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Think of additional benefits of lesson planning to your particular situation.
The two main principles behind lesson planning Source: Harmer, 1991 Flexibility Variety
The teaching poing
The teaching procedures
Source: Scrivener, 1994
How many separate activities will there be?
Where will I stand or sit?
What do learners need?
Is there going to be variety of activity in the lesson
How do lesson objectives fit in the longer-term goals?
How will I control timing?
What do they already?
Do´s and Dont´s
Have materials ready
Avoid to many details
File your plan for the future
Source: Lindsay, 2000
Cognitive Outcomes: Intellectual outcomes. They involve the application of facts, theories and concepts.
Psychomotor Outcomes: They describe skills the learner develops (Physical).
Affective Outcomes: They describe feelings and attitudes which shape our behavior towards people, work and our world (behavioral).
Expressing learning outcomes
It is necessary to use verbs which clearly indicate how the learner will demonstrate what she/he has learned.
The instructor can determine whether the learner has achieved the required level of competence.
e.g. Analyze the ideas portrayed in selected pieces of art.
Elements of Instruction
Learner objective(s): Task statement, it will open with a verb of what the learner will be able to do at the end of the lesson.
Goal of the instructor.
Why is it important for the learners to master the objectives of the lesson? How do they fit in the big picture
It determines if the learners already have mastered the skills within the framework of the learning objectives.
Instructor activities: The dynamics of the lesson as you see it.
Learner activities: What you plan for the learners to do in order to master the competencies in the objectives.
Summary of the lesson, in order to assist the learners in interpreting the components of the lesson.
Post-assessment: It determines if there has been change in competency from the pre-assessment.
Linkage between this lesson and the next lesson in order to help the learners become mentally prepared for what is to come.
Aids Instructional activities Instructional Learner activities Time
Objective: Follow a logical pattern to organize information.
Rationale: A writer needs to organize information in an acceptable, logical format so the reader can follow an instructional text and understand the details in a procedure.
Bridging: Participants understand how to organize information in general texts, and use specific vocabulary. Now they will apply these skills to instructional texts.
Pre-assessment: The instructor asks learners learners if they are good at giving directions, and why (or why not).
Instructor activities: The instructor generates discussion about different situations where writers are required to write out directions. Learners receive a map and ask questions in pairs to practice their skills at giving directions.
Summary: The instructor summarizes some of this information
Post-assessment: The students write the instructions for finding a specific place on the map.
Linkage: In the next lesson, learners will build these skills and write instructions for more complex procedures.
a) Design a lesson plan taking into consideration
learning outcomes and instructional planning.
b) Review other formats, then decide which elements you consider to be essencial in your lesson plan and justify your choice.