to"Fuhrer worship”. Next came the elections of March 5, 1933,then the Nazis began a systematic takeover of the stategovernments throughout Germany, ending a centuries oldtradition of local political independence. Armed SA and SSthugs barged into local government offices using the state ofemergency decree as a pretext to throw out legitimate officeholders and replace them with Nazi Reich commissioners.On March 23, the Nazi controlled Reichstag passed the"Enabling Act." This act finally established Adolph Hitler asthe total Dictator of Germany. 1
  4. 4. After this, the "Gleichschaltung" (Synchronizing) began – thetotal coordination and absorption of the entire nation underthe Nazi boot. Just like Hitler used the power of propagandato gain his position so will the coming antichrist and eventhough Hitler failed to fulfill his dream of world dominationthis leader certainly will not. Bible prophecy tells us that thetime is coming when the world will be united under anincredibly intelligent, charismatic, powerful, evil man. Theapostle Paul wrote "Let no one deceive you by any means:for that day will not come, except there come a falling awaycomes first, and that man of sin is revealed, the son ofperdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all thatis called God, or that is worshiped, so that he as God sittethin the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Andnow you know what withholdeth that he may be revealed inhis time. For the mystery of iniquity doeth already work; onlyhe who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way.And then shall that wicked be revealed.” 2 Th. 2:3-8 Pauldeclared that the Antichrist’s coming will be “according tothe working of Satan, with all power and signs and lyingwonders.” 2 Th. 2:9 There are some that believe theAntichrist will receive his position by performing a miracleby coming back to life from apparent death. We read, “I sawone of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and hisdeadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled andfollowed the beast” Rev 13:3 This scripture seems to indicatethat there may be an attempt on his life and by recoveringfrom this mortal wound the world will be in awe of him. 2
  5. 5. Another type or forerunner of the coming Antichrist isAntiochus Epiphanes (Epiphanes - God Manifest). After theend of Alexander the Greats reign, the Greek Empire wasdivided among four rulers: Cassander; ruling over Greeceand its region, Lysimachus; ruling over Asia Minor,Seleucus; ruling over Syria and Israels land, Ptolemy; rulingover Egypt. Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled from 175—163 BCover the Syrian section of Alexander’s empire. He is the littlehorn of Daniel 8:9 and appears in the context of the thirdkingdom (Greece). To consolidate his empire and strengthenhis hold over the region, Antiochus decided to Hellenize theJews by outlawing Judaism and by ordering the worship ofZeus as the supreme god. This was anathema to the Jewsand when they refused, Antiochus sent an army to enforcehis decree. Because of the resistance, the city wasdestroyed, many were slaughtered, and a military Greekcitadel called the Acra was established. Antiochus asforetold in the book of Daniel “waxed exceeding great,toward the south, and toward the east, and toward thepleasant land (Israel). And it waxed great, even to the host ofheaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars tothe ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnifiedhimself even to the prince of the host, and by him the dailysacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary wascast down. And an host was given him against the dailysacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down thetruth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered”. Daniel8:9-12 Because these prophecies point to AntiochusEpiphanes as well as the future Antichrist they are referred toas double reference prophecies. 3
  6. 6. Similarities between Antiochus Epiphanes and the comingAntichrist: They both (1) Expand their dominion toward thesouth, toward the east, and toward the land of Israel (2)Conquer other rulers and persecute the people of Israel (3)Blasphemy God and command idolatrous worship towardsforeign Gods (4) Put a stop to temple sacrifices (5) Anddesecrate the temple of God. The Revived Roman KingdomContained within the books of Daniel and Revelation is adescription of the coming kingdom of the antichrist. Thebeast of Revelation (Chapter 13) has ten horns and sevenheads. The seven heads represent a total of 7 great empires.The seven heads are also seven kings or kingdoms. The fivefallen ones are Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, and Greece.The sixth is the Roman Empire of the past. The seventh isgoing to be a revived Roman kingdom. The antichrist is theseventh head of the beast, and both the seventh and eightking. Rev 17:11 The ten horns represent ten nations that willmake up the Antichrist’s empire. The lion, bear, and leopardin Revelation 13, as in Daniel 7, represent the Babylonian,Medo-Persian, and Greek empires. This suggests that thefinal empire will combine the strongest elements of all theseancient kingdoms. “And I stood upon the sand of the sea,and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven headsand ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns...” “And thebeast which I saw was like unto a leopard (Greece), and hisfeet were as the feet of a bear (Medo-Persia), and his mouthas the mouth of a lion (Babylon)” Rev 13:1-2 4
  7. 7. The prophet Daniel spoke of four gentile kingdoms whichwere to rule the earth: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, andRome. The last of these Rome was to rule again right beforethe (Times of the Gentiles) were to be fulfilled. Here’s whatNebuchadnezzar saw in his dream that represented thesefour kingdoms: “The image’s head was of fine gold(Babylon), his breast, and his arms of silver (Medo-Persia),his belly and his thighs of brass (Greece), his legs of iron,his feet part of iron and part of clay (Rome).” Daniel 2:32,33 5
  8. 8. Concerning the Revived Roman Empire; “Whereas thousawest the feet and toes part of potters’ clay and part of iron,the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it thestrength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the ironmixed with miry clay.” The Roman Empire“Thus he said, the fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdomupon the earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms,and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down,and break it in pieces.” Daniel 7:23 “And the ten horns out ofthis kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shallrise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and heshall subdue three kings.” Daniel 7:24 Many bible scholarsbelieve that the European Union is where the antichrist isgiven his kingdom. 6
  9. 9. Others believe that he may get his kingdom from 10economic blocs or regions. The antichrist will reign for 3 ½years during the last half of the 70th week of Daniel. Daniel7:25 Rev. 13:5 And it is in the middle of this final 7 yeartribulation period that the great tribulation starts after theantichrist and the false prophet set up an idol in the templeand the antichrist demands to be worshipped as God. Daniel9:27 “And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never wassince there was a nation even to that same time...” Daniel12:1 It’s also at this time that the false prophet requires thateveryone take the mark of the beast. “And I beheld anotherbeast coming up out of the earth” “and he doeth greatwonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven inthe sight of men and he deceiveth them that dwell on theearth by the means of those miracles” “And he causeth themto make an image to the beast, which had the wound by asword, and did live.” “and he had power to give life unto theimage of the beast...and cause that as many as would notworship” or receive the mark of the beast ”should be killed.”Rev 13:11-17 Just how will the antichrist come to his end? Byadvancing his armies to the middle east “he shall enter alsointo the glorious land, and many countries shall beoverthrown…” “and the land of Egypt shall not escape. Buthe shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver,and over all the precious things of Egypt…” “But tidings outof the east and out of the north (the armies of China andRussia) shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth withgreat fury to destroy, and utterly make away many. And heshall plant the tabernacles of his palace between 7
  10. 10. the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come tohis end, and none shall help him.” Daniel 11:41-45 Theworld’s armies are now gathered north of Jerusalem for thebattle of Armageddon. “And this shall be the plaguewherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have foughtagainst Jerusalem; their flesh shall consume away while theystand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume awayin their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in theirmouth.” Zechariah 14:12Here’s a list of the Antichrists characteristicsand traits:I. He will be extremely intelligent and he might be involved inthe Occult “…understanding dark sentences…” Daniel 8:23II. He will be very boastful. “a mouth that spake very greatthings” Daniel 7:20III. “And through his policy also he shall cause craft toprosper in his hand” “…and by peace shall he destroy many”Daniel 8:25IV. He is called the “king of fierce countenance” Daniel 8:23V. His “look will be more stout than his fellows” Daniel 7:20VI. “He will confirm a covenant with the many for one week”The Antichrist negotiates a peace treaty between Israel andher enemies setting the stage for a final seven-yeartribulation period (See charts). Daniel 9:27VII. He will have many successful military exploits and alsoattempt to destroy the Jews after he comes to power. "Heshall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice,and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people" Daniel8:24 8
  11. 11. VIII. He will be the head of a kingdom given to him by 10kings. “And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings,which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive poweras kings one hour with the beast.” Rev. 17:12IX "And he shall speak great words against the most High,and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think tochange times and laws: and they shall be given into hishand…” His reign will begin at the start of the final 3 ½ yearsof the tribulation period. Daniel 7: 25X. There may be an attempt to kill him. “And his deadlywound was healed, and all the world wondered after theBeast" Rev. 13:3XI. He will proclaim himself God. 2 Thess. 2:4XII. He will demand to be worshipped. “And causeth the earthand all that dwell therein to worship the beast…” Rev. 13:12XIII. He will require that everybody on Earth receive a mark oridentification on their forehead or hand and nobody willlegally be able to buy or sell without it. “And that no manmight buy or sell, save he that hath the mark…” Rev. 13:16,17XIV. He will lead his army to fight against the world’s militaryforces in the battle of Armageddon where Christ will defeatthem. “And I saw the Beast, and the kings of the earth, andtheir armies gathered together to make war…” Rev. 19 19, 20The following scriptures describe how arrogant and proudthe antichrist will be. “And the king shall do according to hiswill; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself aboveevery god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God 9
