Q&A about quality control management

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  • 2. 2 | P a g e CHAPTER 1 DIFFERING PERSPEKTIVES ON QUALITY QUESTION 1 Why is quality difficult term to define? How can we improve our understanding of quality? ANSWER Quality is difficult term to define because different people will gives different explanation about quality. It means if we ask 10 people to define quality, probably we will get 10 definitions. People explain about quality based on their understanding, knowledge and situation. We took an example from service quality definition. Abu might think the service at Hotel A is the best and Ali think it is not because during receiving the service at the same hotel, they have been serve by the different hotel worker. So the service might be different too. To improve our understanding on quality, we can actually need to recognizing fundamentals differences between how different function in quality is important. Besides we also can look towards existing definition done by the previous researcher as a guideline for us to interpret quality. For example, David Garvin concludes in his book “What Does Product Quality Really Mean?” that most definitions of quality are based on 5 things are: 1. Transcendent: Quality is something that is intuitively understood but nearly impossible to communicate, such as beauty and love. 2. Product-based: Quality is found in the components and attributes of a product. 3. User-based: If the customer is satisfied, the product has good quality. 4. Manufacturing-based: If the product conforms to design specifications, it has good quality. 5. Value-based: If the product is perceived a providing good value for the price, it has good quality.
  • 3. 3 | P a g e QUESTION 2 Why is communication within an organization an important part of the quality improvement process? ANSWER Communication within an organization is an important part for quality improvement in that organization. It is because there are many different parts in an organization such as financial department, human resource department and etc. It is difficult to devise a coherent strategic plan relating to quality when communication is imprecise. All of the departments do not speak with the same ‘language’. That means they have their own rules to ensure the organization successfulness. Even they do not perform the same function in the body, but they each perform processes that are necessary for survival of the whole organization. The communication within an organization also important to coordinate all labors activities. It is also to ensure they can work together even they perform different function in one organization. Communication using visual management pictures the goals and approach. It motivates and encouraged people to do the changes, by showing predict the benefits. In communication, it will be the language that’s always been misunderstand and underestimated, and conclude as difficult for technical persons. It happens when un-experience labor trying to make a changes in the work field, which makes the existing worker feel uncomfortable. Even though, the communication process can lead to the worst to the certain part of process, it will be okay when people in the process are together to improves themselves for getting better during working session. Communication enables planning. In a multidimensional environment, communication becomes more difficult, simply due to the different backgrounds of the participants. When they improve their communication process within organization, the quality will also improve. Communication are not only happens when they talk to each other but it including by using the differences communication tools and techniques such as posters, flyer, websites, newsletter, mailing, blogs, forums and others. The most important are it must be easy to understand by all to avoid miscommunication.
  • 4. 4 | P a g e QUESTION 3 Why is planning an important part of the quality management process? How could firm’s quality management initiatives be adversely affected if planning was not a part of the process? ANSWER Planning is one of important part of quality management process. Planning process used by an organization to achieve a set of long term goals. The firm will establish a planned course of action to attain their objective. The quality management to become pervasive in a firm needed to be included in all firm’s business processes including strategic planning. The Garvin's list of product quality dimensions that are affected by planning and quality management initiatives are Performance, Features, Reliability, Conformance, Durability, Serviceability, Aesthetics and Perceived quality .To achieve all of the quality dimension, an organization should have planning to makes the management just achieve the goals. That’s mean, the management compulsory to apply the planning process in the organization To fulfill the objectives to achieving the goals are not easy but when the planning interfere in the process it much easy and lead to success. Besides, the process will in good control during its performance. Planning usually can avoid unexpected situation or obstruction. Beside it also saving cost for correction and improvement because all of the work and activities will be done following the step what should be done first, second and etc. A proper planning provides financial and non- financial incentives to both managers and employees in the organization. Besides, planning will leads to the higher profit and increase in quality production in an organization. So, with that it will motivate the workers to work hard and assist them to achieve the goals in the organization. Hence, it will increase the personnel confidence and motivation among the workers in the organization. Other than that, an organization can estimate their company successfulness and their quality achievement. The manager or upper level of management in organization be able to improve their production to get competitive advantage in the market.
  • 5. 5 | P a g e QUEATION 4 What is mean by the phrase “Cost of Quality”? How can this phrase help a firm address it quality concern? ANSWER Cost of quality also known as ‘failure cost’. As defined by Philip B. Crosby in his book Quality Is Free, Cost Of Quality (COQ) has two main components such as 1. Cost Of Conformance 2. Cost Of Non-Conformance The cost of poor quality affects the internal and external costs resulting from failing to meet requirements. The cost of quality as a more comprehensive concept covering the cost of poor quality and the cost of good quality. The cost of good quality affects the costs for investing in the prevention of non-conformance to requirements and costs for appraising a product or service for conformance to requirements. In short, any cost that would not have been expended if quality were perfect contributes to the cost of quality. Cost of quality is the amount of money a business loses because its product or service was not done right in the first place. From fixing a warped piece on the assembly line to having to deal with a lawsuit because of a malfunctioning machine or a badly performed service, businesses lose money every day due to poor quality. For most businesses, this can run from 15 to 30 percent of their total costs. This phrase will gives aware to a firm to not take simple on quality management. Simple mistake in quality will make them loss such much of money. They should have planning to avoid rework, delays, re-designing, shortages, failure analysis, re-testing, downgrading, downtime and lack of flexibility and adaptability on production. It is okay to spend more to control their product quality rather than they have to spent more to do correction on product. Besides it will saving the cost, it also can protect their company name and brand of product from difficulty.
