Glossary Open Source software - is computer software that is available for use that is free of copyright reservations. This means that users of the software can study, change, improve and at times also distribute the software.Parent Company - A company that controls subsidiaries Technical Convergence - Technological convergence is the tendency for differentthrough its ownership of voting stock, as well as runs its technological systems to evolve towards performing similar taskown business. Cloud computing - Cloud computing refers to the provision of computer resourcesSubsidiary - Controlled by a holding or parent company (primarily software) on demand via a computer network. Its principal is, in effect, noVertical Integration - The combination in one company of different to the supply of gas or electricity – the digital content is streamed down thetwo or more stages of production normally operated by internet to the users computer ready for immediate use.separate companies Gaming-on-demand - Gaming on demand is a game service which will take advantageHorizontal Integration - Production of different varieties of a broadband connection, large servers and digital encryption and compression toof the same product, or different products at the same stream game content directly to a subscriber. Game content isnt stored on the userslevel of processing, within a single firm. machine and game code execution occurs primarily at the server so a less powerfulPublisher - A person or company that prepares and issues computer can be used than the game would normally require.books, journals, music, or other works for sale OnLive - is a cloud computing, gaming-on-demand medium: the games areGame Developer - A person who develops games. synchronized, rendered, and stored on remote servers and delivered via the Internet.Distributor - An agent who supplies goods to stores and Onlive itself is not a platform. The games offered run off of Onlive servers (mostlyother businesses that sell to consumers installed with Windows). The Onlive service allows game content to be passed alongSoftware Developer - A software developer is a person or the internet to end users running the Onlive game system.organization concerned with facets of the softwaredevelopment processTransnational - A large company operatinginternationally; a multinationalGlobalisation - growth to a global or worldwide scaleExclusivity - This refers to an advertiser requesting thattheir ad not be shown in rotation. This normally results ina higher fee for the publisher, as it reduces the numberof ads they could otherwise show.Synergy - The interaction or cooperation of two or moreorganizations, substances, or other agents to produce acombined effect greater than the sum of their separateeffectsPartnership - A business or firm owned and run by two ormore partnersProprietary software - Computer programs which are thelegal property of one party, the use of which is madeavailable to a second or more parties, usually undercontract or licensing agreement.
Factfile Made by Rockstar Games Rockstar Games are the Subsidiary of Take- Two Interactive This means that Take –Two is the parent company as it owns Rockstar. Who is Rockstar? Rockstar Games is a Publishing company that publishes games such as Grand Theft Auto, Midnight Club and Red Dead Redemption. Who runs Rockstar? The Rockstar Games label started in New York in 1998 by the English video game producers Sam Houser, Dan Houser, Terry Donovan, Jamie King and Gary Foreman.
For Red Dead PublisherRockstar Redemption Rockstar GamesWere the various Rockstar Studios something else beforethey became Rockstar studios? Developer Some studies have been renamed and taken over by its parent company, Take-Two Interactive. This is to mix Rockstar San Diego the two companies together although some studies have kept their Brand so that they can become part of the companies ‘2k Games division’. Distributor Rockstar San Diego – Angel Studios Ditan Distribution Rockstar Vancouver – Barking Dog Studios Rockstar Vienna – Neo Software
Vertical/Horizontel OwnershipRockstar is Parent Company Take-Two Interactive The parent company,controlling the Take-Two Interactiveproduction at two Owns the Publishingstages of the Publisher company Rockstar.production, the Rockstar Games This is verticalpublishing and integration as it isthe game owning or controllingdeveloping as it is Game Developer production atthe same Rockstar San Diego different levels.company at bothlevels. This isvertical Distributor Parent Company Titan Distribution Take-Two Interactiveintegration. Publisher Different companies are Rockstar Games working together on the same level of production as a Game Developer Software developer Rockstar San Diego Natural Motion partnership; nobody owns Natural Motion. Distributor This is horizontal integration. Titan Distribution
How is a game actually made? Rockstar Advanced Game Engine (RAGE) Made by RAGE Technology Group at Rockstar San Diego. Create the ‘game world’ using Euphoria, an Euphoria character animation example of cross-media engine at Natural Motion convergence. Open Source bullet physics engine
What processes and people are involved in this long and complex process? DevelopmentTrailer of the game was sent to Sony which also promoted the new Play Station 3 as it had yet to be released. Marketing and ReleaseAllowed people to ‘pre-order’ the game and gave them a vote on what outfit the main character could unlock straight away, which instantly provided new content to the game depending on the outfit they chose.Exclusive additional things such as new gang buildings were available if you bought it on PS3.Downloadable content that expanded the game with new missions and guns.