  12. 12. of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation beaccomplished.” Daniel 11: 36“Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, …nor regardany god: for he shall magnify himself above all.” Daniel 11:37 The "Mark of the Beast"Because of this antichrist and his false prophet: all, bothsmall and great, rich and poor, free and slave, will receive amark on their right hand or on their foreheads, so that no onemay buy or sell except one who has the mark, or the name ofthe beast, or the number of his name. Rev 13:16-17 Thismark, which is usually called the "mark of the beast," will beused by the antichrist to place everyone under his directcontrol. To receive this mark will ensure the wrath of Godand result in a person being cast into the lake of fire.Revelation 14:9-11 10
  13. 13. And to the one who doesn’t take the mark this person will beend up being beheaded by the antichrist. Revelation 20:4Everyone will be faced with the decision of having to decidewhether or not to take the mark. No one will be exempt. Thismay be in the form of a biometric devise or a rfid tattoo orchip. By receiving the mark of the beast a person will be ableto obtain all of the necessities of life: such as food, water,clothing, and shelter. People who refuse will be forced to gounderground to escape being caught. A cashless society iswhat the bible is referring to when it speaks about thecoming mark of the beast. A common international systemwill have to be put in place so they will be able to track allbuying and selling. There are already systems in use todayto track products; such as the universal product code. Whenthis happens money will be replaced by computerizedscanning devices making electronic transactions our onlyform of currency. Fingerprint scanners, voice print scanners,eye scanners, smart cards, and implanted computer chipsare already being used today. It’s remarkable that 2,000 yearsago the bible predicted that this technology would bedeveloped and used by the antichrist when he reigns duringthe last half of the final 7 year tribulation period - Daniel’sseventieth week. (See Charts) For anyone to take “the markof the beast” the bible issues this warning: “If any manworship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in hisforehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine ofthe wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture intothe cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented withfire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and inthe presence of the Lamb.” Revelation 14:9-10 11
  14. 14. End Time SignsWhen Jesus disciples asked what would signal his secondcoming, he gave them several signs to watch for. He alsotaught that the time immediately before his coming would beknown as the "beginning of sorrows" (Matt. 24:8). Christstated that these birth pains would increase and becomemuch more intense until the end of this age.1. False Christs/prophets (Matthew 24:4; 24:11): "For manywill come in my name, claiming, I am the Christ, and willdeceive many,” "...and many false prophets will appear anddeceive many people.”2. Wars and Rumors of Wars (Matthew 24:6): "Your will hearof wars and rumors of wars, but see to it that you are notalarmed. Such things must happen, but the end is still tocome. Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom againstkingdom."3. Famines (Matthew 24:7): "There will be variousplaces."4. Earthquakes (Matthew 24:7): "There will be...earthquakesin various places."5. Religious persecution (Matthew 24:9): "Then you will behanded over to be persecuted and put to death, and you willbe hated by all nations because of me.”6. Increase in Wickedness (Matthew 24:12:13): "Because ofthe increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold,but he who stands firm to the end will be saved.” 12
  15. 15. 7. The worldwide dissemination of the Gospel (Matthew24:14): "And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached inthe whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then theend will come.”8. The Sign of Noah (Matthew 24:37-39): "As it was in thedays of Noah, so it will be at the coming of the Son of Man.For in the days before the flood, people were eating anddrinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the dayNoah entered the ark; and they knew nothing about whatwould happen until the flood came and took them all away.”9. Signs and wonders in the heavens (Luke 21:11): "Therewill be...great signs from heaven...”10. Pestilence (Luke 21:11): "There will be...pestilences invarious places...”11. Fearful Events (Luke 21:11): "There will be...fearfulevents...”12. Signs in the Sun, Moon, and Stars (Luke 21:25): "Therewill be signs in the sun, moon and stars.”13. Fear and Apprehension for the Future (Luke 21:26): "Menwill faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on theworld, for the heavenly bodies will be shaken.”In addition, here are several TribulationIndicators:1. The progress of the Middle East peace process towards afinal settlement or covenant (Daniel 9:27): "He will confirm acovenant with many for one week. In the middle of the seven(week) he will put an end to sacrifice and offering . And on awing of the temple he will set up an abomination that causes 13
  16. 16. desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out onhim.”2. The establishment of a new Jewish Temple (Daniel 9:27;Matthew 24:15): "So when you see standing in the holy placethe abomination that causes desolation, spoken of throughthe prophet Daniel, then let those who are in Judea flee tothe mountains.”3. The growth of world community (Revelation 11:9): "Forthree and a half days men from every people, tribe, languageand nation will gaze on their bodies and refuse them burial.The inhabitants of the earth will gloat over them and willcelebrate by sending each other gifts, because these twoprophets had tormented those who live on the earth.”4. Mark of the Beast - advances in biometrics and smart cardtechnology that would facilitate the mark of the beast(Revelation 13:16-18), the number of man, 666: "He thesecond beast also forced everyone, small and great, rich andpoor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand oron his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless hehad the mark, which is the name of the beast or the numberof his name.”5. The creation of an international alliance of 10 states(Revelation 17:12-14) to empower the beast: "The ten hornsyou saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom,but who for one hour will receive authority as kings alongwith the beast. They have one purpose and will give theirpower and authority to the beast.”6. The disposition of military forces in and around Jerusalem(Ezekiel 38:8; Zechariah 12; Luke 21:20; Revelation 19:19):"In future years, you Gog will invade a land that has 14
  17. 17. recovered from war, whose people were gathered from manynations to the mountains of Israel, which had long beendesolate. They had been brought out from many nations, andnow all of them live in safety. You and all your troops and thenations with you will go up, advancing like a storm; you willbe like a cloud covering the land.” “I am going to makeJerusalem a cup that sends all the surrounding peoplesreeling. Judah will be besieged as well as Jerusalem. On thatday, when all the nations of the earth are gathered againsther, I will make Jerusalem an immovable rock for all thenations. All who try to move it will injure themselves...On thatday, the Lord will shield those who live in Jerusalem...On thatday, I will set out to destroy all the nations that attackJerusalem.” “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded byarmies, you will know that its desolation is near.” “Then Isaw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armiesgathered together to make war against Christ and his army.Then the beast was captured and with him the false prophetwho had performed the miraculous signs on his behalf.” 15
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  21. 21. Here are some recent newspaper articlesshowing the current use of biometric and rfidtechnology.Biometrics To Be Used On Ids - State will addbiometrics component to prevent fake drivers licensesMinnesota plans to add biometric facial recognitiontechnology to drivers licenses as part of a broader effort toprotect consumers from identity theft and unauthorized useof personal data. That effort will include stiffer criminalpenalties for hackers and others who abuse access topersonal data on computers. "Identity theft causes greattrauma, inconvenience and damage to a lot of people andfamilies," the governor said at a Capitol news conference. Healso stated that the state must do more to crack down onidentity thieves and strengthen safeguards for personalinformation. The face scans will enable the state to detectpeople attempting to obtain licenses using the same photowith multiple names and birth dates, or the same name andbirth date with multiple peoples photos, said state PublicSafety Commissioner Michael Campion. 19
  22. 22. Police advisory body installs 3D facial recognitionsystem – London UKThe Police Information Technology Organisation (PITO) hasawarded a contract to Premier Electronics, in alliance with A4Vision and Global Securities, to install a real time 3D facialrecognition technology. PITO, which provides informationtechnology and communications systems and services tothe police and other criminal justice organisations in theU.K., has selected the system to control access to itsBiometrics Demonstration Laboratory at its headquarters. Inaddition to providing access control, it will be used fordemonstrations to staff and stakeholders from across thepolice service and wider government, as well as forevaluation purposes. The A4 Vision Access 3D face readersystem combines standard digital photography with real time3D facial recognition, providing a very powerful recognitionand identification system with the ability to also produce astandard digital photograph. The Vision Access 3D facereader is commonly used to control physical access tobuildings, banks, hospitals, airports and other types of entrypoints for the commercial and Civil ID market.Australian state police eye fingerprint biometrics -Police in the Australian state of New South Wales areset to introduce portable, handheld fingerprintscannersStatic biometric devices, known as LiveScan, are already in 20
