3. biomes
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3. biomes

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3. biomes 3. biomes Presentation Transcript

  • Material created byIZASKUN IBAÑEZTeacher at Ander Deuna Ikastola
  • Climate encompasses the statistics of:TemperatureHumidityAtmospheric pressureWindPrecipitationin a given region over long periods, and is affectedbyLatitudeTerrainAltitudenearby water bodies and their currents.Weather is the mix of events that happens eachday in our atmosphere regarding temperature,humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind andprecipitation.
  • Is divided into different climatic regions.And each of those CLIMATES affects each region’s - FAUNA - VEGETATION - SOIL TYPE - Circumstances of human population
  • That is…In the Basque Country we don’t have coconut trees or iguanasbecause our climate is not tropical! The relationship between climate and fauna and vegetation is not a coincidence! However, we have oak trees, squirrels etc in our forests. And the leaves’ color is different In Autumn, unlike in the evergreen tropical trees.
  • ( or NATURAL HABITAT TYPE)The sum of animalsand vegetationwhich developunder the sameclimaticcondictions.
  • TROPICAL DRY CLIMATES TEMPERATE CLIMATES CONTINENTAL CLIMATES POLAR CLIMATESCLIMATESTropical Dry ARID HOT DESERT Temperate HUMID Continental Polar TUNDRAWET MEDITERRANEANTropical Dry ARID COLD DESERT Temperate HUMID COLD Continental Polar ICE CAPMONSOON SUBTROPICALTropical Dry semi-arid hot desert Temperate Continental SUBARTICWET & DRY OCEANIC (Boreal or Taiga) Dry semi-arid cold desert
  • Each of the climates determines a biome CLIMATE The BIOME we will find in a place with that climateFor example: Tropical WET TROPICAL FORESTIn a territory Tropical MONSOON TROPICAL FOREST Tropical WET & DRY GRASSLAND (SAVANNA)with a Dry ARID HOT DESERT DESERT (HOT DESERT)tropical wet Dry ARID COLD DESERT DESERT (COLD DESERT)climate, Dry SEMI-ARID HOT GRASSLANDwe will find Dry SEMI-ARID COLD Temperate MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND (STEPPE) GRASSLAND (CHAPARRAL)a tropical Temperate HUMID SUBTROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST or GRASSLANDforest Temperate OCEANIC DECIDUOUS FORESTbiome. HUMID Continental DECIDUOUS FOREST or GRASSLAND COLD Continental GRASSLND (STEPPE)And as Continental SUBARTIC TAIGAfollows: Polar TUNDRA TUNDRA Polar ICE CAP ICE CAP
  • BIOME CLASSIFICATIONDESERTSGRASSLANDSFORESTSTUNDRAAQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
  • CLIMATE BIOMETROPICAL WET TROPICAL FOREST PHILIPPINES AMAZONAS AFRICA GHANA
  • CLIMATE BIOMETROPICAL MONSOON TROPICAL FOREST INDIA
  • CLIMATE BIOMETROPICAL WET & DRY GRASSLAND (SAVANNA) Australian Savanna African Savanna
  • CLIMATE BIOMEDRY ARID HOT DESERT DESERT (HOT DESERT) ARABIA CHIHUAHUA SAHARA KALAHARI
  • CLIMATE BIOMEDRY ARID COLD DESERT DESERT (COLD DESERT) ATACAMA GOBI GREAT BASIN IRANIAN DESERT
  • CLIMATE BIOMEDRY SEMI-ARID HOT GRASSLAND SAHEL (AFRICA) SAHEL The Sahel is a clear example of a semi-arid hot zone: a transition zone between a deser and a savanna
  • CLIMATE BIOMEDRY SEMI-ARID COLD GRASSLAND (STEPPE) KAZAKHSTAN RUSSIA MONGOLIA PATAGONIA
  • CLIMATE BIOMETEMPERATE MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND (CHAPARRAL)
  • CLIMATE BIOMETEMPERATE HUMID SUBTROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST or GRASSLAND ARGENTINA USAUSA ARGENTINA
  • CLIMATE BIOMETEMPERATE OCEANIC DECIDUOUS FOREST
  • CLIMATE BIOMEHUMID CONTINENTAL DECIDUOUS FOREST or GRASSLAND IOWA WISCONSIN Grassland in the driest part
  • CLIMATE BIOMECOLD CONTINENTAL GRASSLAND CANADA
  • CLIMATE BIOMECONTINENTAL SUBARTIC (BOREAL or TAIGA) TAIGA
  • CLIMATE BIOMEPOLAR TUNDRA TUNDRA
  • CLIMATE BIOMEPOLAR ICE CAP ICE CAP GREENLAND ICELAND PATAGONIA
  • THEN… IS “SAVANNA” A BIOME?SAVANNA is a type of GRASSLAND.Some consider GRASSLANDS as a MAJOR BIOME and its varieties as SUB-BIOMESand others consider each of the varieties a different BIOME.But WHY?Because each of the VARIETIES of GRASSLANDS occurs under DIFFERENT CLIMATICCONDITIONS and we said that Biomes where “The sum of animals and vegetationwhich develop under the same climatic conditions”. GRASSLANDSSAVANNA PRAIRIE CHAPARRAL STEPPE PAMPAAfrica USA Mediterranean Mid Asia ArgentinaAustralia areasIndiaTropical wet & dry - Continental - Temperate - Cold - Humid - Dry Mediterranean Continental subtropical semiarid - Dry Semiarid
  • TROPICAL FOREST
  • TROPICAL (WET) CLIMATETROPICAL (Monsoon)• It rains all the year.• There are no seasons.