What gaming platforms is Red Dead Redemptionavailable on? Why do you think it is theseconsoles and not others? I think the game is only available on PS3 and XBOX 360 as it is probably a game that requires good graphics and a high standard of game play, a system that is fast and can deal with a big sandbox game. As the game is 3D is probably takes up a lot of space and needs to have a good console to support it. I also think it could be because it means the company can charge more for the game as generally, games for these types of consoles are more expensive as they are newer. Also, people will want to buy it for these two consoles as they are most popular at the moment and if they brought it out for PC, it may not do as well. These consoles are also more likely to be bought by people around the age of the target audience for the game, 18. Other consoles such as the Wii is more suitable for the younger generation and families; therefore it wouldn’t get many sales if they brought it out on that platform.
Which technologies do they converge and what impact does this have on the game and its players?Xbox and Play station 3 have similar qualities so it means the game can be made alike and less money has to be spent on making it available on those two platforms. The interaction is very similar when using both consoles and you are able to carry out similar tasks on them due to what they can provide, they are like different devices in one.Does this impact on the game?This does impact on the game as it means that Rockstar can produce upgrades for the game and people can buy and download the upgrade or expansion packs to make the game better and introduce new things to the game all of the time. This impacts the game as it means it isn’t being forgotten about and the company can spend money on improving the game and giving the players what they want so that they will spend more money and get more out of the game overall. You can already download this new content for the game: Undead Nightmare Liars and Cheats Legends and Killers Outlaws to the End (co-op mission pack)Does this allow for extra revenue to be generated?It has slightly allowed for extra revenue to be made as games on these two platforms can be expensive, especially when they first come out. As both consoles are in high demand and are popular due to the fact you can go online and play with other people, whilst also being able to access stored games and have the ability to save the game whenever you want. The technical convergence has allowed more revenue in a way because people are willing to pay for a high quality game that is modern and can do new things on the consoles.
Take Two Interactive Is a large American publishing company that is headquartered in New York It is also a developer and distribution company as it owns:2k Games and Rockstar Games. Games it has produced: Grand Theft Auto Midnight Club Manhunt BioshockIt is a transnational business.Why?It sells its products beyond the boundaries and world wide. Therefore it is also a global and has globalisation due to the fact it uses other companies internationally to create the games.Globalisation of the game means that the game is available globally, in many different countries instead of just one. The game is distributed to a lot of places and is growing due to this. The movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration which in turn is propelled by increased trade and investment. The sharing of goods, services, knowledge and cultures between people and countries.
Which Game Engines run Red Dead Redemption? Rage Euphoria Engine Who owns them? Natural Motion How does this relate to cross-media convergence?Because Natural Motion also is used on other levels of production such as the game developer and software developer.
MarketingHow was the game marketed in the UK?Trailers –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gBctl1h_2ohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0QxQi1qasY4&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PLBE314F1453C2B65CTHERE ARE MANY OTHER TRAILERS AVAILABLEBonus’ were available such as ‘the War Horse’Free Red Dead Redemption t-shirt if you pre-order the gameonline.Exclusive additional content like gang hideouts for the Playstation version.The game features rewards for your console avatar.First ever trailers at the cinema for the game.There was a half an hour short film made:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZUUVV2rjocPre-order deals – Look at slide 7.$20 Walmart gift card and free pack of cardsBuilding sized billboard posters in New YorkGames Magazines
Black, white and red colour scheme. Game Box Cover Black connotates death and mystery. Red connotates death, danger, anger. White connotates purity, simplicity andShows snapshots of emptiness. All of these things matchthe action on the back,to show what parts of the genre of the game as it is a violentthe game are like and game. The character hasgive examples of the a gun as a prop, tographics. show that there is going to be violence and shooting within the game – something that will attract the target audience. Already introducing the main character as a medium shot. Allowing you to see his appearance. He is scruffy and looks rough, his hair looks greasy and like he doesn’t care. He has a serious facial expression which means he has power; his stance helps with this idea too.