  23. 23. use in NSW and Victorian Police stations, provided byFrench electronics company Sagem, which is a supplier tomilitary organizations across the globe. However, NSWpolice are keen to see the introduction of portable biometricdevices that can be used during routine traffic infringementsfor on-the-spot identity checks. The devices, showcased inSydney at a recent launch of its new mobile phones, hold upto 100,000 fingerprints and are extremely light and ruggedand ideal for law enforcement use, Sagem officials said.Eye Scan Technology Comes to Schools - A NewJersey School District Is Piloting the SystemParents who want to pick up their kids at school in one NewJersey district now can submit to iris scans, using the sametechnology that helps keep our nations airports and hotelssafe. As many as four adults can be designated to pick upeach child in the district, but in order to be authorized tocome into school, they will be asked to register with thedistricts iris recognition security and visitor managementsystem. At this point, the New Jersey program is notmandatory. When picking up a child, the adult provides adrivers license and then submits to an eye scan. If the irisimage camera recognizes his or her eyes, the door clicksopen. If someone tries to slip in behind an authorizedperson, the system triggers a siren and red flashing lights inthe front office. The entire process takes just seconds. Thistechnology is already being used at the Orlando 21
  24. 24. International Airport, where the program, known as Clear,has been in operation.Speed through the checkout with just a wave of yourarm - It may sound like a sci-fi fantasy but shoppersmay one day be able to pay their grocery bills using amicrochip implanted in their bodyThe idea is already catching on with todays iPod generation.According to research released today by the Institute forGrocery Distribution (IGD), a retail think-tank, almost one inten teenagers and one in twenty adults are willing to have amicrochip implanted to pay shop bills and help to preventcard or identity fraud and muggings. A quick scan of the armwould connect immediately to bank details and paymentscould be made swiftly. Such microchips are already used incats, dogs and horses. But now the retail industry is lookingat body chips among a range of biometric payment methods,including fingerprint and iris recognition. So far the onlyexample of a human body chip being used is at the VIP BajaBeach Club in Barcelona, where people wear bikinis andshorts and there is nowhere to carry wallets and purses. Theclub offers clients a microchip, injected in the arm, whichgives them access to certain areas of the club and acts as apayment method at the bar. This chip, made by the VeriChipCorporation, is a glass capsule about the size of a grain ofrice, which sits under the skin. It carries a ten-digit personalnumber that can be linked to a persons bank account, andhas been a success at the club. 22
  25. 25. RFID Chips To Travel in U.S. Passports - U.S.passports issued after October 2006 will containembedded radio frequency identification chips thatcarry the holders personal data and digital photoAccording to reports the US government has placed an orderwith a California company, Infineon Technologies NorthAmerica for smart chip-embedded passports. The AssociatedPress said the new US passports include an electronic chipthat contains all the data contained in the paper versionname, birth date, gender, for example and can be read bydigital scanners at equipped airports. They cost more thantheir predecessors but the State Department said they willspeed up going through customs and help enhance bordersecurity.Germany To Issue Passports with Biometric Data -First passport in Europe to use RFID technologyGermany has taken a big step in the battle against organizedcrime and terrorism by unveiling a new passport with a chipthat contains biometric data. The country plans to be amongthe first in Europe to issue biometric passes. Otto Schilypresented the German biometric passport at a ceremony inBerlin, the Interior Ministry said in a statement. The newpassport, valid for 10 years, will include an embedded RFID(radio frequency identification chip) that will initially store adigital photo of the passport holders face. Starting in March2007, the holders left and 23
  26. 26. right index fingerprints will also be stored on the chip.The reasons for using noncontact RFID chips are twofold:contact points in traditional chip cards are not designed for10 years of use; and passports dont fit in present chip-cardreaders, according to Germanys Federal Office forInformation Security (BSI).EU readies bio-passports - EU governments will issuenew biometric VeriChip To Test Human ImplantableRFID On Military passports containing facial imagesPassports issued by EU member states are required to havedigital photographs stored in a microchip embedded in thedocument. For new passports issued after June 28, 2009,they are to store two fingerprints of their holders on thepassport chip. Member states have had since February 2005to get ready to add the chip with facial scans to theirpassports. EU officials said the biometric features, whichreduce patterns of fingerprints, faces and irises tomathematical algorithms stored on a chip, would go beyondsecurity standards demanded by the United States.Wal-Mart Backs RFID Technology - Will requiresuppliers to use smart tagsWal-Mart Stores Inc. said it plans to require its top 100suppliers to put radio-frequency identification tags onshipping crates and pallets, a move thats likely to spurbroader adoption of the technology because of 24
  27. 27. Wal-Marts market clout. However, at the Retail Systems2003/VICS Collaborative Commerce conference, IT managersand technology vendors alike said that RFID devices stillneed to overcome major manufacturing, pricing andstandardization hurdles before widespread usage can begin.Wal-Marts move is expected to result in the deployment ofnearly 1 billion RFID tags with embedded electronic productcodes (EPC) for tracking and identifying items at theindividual crate and pallet level, said Pam Kohn, vicepresident of the Bentonville, Ark. based retailers globalsupply chain operations. But even Wal-Marts initial RFIDeffort will be narrowly focused. Although RFID tags cangather and track a variety of data related to products,materials and more, Kohn said Wal-Mart will concentrate atfirst on using the technology to improve inventorymanagement in its supply chain.Lithuania-based Neurotechnology has unveiledVeriLook Surveillance SDK, a new biometrictechnology for real-time face identification using videosurveillance camerasThe VeriLook Surveillance SDK is intended for real-timeidentification of faces from high-resolution digitalsurveillance cameras, which can be mounted in airports,retail stores, on the street or in other locations wherepassers-by may not be looking into a camera. It also can beused for easy time-attendance control applications when acamera is mounted near an entrance, enabling fast,automatic counting or recognition of individuals as they 25
  28. 28. pass through. Once a face is detected, it is tracked in allsuccessive frames of video until it disappears from cameraview. Face appearance, tracking and disappearance eventsare reported to the system. This technology can be used inlocations where people may not be looking directly into thecamera.Alabama Grips Crime With NEC Palm and FingerprintIdentification System - Huntsville Police DepartmentBecomes Second Implementation in State WithAutomated Connectivity to the Alabama Bureau ofInvestigationRANCHO CORDOVA, Calif.-NEC Corporation of America, apremier provider of IT, network and telephony solutions, hasannounced the City of Huntsville, Alabama PoliceDepartment selected its Automated Fingerprint IdentificationSystem (AFIS) with palm print matching to dramaticallyenhance its ability to quickly and reliably identify crime-scene prints and match them to city and state databases.The Huntsville Police Department joins the Mobile (AL)Police Department as the second Full Use Access Agencies(FUAA) AFIS in the State of Alabama with automatedconnectivity to the NEC AFIS located at the Alabama Bureauof Investigation (ABI) in Montgomery. The NEC AFIS installedat Huntsville Police Department is capable of automatedinput and search/match functions for both fingerprints andpalm prints. The City of Huntsville Police Department NECAFIS is pre-loaded with electronically-converted fingerprint 26
  29. 29. images from the Alabama Bureau of Investigation (ABI)system, allowing the police department to immediatelysearch known Huntsville records, and expand the search tothe statewide database in the absence of matches at a locallevel. The system at ABI then automatically forwardsHuntsville Police Department searches to the Federal Bureauof Investigation (FBI). ABI and the FBI then both sendnotification back to the Huntsville Police Department with anidentification or non-identification response.Mecklenburg Co., N.C. Sheriffs Office Picks IrisBiometric TechnologyBiometric Intelligence & Identification Technologies (BI(2)Technologies) of Plymouth, Massachusetts announced thatthey will unveil a new cutting edge technology and databasethat for the first time, registers and tracks convicted sexoffenders using iris recognition biometric technology. BI(2)Technologies has partnered with Mecklenburg County (NC)Sheriff Jim Pendergraph to develop the Sex OffenderRegistry and Identification System (SORIS(TM)). SheriffPendergraphs office will become the first in the nation toinstall the system. SORIS(TM) registers and positivelyidentifies convicted sexual predators using iris recognitionbiometric technology, the quickest and most accurateidentification technology available. Iris recognition biometrictechnology positively determines the identity of an individualby capturing a high-resolution digitally encryptedphotograph of an individuals iris. 27
  30. 30. Ive got a biometric ID card - Biometric testing of face,eye and fingerprints could soon be used on everyresident of the UK to create compulsory identity cardsBBC News Onlines Tom Geoghegan volunteered for a pilotscheme and looked, unblinking, into the future. I wasushered into a room and directed to sit in a sophisticated-looking booth, facing a hi-tech camera. No going back now.The first step is facial recognition, which is like a prolongedphotograph without the flash. No cheesy grins will beallowed, because the machine is scanning themeasurements of your face and “doesnt like teeth”. Nextcame the iris scan which required more concentrationbecause I had to stare hypnotically at two ellipses in thecamera, while the machine verbally directed me. "Comecloser,” says a Big Brother-like voice, instructing me toshuffle my seat forward while keeping my eyes fixed on theshapes. After about 60 seconds, the machine indicated thescanning was complete. No messy carbon required for thefingerprints. Instead I had to put each hands four fingers,then the thumb, on a glass scanner. My prints appeared on acomputer screen and within minutes were compared againstone million others which, for the sake of the pilot scheme,had been imported from the US. With all three stepscompleted, I had to give a copy of my signature which theystored electronically. I filled out a feedback form about myexperience and then the ID card was ready and in my hands. 28
