demographic and population control policiesPresentation Transcript
What factors determine a country’s population size?1) BIRTH RATE-the number of live births per 1000 in a year.Birth rates are affected by such factors as nutrition, fertility,attitudes about abortion, labor value of children, governmentpolicies, social value, the availability of contraception and culture.2) DEATH RATE-the number of deaths per 1000 in a yearDeath rates are affected by disease, war, medical technology,improved health care, transportation development and nutrition.
3) IMMIGRATION-the number of people moving into acountry.Pull factors-characteristics of a place that attracts people to it.4) EMIGRATION-the number of people leaving a countryPush Factors-characteristics of a place that causes people toleave.Refugees- people who are forced to leave their country due towar, life-threatening discrimination, famine, or natural disasters.
Push and Pull forces are forces that help people recognize thecauses of migration. A push force is just like a push factor, it issomething that makes a person wants to leave a country. Like lackof job, or lack of education. A pull force is the same as a pullfactor; it pulls someone into a country, like clean water, and anexcellent education system. For most countries the pull factorsare the influencing role in society, and other countries the pushfactors play a significant role in their culture.
Factors Affecting Birth Rates:1) Number of women there are in an area2) the age of a women - child bearing years start at the age of 15, andusually stops at the age of 49.3) Culture and Religion - some cultures and religions dont allowwomen to have a child, or more than one child, and others allow largerfamilies.4) Medical reasons - some women cant bear children because ofconditions like diabetes.5) Education and economic status - the less education women have canaffect the number of children she has. The husband normally tells thewoman how many children she can have if she has little to no education6) Government population policies - some governments dont have lawsregarding fertility.
Factors Influencing Death Rates:There are a few factors that affect death rates as well.1) Availability of medical care - if there are little medical care available,people will die quicker because there is nothing there to help them livestrong.2) Cost of health care - some people cannot afford good medicalcoverage.3) Education - education helps the women keep their children’s health ingood condition, as well as their own4) Availability of food and clean water5) Level of economic development6) War and environmental disasters7) Countrys fertility rate - a large number of births can increase thedeath rate. The more children a woman has, the bigger the risk of dyingwhile giving birth.
MOST POPULOUS NATIONSAs of 2010, The world’s most populous nations are:#1 – China#2 – India#3 – United States#4 – Indonesia#5 – Brazil#6 – Pakistan#7 – Nigeria#8 – Bangladesh#9 – Russia#10 – Japan#11 – Mexico#12 – Philippines
Population Pyramid- also called an ―age-sex graph‖- is a special type of graph that shows the distribution of alocation’s population in terms of age groups, called cohorts, andsex.
How would a model, efficient student produce apopulation pyramid?Students construct a population pyramid using up-to-date statistics.Teacher supplies worksheet with grid on which students plot their graph.But the ―Evidence of learning‖ relates to comprehension and application,not to pencil technique.The capabilities of new technology should be exploited here.For example, students can roll from 1971 to 2056, seeing the populationprofile shift as death rates and birth rates fall. (ABS 2008) The same canalso be done for other countries. (De Wulf 2011) Population trends andother variables can be seen more vividly in new visualization tools.(Rosling 2006)
Google unequivocally suggests Excel. Old instructions don’t workwell, due to Microsoft’s shift from menus (in Excel 2003) to ribboninterface (in Excel 2007).There are some non-intuitive steps. Malepopulation figures must be input as negative numbers, a customnumber format must be applied to the horizontal axis, and the overlapand spacing of bars must be adjusted. Illustrated instructions (Javaid2011) and video demonstrations (Lee 2008) are available.
Constructing Population Pyramids :1. Beginning at the bottom of the graph, plot the percent of thepopulation that is 0-4 years and male.2. Shade this bar on the pyramid and repeat for females, usinga different color.3. Repeat this step for each age cohort until the pyramid iscomplete.4. Note that it is best to construct population pyramids usingpercentages rather than numbers since this makes itpossible to compare countries with different sizepopulations.