Why do you think the RDR’s cinema advertwas shown before screenings of RobinHood, Iron Man 2 and Prince of Persia?Because the films will have a similar target audience so by playing thetrailer for the game whilst waiting for one of the films to start, it willintroduce the people to the game. They chose to do it at these screeningsas they are probably the type of people who are most likely to buy andplay a game like this. The films are action films that will be mainly watchedby males around the age of 18 and over, they include violence and havesimilar story lines. If they were to show the advert on films such as BrideWars, it would get ignored as it wouldn’t be being shown to the type ofpeople that would buy it.“Speaking to MCV, Rockstar GM Neil Stephen said Redemption will getthe companys first ever cinema advertising campaign."We think thecinematic nature of the game makes it a perfect fit for cinema," Stephensaid; the game will be advertising to audiences of Robin Hood, Iron Man 2and Prince of Persia.”
“Rockstar added that its cinema campaign will incorporate some kind ofBluetooth-enabled content download via posters in the cinema foyer”This is an example of convergence as it is two companiesworking on the same level in order to provide something.The companies are coming together to create something ona whole.
What partnerships did Rockstar make with various retailers in order to generate pre-orders for RDR?Rockstar made cross-media convergence partnerships as they were working with othercompanies on the same level of production.This level of production was marketing as they were coming up with ideas to promote and gettheir product out there and known. So they did this by working with other companies such as:Walmart – gift hard and free playing cardsGameStop – to provide the pre-order bonus on slide 7PlayStationXboxGameHMV
Where any of these partnerships set-upin the UK?Rockstar set up partnerships with companies such as HMV and Game in the UK so that they could sell the game. They also set up cross-media convergence partnerships with online stores such as AMAZON UK, as they are popular and many people would rather buy a copy of the game online from a well known site that they trust and that offers good prices. There are other partnerships that were also set up in the UK, including:HMV – The War HorseGAME – The Deadly Assassins OutfitGOOGLE SEARCH – Red Dead Redemption UK Pre-order EditionAMAZON UK – The Golden Guns Weapon PackWhy do shops form these partnerships with game publishers?By using these partnerships, the shops gained sales too as they were offering special things compared to other shops. People would rather go to a shop that has a special deal on the game and gives you more for your money than a different shop that isn’t offering more for what you are paying.Why would someone buy the game at the same price as somewhere that is offering it and more?
Distribution• Physical or Digital media? Xbox Marketplace (http://marketplace.xbox.com/en-GB/)Physical includes the actual Digital media is things for the Digital media isconsole itself: game that you can download much cheaper toThe CD online: do as it means lessThe Game box Expansion packs post productionBlu-ray Play station Store costs, and it is alsoWii Optical Disc Steam quicker. This meansUMB Direct2Drive that the game can- They are different Mac App Store be made cheaperdepending on the console. - These also vary on the for people to buy console that you are using. so maybe more people will buy it. Steam (http://store.steampowered.com/) Windows Live Marketplace (www.gamesforwindows.com/en-GB/)
History of Take-Two InteractiveAs a company do they have a in-house distribution division or hasthis recently changed? If it has, who now distributes the games?opopooopopoo opopooopopoo How are Rock stars games distributed? In-House Developers - These are studios that are owned by a larger They are distributed by Take-Two publisher, developing exclusively for interactive. that publisher. They have varying degrees of autonomy within the larger publisher, but typically have fewer funding issues. Examples include Rare and Lionshead owned.