  31. 31. Total SurveillanceElectronic surveillance: its everywhere and it’s growing. Hasthe demand for and use of electronic surveillance increased?Yes, because of the 9/11 tragedy there has been a renewedinterest in security using biometrics with ID cards and inairports, e.g. video surveillance enhanced by facial-recognition technology to combat terrorism. Allowing for thishas been the rapid advances in telecommunicationstechnology having been accompanied by a growth in thepotential effectiveness of electronic surveillance and asteady increase in government surveillance activity. Withbiometric ID systems, as with national ID systems, we shouldbe concerned about a system that provides greater socialsurveillance of the population in general. And, becausetheyre continually making new discoveries to increase theeffectiveness of biometrics, rfid chips, etc., the governmentmay soon be tracking us all. 29
  32. 32. BiometricsBiometrics refers to the automatic identification or identityverification of living persons using their unique physical orbehavioral characteristics. Many body parts, personalcharacteristics and imaging methods have been suggestedand used for biometric systems, such as: fingers, hands,feet, faces, and eyes, etc. The biometric method ofidentification offers several advantages over traditionalmethods involving ID cards or pin numbers for variousreasons: (1) the person to be identified is required to bephysically present; (2) identification based on biometrictechniques obviates the need to use a password, personalidentification number (pin), key, or ID card. By using real-time recognition, biometric techniques can preventunauthorized access to secure systems. This is whybiometrics are already being integrated into present securitysystems and are being used to reduce financial fraud. 30
  33. 33. Rfid TechnologyTotal RFID Surveillance. Imagine a future in which your everybelonging is marked with a unique number identifiable withthe swipe of a scanner; where your refrigerator keeps trackof its contents; where the location of your car is alwayspinpoint-able; and where signal-emitting pinpoint signalmicrochips storing personal information are implantedbeneath your skin. This may be the future of radio frequencyidentification (RFID), a technology whose application has sofar been limited largely to supply-chain management. AnRFID tag or chip is an object that can be attached to orincorporated into any product, animal, or person for thepurpose of identification using radio waves. RFIDs are set tobe applied to a whole range of consumer goods. They’realready being used to keep track of products purchased,monitor shipments, replace stock; and also preventshoplifting of products like clothing, electronic devices, etc. 31
  34. 34. On the following pages there are examples ofadvances in technology being used today orin the design and development stage forfuture use. Biometric Digital Fingerprint ScannerBiometric technology, requiring digital fingerprints and aphotograph for identification, is used by the Department ofState to establish and verify the identities of visa applicantsat embassies and consulates around the world through itsBioVisa program. The Department of Homeland Securityestablished the US-VISIT program under which a traveler’sbiometrics are collected in his country, compared against awatch list of known criminals and suspected terrorists, andthen verified again upon arrival in the United States.Biometrics are unique and virtually impossible to forge. 32
  35. 35. Hitachi Finger Vein ScannerThis is a new payment technology brought to us by Hitachiwhich makes your fingertip pay for transactions. This is abiometric cardless credit payment system, which adopts theuniqueness of the blood vessel patterns in each individualhuman body as the signature for payment authentication.The new biometric system is able to recognize pattern of theblood vessels in your fingers, so, what you need is to insertyour finger for a scan to authenticate the credit cardtransactions. Blood vessels are hidden under the skin, whicharen’t like retinas or fingerprints and shouldn’t be possible tocounterfeit. In order for you to use your fingertip for makingpayment, you need to first register your finger vein patternwith the credit card company. The idea of cardless paymentmaking use finger vein that has lowest counterfeit possibilityis definitely good. A few of the common problems such ascard loss and theft will be eliminated with this new system. 33
  36. 36. Face ScanIf computers could recognize faces as easily as people theywould make an ideal aid for spotting and tracking knownterrorists and criminals. But face-recognition systems arentthat reliable yet. A company called Identix (IDNX) is makingsteady progress. Identix says that, by combining the usualface scan with an inspection of pores and wrinkles in smallblocks of skin, has improved reliability. Iris Scan 34
  37. 37. Eye ScannerIris scanning technology was first thought of in 1936 byophthalmologist Frank Burch. He noticed that each person’siris – the part of the eye that gives color – is unique. It wasn’ttill 1994 when the algorithm for detecting these differenceswas patented by John Daugman of Iridian Technologies. Irisscans analyze the features in the colored tissue surroundingthe pupil. There are many unique points for comparisonincluding rings, furrows and filaments. The scans use aregular video camera to capture the iris pattern. The userlooks into the device so that he can see the reflection of hisown eye. The device captures the iris pattern and comparesit to one in a database. Distance varies, but some models canmake positive identification at up to 2 feet. Verification timesvary - generally less than 5 seconds - but only require aquick glance to activate the identification process. Toprevent a fake eye from being used to fool the system, somemodels vary the light levels shone into the eye and watch forpupil dilation – a fixed pupil means a fake eye. Iris scannersare now in use in various military and criminal justicefacilities but have never gained the wide favor that 35
  38. 38. fingerprint scanners now enjoy even though the technologyis considered more secure. Devices tend to be bulky incomparison to fingerprint scanners. Retinal scanners aresimilar in operation but require the user to be very close to aspecial camera. This camera takes an image of the patternscreated by tiny blood vessels illuminated by a low intensitylaser in the back of the eye – the retina. Retinal scans areconsidered impossible to fake and these scanners can befound in areas needing very high security. High cost and theneed to actually put your eye very close to the cameraprevent them from being used more widely. RFID TagsRFID tags/chips are miniscule microchips. They listen for aradio query and respond by transmitting their unique IDcode. 36
  39. 39. This black dot is a RFID chipMost RFID tags have no batteries: They use the power fromthe initial radio signal to transmit their response. You shouldbecome familiar with RFID technology because youll behearing much more about it soon. Retailers adore theconcept. Wal-Mart and the U.K.-based grocery chain Tescoare starting to install "smart shelves" with networked RFIDreaders. In what will become the largest test of thetechnology, consumer goods giant Gillette recently said itwould purchase 500 million RFID tags from Alien Technologyof Morgan Hill, Calif. It becomes unnervingly easy to imaginea scenario where everything you buy thats more expensivethan a Snickers will sport RFID tags, which typically includea 64-bit unique identifier yielding about 18 thousand trillionpossible values. KSW-Microtec, a German company, hasinvented washable RFID tags designed to be sewn intoclothing. And according to EE Times, the European centralbank is considering embedding RFID tags into banknotes. 37
  40. 40. Privaris PlusID75Now this is an interesting key-fob-sized device designed toeliminate the need for employees to use multiple accesscards and passwords. The plusID authenticates a usersidentity with their fingerprint and enables secure access tobuildings and other physical facilities, local and remotecomputers and networks, and online or onsite financialtransactions. The plusID works with existing, installedsecurity infrastructure, making deployment quick andaffordable with just one secure wireless device. The plusID75is the first product in Privaris new plusID line of self-contained biometric security products. In the comingmonths, Privaris will announce new plusID variations toaddress long-range vehicle gate access, governmentsecurity initiatives (such as Personal Identity Verification orPIV), and authentication for financial and retail applications.The device, which is Bluetooth, proximity RF, and USBenabled, includes a fingerprint sensor, buttons forapplication selection, LED status indicators, an LCD for one-time password display, a USB connector, on-boardfingerprint processing, cryptographic services, arechargeable battery, and credential transmission capabilityat multiple RF frequencies. 38
  41. 41. Fujitsu palm-vein scanner Yarg Biometric ScannerA Scottish school has turned to biometrics as part of anationwide push to encourage children to eat healthiermeals. 39
  42. 42. The cafeteria at Todholm Primary School in Paisley,Scotland, has gone cashless, and students are buyinglunches by holding their hands over a palm-vein recognitionunit produced by Glasgow-based Yarg Biometrics. It’s thefirst school to use the system. Inside is the same palm-veinscanner from Japan’s Fujitsu that can now be found onthousands of bank cash machines across Japan. The systemrelies on an infrared image of the palm of a user’s hand. Itreveals the pattern of veins present under the skin, and fromthis an algorithm can confirm identity of the user. It takesinto account identifying features such as the number ofveins, their position and the points at which they cross, andoffers a higher level of security than competing technologiesincluding voice print, facial recognition, fingerprintrecognition and iris scan, according to Fujitsu. Yarg workedwith Fujitsu to develop the palm-vein readers that are used inthe school. Yarg discovered Fujitsu’s palm-vein system andinterfaced it with a keypad and other electronics to form theunit that kids see on the countertop. This is linked with aback office server that can verify the identity of each childand tie in with the food payment system. At the school inPaisley, there are four units linked to a back office server.Two of the units can be used by children to check theirbalance, and the other two are installed at the cafeteriacheckout. When a student places his or her hand in front ofthe sensor, the system returns the child’s credit balancewithin about three seconds. 40