Role of Gender, Poverty, Politics, and CultureinInfluencing Population across Dynamic Countries
Faltering Commitment at the Secondary School Level(Post-primary Education)Girls enrolment rates in secondary schools have not experienced thesame level of increase as in primary education. According the UnitedNations Development Fund for Women, gender gaps are widening inCentral and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of IndependentStates (CEE/CIS) and South Asia. For women, in sub-Saharan Africaand South Asia, the ratio of secondary education enrolment toprimary education enrolment is only 23% and 35%, respectively.
Illiteracy Correlates with OtherDevelopment ChallengesILLITERACY is costing the South African economy as much asR550 billion a year, according to a recent study conducted byStellenbosch University’s economics department. According to theInternational Monetary Fund, the current GDP per capita in SouthAfrica is $10 244. The study found that if the quality of schooling inthe country was where it should be – a level befitting a middleincome country – GDP would be 23 percent to 30 percent higherthan it currently was and GDP per capita would be about $12 000(R86 000) a year.
In the recently released World Economic Forum GlobalCompetitiveness Report 2010-2011, the South Africa ranked137th out of 139 countries when it came to the quality of mathsand science education and 125th for the quality of primaryschool education.Illiteracy has been long correlated to other challenges to humanrights. For instance, regions of high illiteracy show highincidences of child labor abuse...
There is also asignificant correlationbetween womensilliteracy and high birthrates...
Education for women is the key:Because child care remains the domain of women in mostcountries, higher education levels mean lower birth rates. Women inAfrican countries with a high literacy rate tend to have fewerchildren than their counterparts in countries where the literacy rateamong women is lower.The following correlation exists between the prosperity of thevarious African countries and their birth rates: the higher the grossdomestic product per capita, the lower the average birth rate. Therelationship between birth rates and prosperity does not apply only todeveloping countries.
The Millennium Development GoalsEnd poverty by 2015. This is the historic promise 189 worldleaders made at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000when they signed onto the Millennium Declaration and agreed tomeet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGsare an eight-point road map with measurable targets and cleardeadlines for improving the lives of the worlds poorest people.
What’s supposed to be different this time?Given the proliferation of UN Conferences and commitments, it’simportant to understand why the Millennium Goals may be unique insome important ways:All the world’s major economic players have signed on board thecommitment. Also important is the fact that as poorer countriespledged to improve policies and governance and increaseaccountability to their own citizens; wealthy countries pledged toprovide the resources. Since the commitment to achieve the goalscomes from the highest political levels, for the first time, entiregovernments are committed to their achievement—including the tradeand finance ministers who hold the world’s purse strings.
Poverty and unemployment increase the prevalence of common mentaldisorders by maintaining episodes rather than by precipitating their onset.Financial strain was strongly associated with both onset and maintenanceof common mental disorders and was neither confounded nor modified bymore objective risk factors.Although it is most likely that financial strain was simply the mostaccurate measure of standard of living it may also represent an aspect ofpersonality such as proneness to pessimism or worry. There is a need tobetter understand the nature of this risk factor and its relation with povertyand unemployment if we are to meet the major public health challenge ofreducing the prevalence of these costly and disabling disorders.
Culture and Globalization:The Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter famously characterized capitalism as aprocess of ―creative destruction.‖ While this phenomenon may help propel economicdevelopment, many people around the world are coming to question the impact thatthe worldwide expansion of the capitalist model is having on the most preciousaspects of their identity.For many people, their own cultural values are too important to put a price tag on,and no destruction can be considered ―creative.‖On the other hand, globalization can also be a profoundly enriching process, openingminds to new ideas and experiences, and strengthening the finest universal values ofhumanity.Many policy makers have not yet considered how the protection of local orindigenous cultural values conflicts with the forces of globalization.