Was Red Dead Redemption released simultaneously across the globe or was it a staggered release?It was released at the same time everywhere and on both available platforms.PS3 & XBOX – 18th May, 2010.But then different expansion packs were released at separate times. On June 22, 2010, they released the first downloadable expansion pack for Red DeadRedemption - Outlaws to the End.And then other downloadable content was released on different dates, making it availablefor players.July 8, 2010August 10, 2010 and so on.The short film directed by John Hillcoat was released on May 29, 2010. If it was staggered, what implications are there for the distribution of the game? In a way, it was staggered as you couldn’t buy the complete game as there were always new packs to download and improve the game. This had implication on the distribution of the game as it meant they had to make all of the packs available and send them out on the right time and make people aware of the new one.
1)Where can the game be bought? 2)Does this impact on the distribution of the game? 3)Are these various points of sale going to have an impact on the price?1) The game can be bought many places including online and in shops. Some examples of shops that would sell the game are HMV, Tesco, Game. And also online shops like AMAZON. The prices may vary depending where you buy it from due to the bonus deals that certain places have with the game. The game can also be downloaded on the gaming platform itself I think, making it easy.2) This does impact on the distribution of the game as they can only be bought at certain places meaning the distribution process could be difficult although there are many places it can be bought from so people shouldn’t have any trouble finding it.3) It definitely has an impact on the price as certain shops have special bonus deals on when you buy the game, which other places may not have. Do any of the above points of sale relate to technological convergence? Yes, the fact you can download new content online on the gaming platform.
USEFUL ARTICLES –Online Gamingwww.dfcint.com/wp/?p=14 http://www.detecon-dmr.com/en/article/the-In 2006, DFC estimates that the worldwide online game market evolution-of-video-gaming-distribution_2010_01_19 was $4.5 billion. They think that by2012 the worldwide online game market will pass $13 billion. 40% of online games revenue coming from digital distribution by 2012 and revenue from digital distribution of console games to surpass $1Broadband penetration in the twenty leading online game billion by the same year.countries is expected to increase 48% from 2006 to 2012. Mobile gaming, which is predominantly digitally distributed, already generated $5.8 billionThe total overall number of online gamers in the twenty leadingonline game countries is expected to increase 51% from 2006 to With digital distribution, developers and publishers can avoid retailers2012. entirely and distribute games to consumers themselves or through online aggregators such as Direct2Drive and Gametap. Console makers havehttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology- also launched digital distribution networks on their game systems to 17458205 allow consumers to directly download content to internal hard drives.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology- The first successful video game digital distribution platforms was Valve’s 17464931 Steam client - distributes almost 600 games available for download and has 16 million users. Telecom providers should be able to play a key role in the development of gaming digital distribution.
Creative Distribution (www.creativedistribution.co.uk) UK based games distribution company
Consump tiondescribes the audiences actual interaction with the media text. This can be either passive or interactive engagement :Passive engagement is when you watch something on TV or on the internet and think about it.Interactive engagement is when you describe the media text.consumer to manipulate the technology in some way to either to access the media text or to progress it in some way – using an iPhone to access the internet, bid on eBay or purchase an item from Amazon would be a good example of the former while playing console games would
What interactive elements encourage theaudience/consumer to buy Red DeadRedemption?• Violence• Online• Story• Combat• Gunplay
How does the Open World/ Sandbox natureof the game (in terms of differentoutcomes / challenges) relate toConsumption? Online gaming – interact with other players Multi player gaming
Sales figures for Red Dead Redemption: Undead Nightmare. How do these compare to the original games release?• Red Dead Redemption – 11 Million sales• Read Dead Redemption: Undead Nightmare – 2 million so it is a lot less!
What are the keycharacteristics of RDR gameplay? game that enables up to 16 people to play the• It is an online game at once together, so it is also a multiplayer game. This offers a different type of game play that people will like. The players can also interact with the environment and the world of the game as it is a sandbox game, so it shows a good perspective of the actual life of the character and includes a 3D image of the world he lives in.• The players can also, along side of the main storyline, take part in special ‘random’ tasks.In what ways is this similar to the way we consume other media products?RDR game play is heavily reliant on technology. Describe the technologies used in online gaming,