  43. 43. Full Body ScannerSecurity checkpoint full body scanners. The full bodyscanner is not new, but it is needless to say that the conceptof a full body x-ray doesnt sit too well with many people. Thescanners are currently being tested at 10 different USairports, but the trial only involves offering the scanner as analternative to a pat down in a secondary security search. Theobvious question is whether the scanner can see"everything", and the answer is yes - the full body scannerwill see all your "parts", the TSA tries to alleviate passengerconcerns by moving the screener away from the machine,hidden away in a dark room. Your face is also blurred on thedisplay, so there is no risk of TSA agents pointing at youwhile giggling like little school girls. Sadly, the truth is thatthe full body scanner is probably here to stay, and willeventually become the way all passengers are scanned at the 41
  44. 44. airport. There is no denying that the ability to see rightthrough you and your clothes is the most effective way toscan for weapons or other unwanted items at the airport.Whether this technology will also involve you walkingthrough with your bags is just a matter of time. The Super Smart CardE-Smart Technologies is a leading provider of hightechnology security systems that can be used to combatfraud and terrorism. E-Smart products enable governmentagencies and commercial enterprises to continuously andsecurely verify, certify and manage identification and accessof citizens, personnel, customers and any other personsseeking physical or logical access. E-Smart is the exclusiveprovider of the Biometric Verification Security System(TM)(BVS2)(TM), featuring the Super Smart Card(TM) for Asia andthe US, which experts believe to be the worlds onlycommercially available smartcard with a full on-cardmatching system for biometric ID verification. 42
  45. 45. ActivCard, a specialist in IDentity Management software forremote access, announced an expanded cooperation with itspartner Precise Biometrics AB, to deliver smart card-basedidentification (ID) badge solutions with biometricauthentication. ActivCard has incorporated PreciseBiometrics technology for fingerprint matching on smartcards, "Precise Match-on-Card", to its "ActivCard Gold 2.2"software, the most successful and widely deployed smart IDcard available on the market today. By verifying thefingerprint thats on the card, this method guarantees thatthe (the users identity) never leaves the card, so it is notsubject to theft. 43
  46. 46. Optical Memory CardsTo facilitate local trade and provide convenience forinhabitants of border communities, the U.S. Department ofState issues a B1/B2 Visa to Mexican citizens who wish tocross frequently into the U.S.A. This visa is issued in cardform and is known as the Border Crossing Card (BCC). TheBCC includes many of the same security features introducedfor the Permanent Resident Card, such as micro images inthe optical memory and the Embedded Hologram. Since theBCC’s introduction, there has been no instance of a workingcounterfeit. Electronic Toll CollectionRFID tags are used for electronic toll collection at toll boothswith Georgias Cruise Card, Californias FasTrak, Illinois I-Pass, Oklahomas Pikepass, the expanding eastern states E-ZPass system (including Massachusettss Fast Lane, New 44
  47. 47. Jersey Turnpike, and the Maine Turnpike), Floridas SunPass,North Texas NTTA and Houston HCTRA EZ Tag, The "Cross-Israel Highway" (Highway 6), Philippines South LuzonExpressway E-Pass, Brisbanes Queensland Motorway E-TollSystem in Australia, Autopista del Sol (Suns Highway),Autopista Central (Central Highway), Autopista LosLibertadores, Costanera Norte, Vespucio Norte Express andVespucio Sururban Highways. All highways in Portugal (ViaVerde, the first system in the world to span the entirenetwork of tolls) and France (Liber-T system). The tags,which are usually the active type, are read remotely asvehicles pass through the booths, and tag information isused to debit the toll from a prepaid account. The systemhelps to speed traffic through toll plazas as it records thedate, time, and billing data for the RFID vehicle tag. The VerichipVerichip utilizes the implantable, passive RFID microchipin their solutions for the purpose of automaticidentification. About the size of a grain of rice, themicrochip inserts just 45
  48. 48. under the skin. In the future this chip may contain GlobalPositioning System (GPS) tracking capabilities Once insertedjust under the skin, via a quick, outpatient procedure, theVeriChip™ can be scanned when necessary with a VeriChipreader. A small amount of radio frequency energy passesfrom the reader energizing the dormant microchip whichthen emits a radio frequency signal transmitting theindividuals unique verification number. Rfid Tattoo’sSomark Innovations, a company located in Saint Louis, hassuccessfully tested an RFID tattoo, on cows, mice and rats:enabling an identifying number embedded under the skin.The system developed by Somark uses an array of needlesto inject a pattern of dots into each animal, with the patternchanging for each injection. This pattern can then be readusing a reader operating at high frequency. The ink can beeither invisible or colored but Somark is keeping mum as toits exact contents. They only say that it doesnt contain anymetals and is 100% 46
  49. 49. biocompatible and chemically inert. The tattoo can beapplied in 5 to 10 seconds with no shaving involved and canbe read from up to 4 feet away -- the bigger the tattoo, themore information stored. Security/Surveillance Cameras170 surveillance cameras on one block! NYC now CameraCity. In 2005, the NYCLU counted more than 4,000 street levelcameras from the West Village down to Battery Park. Thegroup also found that the 292 cameras along 125th Street inCentral Harlem recorded nearly every movement on thatbusy street. "I would believe the number has dramaticallyincreased" three years later, said Matt Faiella, staff attorneyfor the NYCLU. The cameras have myriad uses. The NYPDwants to install thousands to protect the city againstterrorism. The NYPDs recently released plan to protect thecity by installing some 3,000 additional cameras in the cityraised concern at the NYCLU because it takes a new step insurveillance by creating a database of license plates andpeoples movements. The police said the images, includinglicense plate captures, would be erased after 30 days. 47
  50. 50. Various Dome Cameras Explosion Proof CameraCCTV Security Cameras- CCTV is an acronym that standsfor Closed Circuit Television. It is defined as the use of oneor more cameras used for surveillance purposes. It wasinitially developed to increase bank security and has sincespread to every corner of the security industry. Homesecurity systems, businesses, corporations, organizations,and schools are several examples of locations thatimplement CCTV Security Systems. They produce highquality, exceptionally sharp color images, and have motionsensors that track movement across an area. They canpick a person out of a crowd and lock on them, tracingtheir movements; they can run at night because of infraredtechnology. The possibilities are endless for CCTV,especially as the technology continues to develop. 48
  51. 51. High Resolution IR Dome CameraA Vandalproof IR Dome Camera unlike any other. Whatmakes the Hi-Res Sony HAD Vandalproof IR Dome Cameraso effective is its tough design. Ideal for indoor or outdooruse, the Hi-Res IR Dome Camera is completely surroundedby a heavy-duty all-metal casing. Surrounding the camera is24 infrared LED sensors that ensure outstanding imagequality at a distance of up to 40 feet in any lighting situation– including near total darkness. The Hi-Res Sony HADVandalproof IR Dome Camera is always on guard – day ornight – providing high-resolution images straight to a TV ormonitor. 49
  52. 52. Video Surveillance Gets SmarterVideo surveillance gets smarter in Verbania, Italy. Verbania,the capital of the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Italy,was created when the towns of Intra and Pallanza merged. Asone of the most idyllic and famous tourist destinations onLake Maggiore, the town relies heavily on holidaymakers tofill its streets and generate income. To ensure the safety ofvisitors and citizens, the town council decided to launch acommunity surveillance project based on a system ofnetwork cameras. Monitors linked to the ten Sony SSNC-RX550 network cameras are installed in the VerbaniaMunicipal Police control room, which is currently undergoingrestructuring. Even so, the system does not require theintervention of dedicated security operatives. The humanelement only comes into play when real-time monitoring isneeded (for example during a major event), or when anautomatic alarm is triggered. The towns network camerashave been positioned so that they can monitor all arrival andescape points in every area of the town. Intelligent image 50
  53. 53. analysis functions now allow the city to keep special areassuch as no-stopping zones under control. Using thesefeatures, live images can be monitored in unattended modeuntil suspicious activity occurs, at which point the operatoris proactively alerted to the threat by means of anappropriate alarm. Here are a few quotes concerning thisproject."Sony has successfully integrated advanced image analysisprocesses into its network camera. Previously, this kind ofanalysis would have required the deployment of a centralserver, considerably raising the costs of implementing andmanaging the infrastructure. A medium-sized municipalitysuch as Verbania might not be able to sustain such anexpense. In this case, Sony has demonstrated its ability toharness a technology which its competitors have yet tomaster. It is not just the self-learning concept which hasproved decisive; it is the fact that network cameras used forcommunity surveillance have adopted technologicalinnovations which were previously non-existent." Sony SSNC-RX550 Network Camera 51
  54. 54. "The network cameras proposed by Sony represent the latestgeneration in surveillance technology," explained SecurityConsultant Mario Grippa. "You could describe them asintelligent or self-learning cameras, in that onceprogrammed, they can detect threats without humanintervention. Although the cameras function locally andindependently from one another, they are neverthelessinterconnected. In fact each instrument is self-contained andcan circle, record and manage images on a local basis. Theentire system is programmed to carry out high-quality,continuous recording 24 hours a day, seven days aweek. The smooth, clear images apply both to live displaysand recorded footage. Furthermore, the lens quality of theSNC-RX550 cameras enables us to film objects and events ata distance of up to 200 metres.“"This type of technology will become the future of streetsurveillance and monitoring. By choosing Sony we knew wecould count on an innovative partner that offered leadingtechnological solutions. We were positively surprised by theimage clarity, even in poor light. Today the Municipality ofVerbania can rest assured that those who commit crime willbe identified, thanks to technology which directly recognisesobjects and reads vehicle registration plates. In fact, ournetwork cameras have been positioned so that they canmonitor all arrival and escape points in every area of thetown. Intelligent image analysis functions now enable us tokeep special areas such as no-stopping zones 52
