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  • Nutrition

    1. 1. Nutrition NUTRITION The sum of all processes through which living organisms obtain and assimilate nutrients. NUTRIENTS; Those substances which provide energy and are essential for growth and healthy life. FOOD; The substances which supplies nutrients and are derived from plant or animal sources Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715, 1
    2. 2.  Individual food depends on energy requirements, nutrient requirements and taste.  While selecting food people should keep in mind their family diseases, body weight, fat distribution, blood pressure and blood cholesterol etc. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 2
    3. 3. MINERAL NUTRITION IN PLANTS  Like animals plants too have nutritional needs.  Being autotrophic plants can manufacture their own food through photosynthesis.  Along with basic factors necessary for photosynthesis plants have many nutritional needs.  Plants are anchored in soil and soil is the reservoir of essential nutrients.  All metabolic activities of plants depend on the availability of nutrients in soil.  Mineral required to plants can be classify as  1 macronutrients  2 micronutrients Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 3
    4. 4.  MACRONUTRIENTS; The nutrients which are required in relatively large amount are known as macronutrients.  C, O, H, N, K, Ca, Mg, P, S  MICRONUTRIENTS; Those nutrients  which are required in very small amount.  Cl, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Na, Mo Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 4
    5. 5.  ROLE OF NITROGEN ;Nitrogen is a major component of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins and enzymes essential for plant life.  Nitrogen metabolism is a major factor in stem and leaf growth (vegetative growth).  Too much nitrogen can delay flowering and fruiting.  Nitrogen deficiencies can reduce yields, cause yellowing of the leaves and stunt growth. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 5
    6. 6. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 6
    7. 7.  ROLE OF MAGNESIMIUM;  Magnesium is a critical structural component of the chlorophyll molecule and is necessary for functioning of plant enzymes to produce carbohydrates, sugars and fats.  It is used for fruit and nut formation and essential for germination of seeds.  Deficient plants appear chlorotic, show yellowing between veins of older leaves; leaves may droop. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 7
    8. 8. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 8
    9. 9.  IMPORTANCE OF FERTILIZERS;  FERTILIZER; A fertilizer is any natural or synthetic material that supplies necessary nutrients for plant growth and optimum yield.  Fertilizers are used to provide those nutrients to plants which are not adequately supplied by the soil.  Plants are totally dependant on soil for their mineral requirements.  There are 17 mineral nutrients, which come from the soil, are dissolved in water and absorbed through a plant's roots.  There are not always enough of these nutrients in the soil for a plant to grow healthy.  If soil is fertile it soon becomes depleted with nutrients because pants absorbs nutrients as they grow.  This is why it is necessary to use fertilizers to add the nutrients to the soil. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 9
    10. 10.  TYPES OF FERTILIZERS  Fertilizers are of two types  A; organic fertilizer  B; inorganic fertilizer Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 10
    11. 11.  -ORGANIC FERTILIZER; Organic fertilizers are natural materials of either plant or animal origin, including manure,, crop residues, sewage, compost etc.  Vegetation matter called mulch (half rotten vegetable matter) such as hay (dried grass), seed hulls (the shell of peas ,bean etc) ,corn husks (the outer covering of seeds and fruits), leaves , barks, wood chips all help to aerate the soil, insulate the ground and add nutrients.  Naturally occurring minerals like sulfate of potash s limestone, and rock phosphate are also considered very good organic fertilizers. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 11
    12. 12.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS; Following are some advantages of Inorganic fertilizers. Safe and easily available Improve soil structure. Retain soil moisture. Release nitrogen slowly and consistently. Mobilize existing soil nutrients. Less subject to leaching. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 12
    13. 13. INORGANIC OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; Inorganic (or chemical) fertilizers are industrially manufactured through chemical processes.  Inorganic fertilizers are also known as synthetic or artificial fertilizers.  Inorganic fertilizers are primarily derived from chemical compounds such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate and potassium chloride.  Sodium nitrate , mined rock phosphate and limestone are examples of examples of inorganic fertilizers.Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo Azhar 13
    14. 14.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ADVANTAGES OF INORGANIC FERTILIZERS; Some advantages of Inorganic fertilizers are as follows, Works immediately. Contains all necessary nutrients. Convenient to use. Higher and accurate amount of nitrogen promotes protein and chlorophyll synthesis and encourages growth of stems and leaves. Higher amount of phosphorus results in more flowers, larger fruits, and healthier roots. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 14
    15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS RELATED TO USE OF FERTILIZERS  The major risks to soil quality from fertilizer application are  Increased salinity and soil compaction.  The major risk to groundwater quality from nutrient application is NO, leaching to groundwater sources, this has potential human and animal health concerns.  The major risk to surface water is increased eutrophication (when water bodies such as lake ,pond etc become enriched with fertilizers which accelerate the growth of algae and cyanobacteria which depletes the oxygen supply and creates a life threat to the living organism inhibiting the pond, lake ). Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 15
    16. 16.  Manure pathogens transmitted to surface water can pose a significant risk to human and animal health if consumed.  Odour from manure application can adversely affect air quality. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 16
    17. 17.  COMPONENTS OF HUMAN NUTRITION:  Human being need nutrients to grow, reproduce and maintain a good health.  Eating right food can help us to avoid many diseases and recover faster when illness occurs.  Nutrients are classified as carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 17
