The general body plans of animals. biology

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..a presentation i really work into for our laboratory in biodiversity,,..hope that you can get as much information here...

..a presentation i really work into for our laboratory in biodiversity,,..hope that you can get as much information here...

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  • 1. The General Body Plans of Animals
    Prepared by:
    Group 1 Morning
    Joseph Martin Paet
    Gladys Kim Remolacio
    Jesebel Garlan
    Ruby Cocal
    Jeremy Nacido
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    Most animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans.
    It could be divided into matching halves by drawing a line down the center.
    It permits streamlining, favors the formation of a central nerve center, contributes to cephalization, and promotes actively moving organisms.
  • 3.  Radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface.
    Radial Symmetry
    Coral
    Jelly Fish
  • 4. Asymmetrical
    Do not show definite symmetry.
  • 5. REGIONS
    Segmentation the division of some animal body plans into a series of repetitive sections. “Advanced” animals have body segments, and specialization of tissue.
    Metamerism  segments are similar with each other.
    Tagmatization  segments are different and may become fused to fused to a functional groups/tagmata.
  • 6. Terms to be Familiar With
    Anterior head-end
    Posterior  tail-end
    Cephalic  toward the head
    Caudal  toward the tail
    Dorsal back side
    Ventral belly side
    Lateral  on or toward the side
    Medial  on or toward the middle
    Proximal  toward the central part
    Distal  toward the extremities
    Peripheral  near the surface of the body
  • 7. The Sea Star
    The sea star has a radial symmetry.
  • 8. PARTS OF A STAR FISH
    Figure 7.1
  • 9. The Roundworm
    Ascarislumbricoides, a common intestinal roundworm having a bilateral symmetry. It lacks true segmentation and appendages.
    It is covered with a tough, elastic cuticle, bearing minute striations.
    Four whitish longitudinal lines extended along the body, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral.
    The mouth opens at the anterior end between three rounded lips.
    The anus is a transverse slit close to the posterior end of the ventral surface.
    Figure 7.2
  • 10. The Earthworm
    The Pheretima has a bilaterally symmetrical body, long and cylindrical, bluntly tapered at each end, and somewhat depressed posteriorly.
    The body is organized in a linear series of similar segments (somites/metameres) which is called mesmerism.
    The mouth is in the first somite and the vertically oval anus, in the last somite.
    The clitelium is a conspicuous glandular swelling over the somites 32 to 37.
    Setae – minute, rod-like chitinous appendages.
    Anus
    Somites
    Mouth
    Figure 7.3
    Clitelium
  • 11. It is divided into three segments.
    The segments are not similar and is referred to as tagmata.
    The Cockroach
  • 12. 1. The Head
    Compound eyes (ommatidia)
    Antennae
    Gena
    Ocelli
    Figure 7.4
  • 13. 2. The Thorax
    Cervix
    The cervix (neck) connects the head to the thorax.
  • 14. 2. The Thorax
    Pretarsus
    Pulvillus
    Figure 7.5
  • 15. 2. The Thorax
    Prothoracic plate
    Figure 7.6
    The prothoracic plate is a broad plate located anteriorly.
  • 16. 2. The Thorax
    Forewing/Elytrom
    Cercus
    Hindwing
    Figure 7.6
    Forewing spread in the mesothorasic area while the hind wing is on the metathorasic area.
    The hindwing is the one used in flight.
  • 17. 2. The Thorax
    Figure 7.7
  • 18. 3. The Abdomen
    Male
    Female
    Spiracles are apertures for gas exchange.
  • 19. The Shrimp
    Figure 7.8
    The head and the thorax are fused at the cephalothorax.
  • 20. The Toad
  • 21. 1. The Head
    Nictitating Membrane
    Parotid Glands
  • 22. 2. The Trunk
    Female
    Forearm
    Hump
    Finger
    Foreleg
    Belly
    Anus
    Thigh
    Hindleg
    Foot
    Shank
    Male
    Ankle
    Webs
  • 23. Figure 7.9
  • 24. Answers to Self Assessment Question
    1. Compare and contrast the following invertebrates based on the following:
  • 25. 2. Compare and contrast the tod with fish, other amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals based on the following:
  • 26. What is the adaptive significance of segmentation in animals?
    Segmentation is the division of an animal into similar parts. It's main significance is that it provides a simple way of making a small animal into a larger one - basically by duplicating a segment two or more times an animal can be made bigger without complex alterations. This has particular significance in evolution where it is generally believed that larger animals evolved through a simple genetic mutation which generated multi-segmented forms from non-segmented forms.
    Segmentation is visible to one extent or another in virtually all larger fauna - from insects and earthworms to vertebrates (the spinal column is an example of segmentation - the repeated use of vertebral disks to create a larger creature than would easily be possible by simple enlarging one vertebra)
  • 27. THE END