  55. 55. under control. Using these features, live images can bemonitored in unattended mode until suspicious activityoccurs, at which point the operator is proactively alerted tothe threat by means of an appropriate alarm. This is why weopted for the Sony solution; it enabled us to implement aproject which was previously unfeasible." CyberExtruder Gets 2D to 3D Face PatentCyberExtruder announced that the company had beengranted a new patent on their process for creating reliable 3Dmodels of a persons face from a single or series of 2Dimages. CyberExtruders 2D-to-3D conversion is certainly animportant innovation to the security and biometricstechnology industries. Why? It enables better matchingbetween offline photographs and surveillance video. Whilethe matching of "watch list" images against surveillancevideo has traditionally achieved mixed results as a result ofinadequate lighting, angle, expression, etc., this patent couldsignify a leap forward in terms of the quality and value of 3Dfacial images. 53
  56. 56. According to the NYPD, you won’t even recognize that it’sthere, but high above the heads of New York City’s citizens,there is a $10 million special NYPD helicopter with animpressive arsenal of surveillance equipment inside it. Thechopper, called “23 ORRNV OLNH D SODLQ KHOLFRSWHU RQ WKHoutside, but on the inside it is chock-full of hi-tech gadgetry,most of it intended to protect the people on the ground fromterrorist attacks. Helicopters Surveillance CamerasNew York Police Department surveillance helicopterscameras, including one for infrared photography, aremounted below the aircraft. The choppers arsenal ofsophisticated surveillance and tracking equipment ispowerful enough to stealthily read license plates - or evenpedestrians faces - from high above. 54
  57. 57. Cuman Personal Tracking DevicesWhile Orwell’s 1984 suggested that human surveillance andtracking would be an integral part of a dystopian future, thereality looks to be quite different, with people quicklyembracing GPS technology and the myriad of uses suchtechnology provides. The last few years has seen a range oftracking devices that use GPS to keep track of everythingfrom products and pets to loved ones. The latest player toenter the field is South Korea electronics company Cumanwith its range of tracking devices. The model drawing themost attention from Cumans personal trackers is the CP-100G. Cuman describes the white patch-type tracker as aP2P solution – no, it can’t be used to download piratedmovies over Peer to Peer networks. In this case, P2P standsfor a person-to-person application. This means it does notrequire an operation center to report the location of whateverit is being tracked to the user. Using 55
  58. 58. SMS or TCP-IP, the trackers location can be reported directlyto a PDA, PC or mobile phone. Since the software is free andthe P2P solution enables the unit to link to a freeware Googlemap, there is no service charge for using the trackingservice. Cuman’s range of devices also includes the CW-100G, which manages to cram a tracking device into awristwatch – just the sneaky thing to keep track of littleJimmy without him knowing. The devices run for up to 72hours on a single charge of their Li-ion battery and includean SOS button that can be programmed to send a locationand emergency message to pre-assigned agencies orparents. Additionally, through the use of a customizableGeo Fence, the devices will send out an alert when the unitgoes beyond a pre-set safety zone. The patch-type CP-100Gincludes USB port and SIMM slot, measures 40 x 30 x 17mmand weighs 26g, while the wristwatch CW-100G measuresjust 39.5mm in diameter and 17.5mm in height. (GPS) Global Positioning System Tracking 56
  59. 59. Enhanced Driver’s LicensesVermont has become the third state to begin issuingenhanced driver’s licenses with radio frequency tags thatalso serve as official identification cards at U.S. bordercrossing points. It did so under a program authorized by theHomeland Security Department. The Vermont Department ofMotor Vehicles began accepting applications for theenhanced licenses through its Montpelier office. The newcard is voluntary and costs $25 more than a standardlicense. New York, Washington State and British Columbia inCanada offer similar licenses designed to comply with DHS’Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, which goes into effectin June, 2009. Officials in Arizona, Michigan, Manitoba,Ontario and Quebec have indicated they intend to issuesimilar cards. The enhanced drivers licenses have embeddedradio frequency identification (RFID) chips that can bescanned at a distance of 20 to 30 feet at U.S. bordercrossings. The RFID chips in the licenses emit a referencenumber that must be checked against a DHS database toobtain personal information. 57
  60. 60. A smart, multifunctional identity card of the future?The Troika card, a concept for a smarter Social Security cardwith a multifunctional screen that turns your identity cardinto a gadget. Made of lightweight aluminum, the Troika cardis durable but also flexible. A multifunctional screen allowsusers to switch between drivers license, passport, andSocial Security card.Thumbprint identification serves asprotection against identity theft. By combining the familiarityand proportions of a standard ID card with the durability of awater-resistant, flexible screen and the security ofbiometrics, a card like this could revolutionize the future ofidentification.Here are the features in detail:1. Thanks to the thumbprint reader, only the owner of thecard is able to activate it.2. The material of the Color E Ink display scanner is thin filmused in electronic displays. 58
  61. 61. 3. Buttons allow the user to select between Social Security,drivers license, and passport information.4. The sturdy yet light aluminum body will last much longerthan a typical plastic card.5. The water-resistant cover keeps the card shiny andprotects it from the elements. Encrypted Flash Disk Detects Living TissueUSB flash disks with biometric fingerprint sensors are adime a dozen. So what makes the Sellgino Dragon Securitybiometric drive unique? It may be the first biometric-enabledflash disk to use a fingerprint sensor that detects the liveskin layer. Sensors found on other devices scan only thesurface of the finger, which means that if your hand is dirtyyou might be locked out of your disk. In fact, even fingersthat are too dry can compromise the detection rate of normalbiometric sensors. By seeking the live layer of the skin, theDragon Security has a much higher accuracy rate even if youfail to wash your hands after eating chocolate. It doesntrequire any driver installation on Windows XP or Vista andcan store up to 10 fingerprints. 59
  62. 62. Laser beam spy camera joins war on terrorismA laser that can scan a crowd and identify people who havebeen handling explosives is being secretly tested at Britishairports and railway stations. The device - no bigger than ashoe box - could also be used by police and MI5 surveillanceteams to identify Islamic terrorists outside mosques orcommunity centres. The laser can pick out suspects in largecrowds and highlight explosive residue on their clothing andluggage. Professor John Tyrer, of Loughborough University,who helped to develop the equipment, said: “When youhandle an explosive, the chemicals -such as Semtex and TNT- leave traces. With this technology we are able to see thistelltale residue and identify possible suspects. Using lasertechnology we can see the explosives on peoples clothes,on their hands or on items like backpacks such as thoseused by the July 7 London bombers.” He added: “Thisequipment could be carried by surveillance teams or couldbe set up to monitor a street, a railway, airport terminal ornational stadium.” When the equipment scans a crowd, italerts an operator when explosive particles are detected. 60
  63. 63. Echelon (signals intelligence)“Trillions of bytes of textual archive and thousands of onlineusers, or gigabytes of live data stream per day that arefiltered against tens of thousands of complex interestprofiles”Echelon is a system used by the United States NationalSecurity Agency (NSA) to intercept and process internationalcommunications passing via communications satellites. It isone part of a global surveillance systems that interceptmessages from the Internet, from undersea cables, fromradio transmissions, from secret equipment installed insideembassies, or use orbiting satellites to monitor signalsanywhere on the earths surface. The system includesstations run by Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand,in addition to those operated by the United States. Althoughsome Australian and British stations do the same job asAmericas Echelon sites, they are not necessarily called 61
  64. 64. Echelon stations. But they all form part of the sameintegrated global network using the same equipment andmethods to extract information and intelligence illicitly frommillions of messages every day, all over the world. Thesystem works by indiscriminately intercepting very largequantities of communications and using computers toidentify and extract messages of interest from the mass ofunwanted ones. A chain of secret interception facilities hasbeen established around the world to tap into all the majorcomponents of the international telecommunicationsnetworks. Some monitor communications satellites, othersland-based communications networks, and others radiocommunications. ECHELON links together all these facilities,providing the US and its allies with the ability to intercept alarge proportion of the communications on the planet. Thecomputers at each station in the ECHELON networkautomatically search through the millions of messagesintercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords.Keywords include all the names, localities, subjects, and soon that might be mentioned. Every word of every messageintercepted at each station gets automatically searchedwhether or not a specific telephone number or e-mailaddress is on the list. The thousands of simultaneousmessages are read in real time as they pour into thestation, hour after hour, day after day, as the computer findsintelligence needles in telecommunications haystacks.According to its website, the USAs National Security Agencyis a high technology organization... on the frontiers ofcommunications and data processing. 62