  • LOCATION• NEAR THE EQUATOR• South America, western Africa & Southeast Asia
  • SOIL• POOR• The rain takes all the soil’s nutrients. Low fertility for agriculture
  • FAUNA MOST SPECIES IN THE PLANETJaguars, pumas, monkeys, toucans, frogs,iguanas, butterflies, snakes, exotic birds…
  • VEGETATION• MOST SPECIES IN THE PLANET• Lianas, epiphytes, bromeliads, mangroves, coconut tree…
  • SAVANNA
  • SAVANNA is a variety of GRASSLANDS
  • GRASSLAND VARIETIES: PRAIRIES, STEPPES, PAMPAS, CHAPARRAL and SAVANNA PRAIRIES in North America, PAMPA in Argentima and STEPPE in mid Asia. SAVANNA CHAPARRAL
  • Tropical wet & dryOnly 2 seasons: CLIMATE OF THE SAVANNAA rainy and hot oneA dry and warm one(the fire’s season)
  • LOCATION North and south of the Equator, between trop. Forest and desert.
  • SOILOnly a thin layer ofhumus, which providesvegetation withnutrients.FERRUGINOUS (it hasiron – red colour)
  • FAUNABIG ANNIMALS
  • VEGETATION Baobab Acacia Grass Baobab
  • DESERT HOT (main precipitation: rain)COLD (main precipitations: snow and fog)
  • CLIMATE DRY CLIMATE ARID HOT DESERTDRY CLIMATEARIDCOLD DESERT
  • LOCATIONNear the tropics
  • SOILHARD and DRY. SANDY or ROCKY. INFERTILE.
  • FAUNANocturnal and many underground animals(Insects, reptiles, arachnids, birds, mammals
  • VEGETATIONPrecipitation is too low to substain vegetation
  • DECIDUOUS FOREST (temperate forest)
  • CLIMATE TEMPERATE/MODERATE (The mid latitudes) Oceanic and humid subtropical.. (4 seasons. Temperatures are not extreme)
  • LOCATIONEurope / Eastern USA , Australia, China / Japan
  • SOILRICH and good foragriculture
  • FAUNA
  • Eagles, squirrels, bears, elks, deers, coyotes
  • American buffalos, beavers, raccoons, skunks,birds, foxes, wolves
  • VEGETATIONBROAD LEAF TREES:Oak, Beech, Maple,Elm, Willow…
  • OAKBEECHMAPLE
  • TAIGA(Boreal forests)
  • CLIMATECOLD / CONTINENTAL (Boreal-Taiga)
  • LOCATIONNorth America, Eurasia
  • SOILPERMAFROST (with a light ice layer visible or underneath)PODZOL (with a layer of ash and reddish due to oxid and iron)
  • FAUNAElks, deers, beavers, woodpeckers, hawks, bears,lynx, foxes, wolves, bats…
  • VEGETATIONCold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves: PINE, FIR and SPRUCE
  • TUNDRA
  • CLIMATEPOLAR (Tundra)
  • LOCATIONNear the North Pole
  • SOILPERMAFROST
  • FAUNAMigratory birds, mammals (caribou, squirrels,artic foxes, wolves, polar bears)
  • VEGETATIONLichens (plantlike organisms made up of an alga and a fungus)