    18. 18.  CARBOHYDRATES: Carbohydrates are organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  All carbohydrates contain hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1.  Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy and should be the major part of total daily intake.  SOURCE: cereals, rice, potato and bread are the main sources of carbohydrates. . Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 18
    19. 19.  Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain.  Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more.  We obtain most of our carbohydrates in the form of starch a polysaccaride Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 19
    20. 20.  Our digestive system converts starch to glucose a monosaccharide.  Glucose is carried around in the blood and is used by our tissues as a source of energy.  Extra glucose is stored in the muscles and liver in the form of glycogen.  Unused glycogen is converted to fats because glycogen storing capacity of the body is limited.  We also get carbohydrates in the form of sucrose (table sugar) a disaccharide which is converted to glucose.  One gram of carbohydrates when fully oxidized produces 17 kilojoules of energy. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 20
    21. 21.  PROTEIN: Protein are organic compounds which        contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulpher and consists of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair etc) . Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. There are 20 amino acids. In our body protein are synthesized from amino acids under the instruction of DNA. Protein are required for growth and repair. Protein are also used as a source of energy. When amino acid are broken down nitrogen is excreted in the form of urea. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 21
    22. 22.  SOURCE: beans, pulses, cereals, dry fruits, cheese, milk , poultry, fish, mutton and beef are the sources of protein.  One gram of protein when fully oxidized produces 18 kilojoules of energy. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 22
    23. 23.  FATS: Fats are organic compound that contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the form of fatty acids.  Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.  Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids which are substances that do not dissolve in water.  Essential fatty acids are linoleic acid and linoleneic acid.  These fatty acids play an important role of controlling inflammation , blood clotting and brain development. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 23
    24. 24.  Fats are also an important source of energy.  Fats insulate the body and also serves to store extra calories (adipose tissue)  Fats also help in absorption and transport of vitamin A,D,E and K through the bloodstream.  SOURCE : butter, ghee, cheese, Vegetable Oil meat, egg yolk, milk , nuts etc are the common sources of fats  One gram fats if fully oxidized yields 39 kilojoules of energy. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 24
    25. 25. VITAMINS: Those organic compounds which are required in small amount for proper growth and healthy life.  Apart from vitamin D other vitamins can not be synthesized by the body so they must be supplied in diet.  Vitamins do not provide energy.  They regulate metabolism.  Vitamins are of two types. 1. Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) 2. Water soluble (B, C)  Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 25
    26. 26.  Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body fat.  Frat soluble vitamins stay in the body from few days to six months, and are transported when needed through special carriers in the body.  Water soluble vitamins are not stored in the body , they travel through blood stream and are removed from the body in urine. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 26
    27. 27.  VITAMIN A : Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin  It is also known as retinol due to its importance for the proper functioning of retina of the eye.  Vitamin A play an important role in immune system, growth ,reproduction, bone development and maintenance of epithelial and mucosal tissues. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 27
    28. 28.  DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS : Dietary deficiency of vitamin A is common in developing countries.  Vitamin A deficiency is associated with night blindness, viral infection such as chicken fox, measles, pneumonia etc, child mortality, bone abnormalities, growth retardation, skin and hair diseases. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 28
    29. 29.  SOURCE: Vitamin A can be obtained from both plants and animal sources.  Animal Source of Vitamin A; chicken liver, cord liver oil,  Eggs, butter, cheese, milk, fortified cereals and fortified dairy products.  Plant Sources of Vitamin A: carrots , sweet potatoes, pumpkin, spinach, broccoli, grapefruits, mangoes, apricot and oranges. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 29
    30. 30.  VITAMIN C: vitamin c is a water soluble vitamin also known as ascorbic acid.  Vitamin c is essential for growth, healing of wounds, and repairing and maintaining bones and teeth.  The body needs Vitamin C to make collagen an important protein in skin, bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 30
    31. 31.  Vitamin c is an antioxidant which prevents the body against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 31
    32. 32.  DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS : A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy which is characterized by anemia, bleeding beneath the skin malformation of bones and teeth.  Signs of vitamin c deficiency includes dry and splitting hairs, gingivitis (inflammation of the gums), dry and scaly skin, decreased wounds healing rate, nose bleeds, easy bruising and a decreased ability to fight infections. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 32
    33. 33.  Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions such as high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stoke, cancer, atherosclerosis etc.  Smoking lowers the level of vitamin C in the body so smokers are at more risk of vitamin C deficiency.  SOURCES OF VITAMIN C: some rich sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits like orange, tomatoes, strawberries, broccoli, cabbage, guava, lychee, grapefruit etc. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 33
    34. 34.  VITAMIN D: Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin also known as calciferol.  It is available in very food foods  It is also produced when ultraviolet rays of the sun strike the skin.  Vitamin D is important for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus, both of these minerals are important for healthy bones and teeth. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 34