Globalization does more than simply increase theavailability of foreign-made consumer products and disrupttraditional producers.The expansion of trade in cultural products is increasingthe exposure of all societies to foreign cultures. And theexposure to foreign cultural goods frequently brings aboutchanges in local cultures, values, and traditions. Althoughthere is no consensus on the consequences of globalizationon national cultures, many people believe that a people’sexposure to foreign culture can undermine their own culturalidentity.
Political Effects•Government are not able to finance growing population or provide work forthem so informal sector becomes dominantPolitical•Most of the population is made up of young people so the governmentfocuses on policies important to the young.•There are fewer older people so pensions become less important to thegovernment•The government has to make policies to bring population growth undercontrolPopulation (Growth) ManagementCountries need to control rapid population growth and they also need todevelop in a way that’s sustainable. This means developing in a way thatallows people today to get the things that they need but without stoppingpeople in the future from getting what they need.
Voice of the Government Official according to One-child Policy :According to Joseph Chamie, former head of the United Nations populationdivision and now head of the Center for Migration Studies :―Ending Chinas "one-child" policy would cause a population spike ‖"Today the fertility level in China is around 1.7 children per woman. If China wereto relax its one-child policy, then it’s reasonable to expect that fertility would rise.How much? Well, if fertility increased to replacement level of 2.1 (an increase ofjust under a half a child), which is not unreasonable given desired family size; thecountry’s annual number of births would increase by nearly 30 percent, orapproximately five million additional births. By midcentury, this would add up tonearly a quarter-billion more Chinese than currently projected by the U.N. Andgiven China’s impact on the environment, especially greenhouse gas emissions,this change of policy clearly portends a great deal."
Voice of the Businessmen according to One-child Policy :According to Hasketh, Lu, and Xing :"One child" is only partly responsible for reducing Chinas fertility rates‖They observed: "the policy itself is probably only partially responsible for thereduction in the total fertility rate. The most dramatic decrease in the rateactually occurred before the policy was imposed. Between 1970 and 1979, thelargely voluntary "late, long, few" policy, which called for later childbearing,greater spacing between children, and fewer children, had already resulted in ahalving of the total fertility rate, from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-child policy wasintroduced, there was a more gradual fall in the rate until 1995, and it has moreor less stabilized at approximately 1.7 since then."
Voice of the Farmers according to One-child Policy:Based of the news report in Beijing:“Farmers riot in China over one child policy”―Police clashed violently with protesters in southern China as thousands of angryfarmers rioted over the nations controversial "one-child" family planning policies,residents said Monday.Angry farmers besieged up to four township governments in Guangxi province onFriday and Saturday, with police and protesters clashing in at least one demonstration,they said.The demonstrations occurred after local governments this month dispatched "familyplanning work teams" to levy fines on families that were violating governmentpopulation control policies, they said.
One woman in Shapi township, speaking on condition of anonymity, said up to20,000 people had gathered and rioted there on Saturday, hurling rocks,breaking windows and torching public property."The farmers were really angry because the family planning team was goingaround to homes and making farmers pay fines if they had too many kids," thewoman said."If the farmers had no money they took things from them. Property with valuethey confiscated, things with no value they destroyed."Local and provincial government and police departments refused to commenton the unrest.
On Friday, similar demonstrations erupted in neighbouring Shuiming township,with locals confronting up to 1,000 police armed with clubs and dogs, one witnesssaid."Its hard to say how many people were there, you could say there was a sea ofpeople," a man in Shuiming township informed.Hong Kong press reports said up to 50,000 farmers protested the family planningpolicies in the four Guangxi townships in recent days.China has since the 1970s enforced strict family planning measures to control itspopulation, which at 1.3 billion people is the worlds biggest.Reports of abuse by authorities enforcing the law, such as forced late-termabortions, are common.
“计划生育政策” (jìhuà shēngyù zhèngcè)Literally means:Chinas One Child Policy:- was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limitcommunist Chinas population growth.Although designated a "temporary measure," it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child.Fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and even forced sterilizationaccompanied second or subsequent pregnancies.