  • 6. 6 | P a g e CHAPTER 2 QUALITY THEORY QUESTION 1 Define theory. Why are theories important for managing quality in the supply chain? ANSWER Theory is a coherent group of general propositions used as principle of explanation for class of phenomena. For example, it might have been observed that many companies that have implemented quality improvement have experienced improved worker morale. A theory will be complete, which involve four element of a theory such as, What, How, Why and Who-Where- When. A positive correlation is presented between Quality Improvement and Employee Morale. It has two variables and the arrow implies quality. The head of the arrow points to worker morale, this is the dependent variable, with quality improvement being the independent variable. Theory is important for managing supply chain because we can predict the advantage and disadvantage in choosing those suppliers and evaluating supplier based on supplier qualification, suppliers filters and suppliers development. The value of chain includes inbound logistic, core processes and outbound logistic. Even there is not a specific theory explaining quality management in the supply chain that is widely accepted by the quality community, but it still can be acceptable. The differing approaches to quality improvement represent competing philosophies that are seeking their place in the quality marketplace of theories. Practicing quality managers must apply those theories that are appropriate to their particular situations using the contingency approach.
  • 7. 7 | P a g e QUESTION 2 Do you believe that the development of a unified theory of quality management is possible? What is a unified theory? ANSWER In my opinion, the answer is no. A unified theory in this field will not be feasible. The development of a unified theory if quality management is not possible. It is because the unified theory more leads to the failure. Besides it also takes time in searching and research. For example, Elbert Einstein, he spent most of his later life searching for a unified theory in physics. Unfortunately at last he failed. It is possible for him to start it again to achieve what he needs actually. Unified theories did not exist in any discipline. There is no clearly meaning of unified theory. Unified field theory is sometimes called the Theory of Everything (TOE, for short): the long-sought means of tying together all known phenomena to explain the nature and behavior of all matter and energy in existence. In physics, a unified field theory, occasionally referred to as a uniform field theory, is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field. A unified field theory would reconcile seemingly incompatible aspects of various field theories to create a single comprehensive set of equations.
  • 8. 8 | P a g e QUESTION 3 Do you agree with Deming’s believes that poor quality but resulted by poor management consultant system? ANSWER Yes, I do agree with Deming’s believes that poor quality but resulted by poor management consultant system. When the quality of an organization’s goods or services is poor, the whole organization suffers. It is one of type poor quality was defined by Deming. Deming’s believes that anything regarding to the quality control must depending on the management. Furthermore, the function of management consultant are to consulting services were structured based on the goals to achieve triumph of the organization or company with management functions and process. If an organization has poor management consultant system it will affect the whole process and department in the organization. It is including financial, manufacturing, human resource and others department. The increases of rate of failure occur when the management consultant did not works to help a company or organization improve its performance, gaining the profit and narrow the scope of the process as they should be. Everything will become worst when there is miscommunication between the consultant and they unsatisfied with each other and the firm. Each organization totally needs the excellent management consultant system to avoid problem in quality, prevent rework on product and increase sales and profit. Besides, management consultant system also helps find the best solution for any problem occur regarding to the quality. It is also relate to the morale of the worker. If a firm has good management consultant system, the profit and quality will increase and their morale will increase too.
  • 9. 9 | P a g e QUESTION 4 Does the phrase “quality is the responsibility of the quality department” reflect a healthy perspective of quality management? Explain your answer. ANSWER In my opinion, the phrase of “Quality is the responsibility of the quality department” reflect a healthy perspective of quality management is not right. To achieving the success of quality, the department must be all functions work properly together. The quality is all responsibilities. It is because in an organization, each department perform different function with one reason, to achieve company goals. For example, in our body we have liver, kidneys, heart, stomach that have its own function but works together for people to survive. According to the Taylor, his notes that by delegating quality to the quality manager, the line supervisors, managers and subordinate could devote their own time to other matters. As they did, they became progressively less and less informed about quality. When a quality problem develops, management lacks of expertise that is need to choose a proper course planning of action. Besides, it is compulsory to the workers to be responsible in taking part of apply the quality in their life. If the quality is only the responsibility of the quality department, its might not reflect a healthy perspective of quality management. People from the top manager will keep blaming the employees because of any defect in the productions even it is actually the employee just doing a job based on what the top manager ask them to do. It is not fair to put all blame about quality on quality department because it is hard to maintain something if it is just one side take part in maintaining and improvement whole organization.