Planning Principles
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Planning Principles






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Planning Principles Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Planning Principles Module III: Methodology and Practicum in English Language Teaching II
  • 2. Introduction
    • Definition
    • Importance
    • Principles
    • Components
  • 3. The importance of lesson planning
    • It will lead you through the class
    • It will allow you to combine different activities or exercises thinking about your students´ characteristics
    • It will help you to design a class with different components to keep your students’ motivation and interest
    • Something the teacher wants to improve (Lindsay, 2000)
  • 4. Task 1
    • Think of additional benefits of lesson planning to your particular situation.
  • 5. The two main principles behind lesson planning Source: Harmer, 1991 Flexibility Variety
  • 6. Task 2
    • Planning
    • The learners
    • The aims
    • The teaching poing
    • The teaching procedures
    • Materials
    • Classrom Management
    • Source: Scrivener, 1994
    • How many separate activities will there be?
    • Where will I stand or sit?
    • What do learners need?
    • Is there going to be variety of activity in the lesson
    • How do lesson objectives fit in the longer-term goals?
    • How will I control timing?
    • What do they already?
  • 7. Do´s and Dont´s
    • Be specific
    • Anticipate problems
    • Decide timing
    • Have materials ready
    • Avoid to many details
    • File your plan for the future
    Source: Lindsay, 2000
  • 8. Learning Outcomes
    • Cognitive Outcomes: Intellectual outcomes. They involve the application of facts, theories and concepts.
    • Psychomotor Outcomes: They describe skills the learner develops (Physical).
    • Affective Outcomes: They describe feelings and attitudes which shape our behavior towards people, work and our world (behavioral).
  • 9. Expressing learning outcomes
    • It is necessary to use verbs which clearly indicate how the learner will demonstrate what she/he has learned.
    • Observable performance
    • The instructor can determine whether the learner has achieved the required level of competence.
    • e.g. Analyze the ideas portrayed in selected pieces of art.
  • 10. Elements of Instruction
    • Learner objective(s): Task statement, it will open with a verb of what the learner will be able to do at the end of the lesson.
    • Instructor objective(s):
    • Goal of the instructor.
    • Rationale:
    • Why is it important for the learners to master the objectives of the lesson? How do they fit in the big picture
    • Pre-assessment:
    • It determines if the learners already have mastered the skills within the framework of the learning objectives.
    • Instructor activities: The dynamics of the lesson as you see it.
    • Learner activities: What you plan for the learners to do in order to master the competencies in the objectives.
    • Summary of the lesson, in order to assist the learners in interpreting the components of the lesson.
    • Post-assessment: It determines if there has been change in competency from the pre-assessment.
    • Linkage between this lesson and the next lesson in order to help the learners become mentally prepared for what is to come.
  • 11. Instructional Plan
    • Learner Objective
    • Rationale
    • Bridging
    • Pre-assessment
    • Summary
    • Post-assessment
    • Linkage
    Aids Instructional activities Instructional Learner activities Time
  • 12.
    • Objective: Follow a logical pattern to organize information.
    • Rationale: A writer needs to organize information in an acceptable, logical format so the reader can follow an instructional text and understand the details in a procedure.
    • Bridging: Participants understand how to organize information in general texts, and use specific vocabulary. Now they will apply these skills to instructional texts.
  • 13.
    • Pre-assessment: The instructor asks learners learners if they are good at giving directions, and why (or why not).
    • Instructor activities: The instructor generates discussion about different situations where writers are required to write out directions. Learners receive a map and ask questions in pairs to practice their skills at giving directions.
    • Summary: The instructor summarizes some of this information
    • Post-assessment: The students write the instructions for finding a specific place on the map.
    • Linkage: In the next lesson, learners will build these skills and write instructions for more complex procedures.
  • 14. Application Exercise
    • a) Design a lesson plan taking into consideration
    • learning outcomes and instructional planning.
    • b) Review other formats, then decide which elements you consider to be essencial in your lesson plan and justify your choice.