  65. 65. Although the largest surveillance network is run by the USNSA, it is far from alone. Russia, China, France and othernations operate worldwide networks. Dozens of advancednations use signals intelligence (sigint) as a key source ofintelligence. Even smaller European nations such asDenmark, the Netherlands or Switzerland have recentlyconstructed small, Echelon-like stations to obtain andprocess intelligence by eavesdropping on civil satellitecommunications.In Europe, we talk about the four freedoms of the Union --freedom for the flow of information, of the mobility of people,freedom of goods and freedom of services -- but there is afifth freedom: Intelligence. Nations want to retain thefreedom to spy. -- A European Commission official, October1998.Current trends towards Globalization and AOne World Economy Corporate citizenship In the world economy. 63
  66. 66. Transnational Corporations exert a great deal of power in theglobalized world economy. Many corporations are richer andmore powerful than the states that seek to regulate them.Through mergers and acquisitions corporations have beengrowing very rapidly and some of the largest TNCs now haveannual profits exceeding the GDPs of many low and mediumincome countries. The United NationsThe United Nations Global Compact, also known as Compactor UNGC. The UN Global Compact is the worlds largestcorporate citizenship and sustainability initiative. Since itsofficial launch on 26 July 2000, the initiative has grown tomore than 6200 participants, including over 4700 businessesin 120 countries around the world. 64
  67. 67. It is a network-based initiative with the Global CompactOffice and six UN agencies at its core. Here’s a brief historyof the U.N. The name United Nations, coined by UnitedStates President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in theDeclaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, duringthe Second World War, when representatives of 26 nationspledged their Governments to continue fighting togetheragainst the Axis Powers. The forerunner of the UnitedNations was the League of Nations, an organizationconceived in similar circumstances during the first WorldWar, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versaillesto promote international cooperation and to achieve peaceand security. The International Labour Organization wasalso created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliatedagency of the League. The League of Nations ceased itsactivities after failing to prevent the Second World War. In1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco atthe United Nations Conference on International Organizationto draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegatesdeliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by therepresentatives of China, the Soviet Union, the UnitedKingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, UnitedStates in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries.Poland, which was not represented at the Conference,signed it later and became one of the original 51 MemberStates. The United Nations officially came into existence on24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified byChina, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, theUnited States and by a majority of other signatories. 65
  68. 68. And with the assistance of the UN Global Compact, today theUnited Nations is now aiding globalism. Never before inhistory has there been a greater alignment between theobjectives of the international community and those of thebusiness world. Common goals, such as building markets,combating corruption, safeguarding the environment andensuring social inclusion, have resulted in unprecedentedpartnerships and openness between business, governments,civil society, labour and the United Nations. Launched in July2000, the UN Global Compact is a both a policy platform anda practical framework for companies that are committed tosustainability and responsible business practices. The UNGlobal Compact is a strategic policy initiative for businessesthat are committed to aligning their operations and strategieswith ten universally accepted principles in the areas ofhuman rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. Bydoing so, business, as the primary agent drivingglobalization, can help ensure that markets, commerce,technology and finance advance in ways that benefiteconomies and societies everywhere and contribute to amore sustainable and inclusive global economy. The UNGlobal Compact is not a regulatory instrument, but rather avoluntary initiative that relies on public accountability,transparency and disclosure to complement regulation andto provide a space for innovation.“ We need business to give practical meaning and reach tothe values and principles that connect cultures and peopleeverywhere.” — Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of theUnited Nations 66
  69. 69. The technotronic era involves the gradual appearance of amore controlled society. Such a society would be dominatedby an elite, unrestrained by traditional values. Soon it will bepossible to assert almost continuous surveillance over everycitizen and maintain up-to-date complete files containingeven the most personal information about the citizen. Thesefiles will be subject to instantaneous retrieval by theauthorities. –Zbigniew Brzezinski. founder of The TrilateralCommission 67
  70. 70. World Trade Organization (WTO)We are writing the constitution of a single global economy.—former WTO Director, General Renato Ruggiero“It was utterly outrageous. Wealthy countries exploited theirpower to spin the agenda of big business. The issue ofmultinational corporations as a cause of poverty was noteven on the agenda; it was like a conference on malaria thatdoes not discuss the mosquito.”—Mark Curtis, ChristianAid’s head of policy, about the WTO meeting in Quatar 2001Established in 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is apowerful new global commerce agency, which transformedthe General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into anenforceable global commerce code. The WTO is one of themain mechanisms of corporate globalization. Assisting theWTO is its sister organizations the International MonetaryFund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB). Under the WTO’ssystem of corporate-managed trade, economic efficiency,reflected in short-run corporate profits, dominates othervalues. Decisions affecting the economy are to be confinedto the private sector, while social and environmental costsare borne by the public. Privatization is the transfer of powerto operate basic services such as water, education,electricity and healthcare from government control to privatecompanies. These basic services, regarded as human rightsby many in the world, have now become markets sought outby corporations from the US and Europe who are looking tomake a profit. 68
  71. 71. “Citizens beware. An unprecedented corporate power grab isunderway in global negotiations over international trade.”—Ralph Nader, “Free Trade and the Decline of Democracy,”1993 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is aregional trade agreement among the governments ofCanada, Mexico, and the United States traces its beginningsfrom many paths. One early dating goes back to the 1979Trade Act which called for study on the possibility of a freetrade area around the Americas. Throughout the 1980s,economic problems, including heavy international debtburdens, precluded trade liberalization policies in Mexico.U.S. trade negotiations turned north, and by 1989 a U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) had been negotiated,signed, and implemented. Using the FTA as a starting point,the Bush administration once again began seeking a southenlink in the North American trade equation, and in 1990 theyreached agreement with the Mexican government to pursue 69
  72. 72. the negotiations. Canada joined the negotiations, and by late1992, the North American Free Trade Agreement wascompleted, allowing for signature by years end. The Clintonadministration assumed office in January of 1993, already onrecord as supporting Congressional ratification of NAFTA. InNovember of 1993, Congress passed the North AmericanFree Trade Agreement (NAFTA) despite widespread popularopposition. Several weeks before the 1993 vote, opponentsof NAFTA had gathered a slim majority of the votes. YetNAFTA ultimately passed. NAFTA entered into force onJanuary 1, 1994. 70
  73. 73. A day will come when all nations on our continent will forma European brotherhood…A day will come when we shallsee… the United States of America and the United States ofEurope face to face, reaching out for each other across theseas. Victor Hugo - 1848 The European UnionIn 1950 the European Coal and Steel Community wasproposed as a means of achieving economic unification inEurope following the war. The hope was that this wouldstrengthen economic trade in Europe. This unified effort ledto the signing of the treaties of Rome in 1957, whichestablished the European Economic Community (EEC), andthe European Atomic Energy Council. 71
  74. 74. That treaty was taken a step further with the signing of theBrussels Treaty in 1965. The Brussels Treaty began theprocess of rebuilding the old Roman Empire throughreunification of European states under one political system,one economic system, and eventually under the protection ofone military force. The treaty established a commission,council, parliament, and court for the union. More stateswere added to this growing union in 1973, 1981, and 1986,making up the 10 permanent member states of today’sEuropean Union.The headlines stated Europe Is United Again”, 2004. 10nations in eastern Europe and Mediterranean join bloc.Europe stood proudly reunited yesterday almost six decadesafter it was split in two by the Cold War, as 10 nations ineastern Europe and the Mediterranean took their places inthe European Union. The once-communist states of theCzech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland,Slovakia and Slovenia officially joined the EU family. 72
  75. 75. Mediterranean islands Cyprus and Malta joined them as well,rounding out what is indisputably the world’s biggest singleeconomic bloc, and a fledgling political force, with a totalpopulation of 455 million, the EU now surpasses the UnitedStates as the worlds biggest economy. Currently theEuropean Union is composed of 27 independent sovereignstates which are known as member states: Austria, Belgium,Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands,Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Todays European Unionhas a president and a military. Its citizens also have acommon passport. The E.U.’s FlagThe purpose of the EU’s creation was and is, ultimately, tocreate a European super-state or “United States of Europe”,as some have suggested naming it, that would eventuallyrival the United States in influence and military might. 73