It is not an all-encompassing rule because it has always been restricted toethnic Han Chinese living in urban areas. Citizens living in rural areasand minorities living in China are not subject to the law. However, therule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the countryof 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years.This rule has caused a disdain for female infants; abortion, neglect,abandonment, and even infanticide have been known to occur to femaleinfants.
Recent Effects of the One Child Law:Now that millions of sibling-less people in China are now young adults in or nearingtheir child-bearing years, a special provision allows millions of couples to have twochildren legally.If a couple is composed of two people without siblings, then they may have twochildren of their own, thus preventing too dramatic of a population decrease.Although IUDs, sterilization, and abortion (legal in China) are Chinas most popularforms of birth control, over the past few years, China has provided more educationand support for alternative birth control methods.
Statistically, Chinas total fertility rate (the number of births per woman) is1.7, much higher than slowly-declining Germany at 1.4 but lower than theU.S. at 2.1 (2.1 births per woman is the replacement level of fertility,representing a stable population, exclusive of migration).In 2007, there were reports that in the southwestern Guangxi AutonomousRegion of China, officials were forcing pregnant women without permissionto give birth to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violatingthe law. As a result, riots broke out and some may have been killed,including population control officials.
The Future of Chinas One Child LawMinister of the State Commission of Population and Family PlanningZhang Weiqing confirmed in early 2006 that Chinas one child policy isconsistent with the nations plan for population growth and wouldcontinue indefinitely. He denied rumors that the policy become lessstringent to permit a second child to the general population
1) Chinas One Child Policy was created in 1979 by Chinese leader DengXiaoping to temporarily limit communist Chinas population growth. Ithas thus been in place for more than 32 years.2) Chinas One Child Policy most strictly applies to Han Chinese living inurban areas of the country. It does not apply to ethnic minorities throughoutthe country. Han Chinese represent more than 91% of the Chinesepopulation. Just over 51% of Chinas population lives in urban areas. In ruralareas, Han Chinese families can apply to have a second child if the first childis a girl.
3) One major exception to the One Child Policy allows two singletonchildren (the only offspring of their parents) to marry and have two children.Additionally, if a first child is born with birth defects or major healthproblems, the couple is usually permitted to have a second child.4) When the One Child Policy was adopted in 1979, Chinas population wasabout 972 million people. In 2012 the population of China is about 1.343billion people, 138% growth over that time period. By contrast, Indiaspopulation in 1979 was 671 million and in 2012 Indias population is 1.205billion people, which is 180% over the 1979 population. By most estimates,India will surpass China as the worlds most populous country by 2027 orearlier, when both countries population is expected to reach about 1.4billion.
5) If China continues its One Child Policy in the decades to come, it willactually see its population decrease. China is expected to peak inpopulation around 2030 with 1.46 billion people and then begin falling to1.3 billion by 2050.6) With the One Child Policy in place, China is expected to achieve zeropopulation growth by 2025. By 2050, Chinas population growth rate willbe -0.5%.7) Chinas sex ratio at birth is more imbalanced than the global average.There are about 113 boys born in China for every 100 girls. While someof this ratio might be biological (the global population ratio is currentlyabout 107 boys born for every 100 girls), there is evidence of sex-selective abortion, neglect, abandonment, and even infanticide of infantfemales.
8) For families who observe the One Child Policy, there are rewards: higher wages,better schooling and employment, and preferential treatment in obtaininggovernmental assistance and loans. For families who violate the One Child Policy,there are sanctions: fines, employment termination, and difficulty in obtaininggovernmental assistance.9) Families who are permitted to have a second child usually have to wait from threeto four years after the birth of the first child before conceiving their second child.10) The recent peak total fertility rate for Chinese women was in the late 1960s,when it was 5.91 in 1966 and 1967. When the One Child Policy was first imposed,the total fertility rate of Chinese women was 2.91 in 1978. In 2012, the total fertilityrate had dropped to 1.55 children per woman, well below the replacement value of2.1. (Immigration accounts for the remainder of the Chinese population growth rate.)