    35. 35.  DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: Signs of vitamin D deficiency are thin, brittle and soft bones.  vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children characterized by softening of developing bones due to which the legs becomes bowed.  Its deficiency causes osteomalacia in adults  Osteomalacia causes weakening of bones and muscles. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 35
    36. 36.  SOURCE: Sources of vitamin D are cod liver oil, egg yolk, fortified bread with vitamin D, vitamin D fortified cheese and vitamin D fortified margarine. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 36
    37. 37. Rickets Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 37
    38. 38.  MINERALS: Minerals are metallic elements found naturally in ground water.  Plants absorb minerals in inorganic form from soil and animal obtained them from plants in organic form.  Just like vitamins, minerals help the body grow, develop, and stay healthy.  The body uses minerals to perform many different functions from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 38
    39. 39.  Some important minerals for animal body are boron, calcium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 39
    40. 40.  ROLE OF CALCIUM : Calcium is the most important and most abundant mineral in human body.  Calcium plays an important role in blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulse, muscle contraction and other metabolic activities.  Calcium plays an important role in development and maintenance of the bones, It also helps build strong, healthy teeth.  About 99% calcium is stored in bones , the remaining 1% circulates in the body fluids. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 40
    41. 41.  SOURCE :Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt are the major source of calcium.  Eggs, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli legumes, nuts and whole grain also provide calcium. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 41
    42. 42.  DIFICIENCY SYMPTOMS : Brittle nails, dry skin, muscle cramps, eye twitching are the signs of low level of calcium in the body.  Calcium deficiency is associated with osteoporosis and rickets. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 42
    43. 43. IRON: Iron is an important mineral,  The body needs iron to transport oxygen from lungs to the rest of your body.  The entire body needs oxygen to stay healthy and alive.  Iron is important in the formation of hemoglobin which is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the bo dy.  Iron is essential for the development of immune system and nervous system. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 43
    44. 44.  Source : The main source of iron is meat, especially red meat.  Other sources of iron are eggs ,beans , dry fruits, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli, spinach and whole grains like wheat or oats. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 44
    45. 45.  DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: Low levels of iron can cause anemia.  Other symptoms of iron deficiency are fatigue, weakness, rapid heart beat, fainting, susceptibility to infections and swelling of the tongue. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 45
    46. 46. DIETARY FIBERS  Dietary fiber, also known as roughage or bulk, includes all parts of plant foods that the body can not digest or absorb.  Unlike other food components, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates which the body breaks down and absorbs fiber is not digested by the body. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 46
    47. 47.  Instead, it passes relatively intact through the stomach, small intestine, colon and out of the body.  Fiber is commonly classified as soluble (it dissolves in water) or insoluble (it doesn't dissolve): Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 47
    48. 48.  Soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material.  It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels and enhances nutrient absorption.  SOURCE: Soluble fiber is found in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots and barley. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 48
    49. 49.  Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber promotes the movement of material through your digestive system and increases stool bulk, so it can be of benefit to those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools.  SOURCE: Whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and vegetables, such as cauliflower, green beans and potatoes, are good sources of insoluble fiber. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 49
    50. 50.  Dietary fiber increases the weight and size of the stool and softens it.  A bulky stool is easier to pass, decreasing the chance of constipation.  Fiber may also help to solidify the stool because it absorbs water and adds bulk to stool. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 50
    51. 51.  WATER: Water is body's most important nutrient,, and makes up 70- 75% of the total body weight.  water is involved in every bodily function, some important functions of water are as follows.  Water is the medium for many biochemical reactions taking place in the bodies of living organisms.  Water is required for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.  Water is a stabilizer of body temperature. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 51
    52. 52.  Water acts as a lubricating medium, it is the major component of mucus and other lubricating fluids.  Water in the form of interstitial fluid bathes all cells of the body.  joints and soft tissues depend on the cushioning that water provides for them.  Harmful substances and toxic materials are flushed out of the body in water. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 52
    53. 53.  BALANCED DIET: A diet which contains all the necessary nutrients in adequate amount is termed as balanced diet.  A balanced diet must contain carbohydrates , protein, fats, vitamins, water, fibers and minerals in the correct proportions.  Two aspects of food are important, which are.  A quality :i.e. what food we eat.  B quantity: i.e. how much food we eat.  Proper attention should be given to both these factors to maintain a healthy life. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 53
    54. 54. ENERGY REQUIREMENT : A balanced diet should not only contain all the nutrients but also fulfill the energy requirements of the individual.  This is because different people have different lifestyles and varied nature of work.  The energy re3quirement is measured in calories.  The calorie requirement depends on age, sex, height, weight, occupation and state of health. Azhar Zeb M.Sc Zoology.03469447715,izhaar99@yahoo 54