  76. 76. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, vowed to unite all ofEurope under one single constitution. Of course, this ineffect would wipe out the National Sovereignty of everycountry in the European Union. European Union leadersadopted a 50th anniversary declaration setting 2009 as thedeadline for a new treaty to replace its rejected constitution.The Berlin Declaration was signed by German ChancellorAngela Merkel, European Commission President JoseManuel Barroso and the president of the EuropeanParliament, Hans-Gert Poettering, as EU leaders looked on.There are four important aspects of the revised EUconstitutional treaty. 1. It would give the EU theconstitutional form of a state for the first time and make usall real and not just honorary citizens of this EU state: 2. Itwould give the EU more law-making powers: 3. It would givethe big states more weight and small and middle-sized statesless weight in making EU laws: 4. It would remove the rightto a permanent EU commissioner. This would prevent eachmember state from being represented at all times on the EUCommission. 74
  77. 77. The EuroIts the currency of 13 European Union countries: Belgium,Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia and Finland. TheEuro is a symbol of European identity and a vital part of theprocess of political integration. The idea behind the singlecurrency is that getting rid of national currencies wouldmake the operation of a single market easier and provide forgreater economic stability. This requires the EU to becomewhat economists call an optimal currency area, whicheffectively operates as one economy. Euro notes look thesame wherever you are in the EU (European Union) - theycome in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500Euros. The coins have different national images on thereverse side. Coins and notes issued in any EU country canbe used in any other.‘[the Euro is] a tool to help us master globalisation and helpus resist irrational shifts in the market. - Dominique Strauss-Kahn, French finance minister, 1997-1999 75
  78. 78. An Unfinished TowerAnd they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, andbuild us a city and a tower. Return of the Tower of Babel?Above is an illustration of the one of the buildings of theEuropean Parliament in Strasbourg France, the Louise WeissBuilding, which includes a tower that appears to beunfinished. On the left is a painting done in 1563 of the Towerof Babel, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a Flemish NorthernRenaissance Painter. Posters produced by the EuropeanUnion symbolically depict their goal. The motto of Europe:Many Tongues One Voice. Genesis 11:1-9 And the wholeearth was of one language, and of one speech. And it cameto pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found aplain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. 76
  79. 79. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter.And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower,whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us aname, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the wholeearth. And the LORD came down to see the city and thetower, which the children of men builded. And the LORDsaid, Behold, the people is one, and they have all onelanguage; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will berestrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to,let us go down, and there confound their language, that theymay not understand one anothers speech. So the LORDscattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all theearth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the nameof it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound thelanguage of all the earth: and from thence did the LORDscatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. 77
  80. 80. U.K.’s prime minister Gordon Brown announced the creationof a “new world order” after the conclusion of the G20summit of world leaders in London. The Prime Ministerclaimed to have struck a “historic” deal to end the globalrecession as he unveiled plans to plough more than $1trillion into the world economy.“This is the day that the world came together to fight backagainst the global recession,” he said. “Not with words butwith a plan for global recovery and reform.”One trillion dollars will be made available to the IMF and, inturn, to countries threatened by the downturn. However, MrBrown made it clear that he did not intend to apply for fundsfor Britain, despite opponents warning that the country willsoon need a bail-out due to the growing deficit in the publicfinances. April, 2009 78
  81. 81. China’s YuanRecently China’s central bank proposed replacing the USdollar as the international reserve currency with a new globalsystem controlled by the International Monetary Fund. In anessay posted on the People’s Bank of China’s website, ZhouXiaochuan, the central bank’s governor, said the goal wouldbe to create a reserve currency “that is disconnected fromindividual nations and is able to remain stable in the longrun, thus removing the inherent deficiencies caused by usingcredit-based national currencies”. China is positioning itscurrency for a run at world supremacy. The yuan is gainingglobal influence, but experts say it would be years before itcould supplant the U.S. dollar. In a series of what might becalled baby steps, Chinese officials recently have moved toglobalize the yuan and promote its influence overseas, withShanghai designated as command central. Since lastDecember, China has signed deals with six countries,including South Korea, Malaysia and most recentlyArgentina, for currency swaps that would inject Chinesemoney into foreign banking systems. That would allowforeign companies to pay for goods they import from Chinain yuan, bypassing the dollar -- the currency that dominatesinternational trade and finance, including foreign exchangereserves. April, 2009 79
  82. 82. 80
  83. 83. Possibly leading us towards a single global market arecurrent or future economic and political union’s or blocs thatallow for free movement of people and goods.A common market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise. The goal is that movement of capital, labour, goods, and services between the members is as easy as within them.Sometimes a single market is differentiated as a more advanced form of common market. In comparison to common a single market envisions more efforts geared towards removing the physical (borders), technical (standards) and fiscal (taxes) barriers among the member states. These barriers obstruct the freedom of movement. A single market has many benefits. With full freedom of movement for all the factors of production between the member countries, the factors of production become more efficiently allocated, further increasing productivity.List of single markets * Andean Community (CAN) - 31 December 2005 * Caribbean Community single market (CARICOM) * Central American Common Market (CACM) * Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) 81
  84. 84. * European Economic Area (EEA) between the EC, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein *The European Union (EU) began life as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 (Treaty of Paris (1951)) and went on to become the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 (Treaty of Rome (1957)) (when it became known in Britain and Ireland as the Common Market). The abolition of internal tariff barriers was achieved in 1968. In subsequent years little was done to move from this basic customs union to a full single market. The Single European Act was signed in 1986 to establish a Single European Market by 1993, by removing the barriers to free movement of capital, labour, goods and services. * West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) - 10 January 1994Proposed * Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) - 1 January 2010 * Southern African Development Community (SADC) - 2012 * Southern Common Market (Mercosur) - 2015 * ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) - 2020 * African Economic Community (AEC) - 2023 * Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) * North American Union (NAU) * Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) * Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) * South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) 82
  85. 85. Currency UnionsThe five currency unions and 81 independent currenciescover a total of 122 countries that make up 98.4% of theworlds GDP and 86.1% of the worlds population.In 1999, economist Judy Shelton addressed the US House ofRepresentatives Committee on Banking and FinancialServices. In her testimony, she stated that, “The continuedexpansion of free trade, the increased integration of financialmarkets and the advent of electronic commerce are allworking to bring about the need for an internationalmonetary standard---a global unit of account.” She furtherexplained that, “Regional currency unions seem to be thenext step in the evolution toward some kind of globalmonetary order. Europe has already adopted a single 83
  86. 86. currency. Asia may organize into a regional currency bloc tooffer protection against speculative assaults on theindividual currencies of weaker nations. Numerous countriesin Latin America are considering various monetaryarrangements to insulate them from financial contagion andavoid the economic consequences of devaluation. Animportant question is whether this process of monetaryevolution will be intelligently directed or whether it willsimply be driven by events. In my opinion, politicalleadership can play a decisive role in helping to build a moreorderly, rational monetary system than the current free-for-allapproach to exchange rate relations.” She further stated that,“As we have seen in Europe, the sequence of development is(1) you build a common market, and (2) you establish acommon currency. Indeed, until you have a commoncurrency, you dont truly have an efficient common market.”She concludes by stating, “Ideally, every nation should standwilling to convert its currency at a fixed rate into a universalreserve asset. That would automatically create a globalmonetary union based on a common unit of account. Thealternative path to a stable monetary order is to forge acommon currency anchored to an asset of intrinsic value.While the current momentum for dollarization should beencouraged, especially for Mexico and Canada, in the endthe stability of the global monetary order should not rest onany single nation.” 84
  87. 87. Economist Robert A. Mundell has long called for a globalcurrency. On his website, he states that the creation of aglobal currency is “a project that would restore a neededcoherence to the international monetary system, give theInternational Monetary Fund a function that would help it topromote stability, and be a catalyst for internationalharmony.” He states that, “The benefits from a worldcurrency would be enormous. Prices all over the world wouldbe denominated in the same unit and would be kept equal indifferent parts of the world to the extent that the law of oneprice was allowed to work itself out. Apart from tariffs andcontrols, trade between countries would be as easy as it isbetween states of the United States.”“A global economy requires a global currency.”— Paul Volcker, former Chair of the US Federal Reserve. 85