Culture is made up of traditions, beliefs, ways of life,from the most spiritual to the most material. It gives us meaning, a way of leading our lives. Culture is not an add-on, an ornament that us humanbeings can use. It is not a touch of colour.
Childbirth, a time of transition and celebration, iscentrally important in societies, as their cultural values,customs, and beliefs lend perspective to the meaning ofchildbirth. A knowledge of cultures and the influence they have onwomen’s perception of childbirth can help nurses inpromoting positive outcomes for women and theirfamilies.
Nurses caring for childbearing families should considerall aspects of culture, including communication, space,time and family roles. Communication encompasses anunderstating of not only a person’s language, includingdialect, style and loudness of speech, but also themeaning of touch and gestures
Marriage is the most important relationship and the strongest bondbetween a man and a woman. With the marriage, the couple bringinto their lives different cultures, background and upbringing.
In terms of the age in marrying, it may also vary on thetype of culture a person has. For example, in someChinese families, they actually make arrangedmarriages for their children.
Around the globe, cultural factors influence family size and as aresult, affect population growth rate. From a cultural standpoint,religion can have a profound effect on family planning. Manyreligions promote large families as a way to further the religion orto glorify a higher power. For exampleOrthodox Judaism encourages large families in order to perpetuateJudaism.Roman Catholicism promotes large families for the same reason,and forbids the use of any "artificial" means of birth control.
Devout followers of a religion with such values often havelarge families even in the face of other factors, such aseconomic ones. This can be seen in countries like Israel(Judaism) and Brazil (Catholicism), which have highpercentages of religious followers in their populations.Both countries have high birth rates and high populationgrowth rates.
Various factors involving women can also affect familysizes.These factors include: education and employment opportunities available towomen the marriage age of women and the societal acceptance ofbirth control methods.
CHINESE■ Traditional Chinese values place the family and society over theIndividual. Many American-born Chinese may not be as traditional butstill hold values of respect for elders and authority.■ The oldest son has obligations toward the family and is expected torespect and care for parents.■ The tradition of ―filial piety‖ is the value of total respect for thefamily, especially the elders. This respect for elders was advocated byConfucius, the famous Chinese philosopher and manyChinese and Chinese-American families choose to follow theseancient principles.
NATIVE AMERICAN■ Traditionally, elders are respected for their wisdom,experience,and knowledge.■ Elders, regardless of tribe, assume significant roles asteachers and caretakers of the young
VIETNAMESE■ Elders are given high respect in Vietnamese society. They areconsidered the carriers of tradition, knowledge, and wisdom.Age is considered an asset, not a liability.■ Elderly grandparents and parents stay with the family for supportand care.■ Elders may prepare meals and care for grandchildren if both thehusband and wife work.■ In Vietnam, elders are the leaders and decision-makers in thefamily and often sought for advice.
BLACK/AFRICAN AMERICAN■ Elders are respected, obeyed and considered a source of wisdom.■ To survive to old age is often considered an accomplishmentreflecting personal strength, resourcefulness, and faith.HISPANIC/LATINO■ Elders are held in high esteem.■ Old age is viewed as a positive time in the life of the elder.■ Care for elders is provided by the extended family. It is expected thatchildren will care for their elderly parents.
KOREAN■ Traditional Koreans value filial piety and respect for elders.■ In Korean culture, children are taught to respect elderswhether they are right or wrong.■ There is the expectation that the children will take care oftheir parents in old age.
These challenges are real and will continue to shape the way theissue of womens rights is handled in Chinas birth planningprogram. Yet China is changing--and fast. Globalization isproducing fundamental transformations in Chinas society andpolity whose implications for women and birth planning no onecan predict. The history of the 1990s and early 2000s reveals thecritical role of international organizations in supporting both thepositive reforms in the state, and the emergence of new, quasi-and non-state spaces of political critique and action. Thesepromising developments open up opportunities for new forms ofconstructive engagement by Americans that support the reformtendencies already in place.