INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING AND TEACHINGPresentation Transcript
2ND CHAPTER TE
“ Epistemology is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and justification of knowledge.”
How do you learn?
How should you learn?
How we know what we know? What makes us believe that something is “true”?
True knowledge through FAITH
True knowledge through SCIENCE
OBJECTIVISM Facts Theories Principles
ROLE OF THE TEACHER
Is to help students understand not just the facts or concepts of a subject discipline, but also the rules and conventions for acquiring and validating knowledge within that subject discipline
THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY LANGUAGE, is one channel for mediating knowledge. Media such as: Video Audio Computing can provide teachers with alternative channels of mediation.
BEHAVIORISM arose in the 1920s and 1930s
Certain behavioral responses become associated in a mechanistic and invariant way with specific stimuli. A certain stimulus will evoke a particular response.
According to COGNITIVISM there are mental processes, internal and conscious representations of the world that are essential for human learning.
Individuals consciously strive for meaning to make sense of their environment in terms of past experience and their present state. It is an attempt to create order in their minds out of disorder, resolve incongruities, and reconcile external realities with prior experience.
Knowledge is mainly acquired through social processes or institutions that are socially constructed:
The different approaches to learning reflect contradictory or incompatible views of human behavior.
Different approaches to learning need to be used in different contexts, teachers have to be careful to identify relevant approaches for specifying learning tasks and groups of students, and then analyze how technology could be used to meet those needs .
There are students who tried to memorize the material
There are those who tried to understand it
The student population has become more diverse and heterogeneous.
HOW CAN WE ENCOURAGE DEEP LEARNING?
Students take a surface approach to learning:
There’s too much material in the curriculum as a whole and/or course in particular
The messages about how a student is rewarded in the course aren’t clear
Feedback on progress isn’t given frequently enough or is of poor quality
Opportunities for independent learning aren’t present
Methods of assessment stress surface learning.(!!)
An engaged student is more likely to be intrinsically motivated
Engagement with material increases the chances that a student’s learning of that material will continue after the course is technically over.
Engagement increases when students feel a sense of control over their own learning. Give students decision-making opportunities, starting in the early stages of a course, i.e. participating in how to be grade.
Engagement increases when individualized learning programs are tailored to students’ needs.
Engagement with materials making connections with past experience, seeing the relevance of the material to one’s life, finding personal meaning in what is to be learned.
Engagement with group Is of social in nature. An example being considered a respected member of a group
Engagement with place gives people opportunity to feel a sense of belonging to something much bigger than themselves or their immediate group.
Professors teaching online must use some creative methods to enhance this sense of engagement. Computer-based technologies can significantly enhance students’ engagement through the use of:
Other forms of interactions, such as test and games.
It also needs to be authentic.
“ The preference or predisposition of an individual to perceive and process information in a particular way or combination of ways.”
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, uses categories such as:
Extraversion Vs Introversion
Sensing Vs Intuition
Thinking Vs Feeling
Judging Vs Perceptive
Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory focuses on:
Concrete experience Vs Abstract conceptualization
How can technology be used to help accommodate a variety of different learning styles and needs within the same class?
Can we structure a Web site to suit those whose cognitive preferences favor sequential presentations while at the same meeting the requirements of those who prefer a more holistic approach to learning?
Fostering of learning is what teaching is all about.
Teaching is the creation of opportunities that facilitate learning or “(…) is simple: it is to make student learning possible”
Five substantively different views of teaching in higher education:
Transmission Effective teaching requires a substantial commitment to the content or subject matter
Apprenticeship Teachers are recognized for their expertise in their work, and in their responsibility is to reveal the inner working of skilled performance and engage learners in their “zone of development”
Developmental Good teachers must understand how their learners think and reason about the content.
Nurturing Good teachers care about their students and encourage students by providing a climate of caring and trust
Social reform Effective teaching seeks to change society in substantive ways. Good teachers awaken students to values and ideologies within their disciplines.
The different views on how students learn carry with them major implications for teaching.
It focuses on the activities and outcomes of the learners.
The Teaching and Learning with Technology Program at the State University of New York suggests that the following approaches stem logically from a learner-centered approach:
Includes the learner in decisions on curriculum, instruction, and assessment
Acknowledges, respects, and accommodates individuals differences in background, interests, abilities, and experiences
Treats learners as co-creator in the teaching and learning process.
As Bates points out that whatever technology is used for teaching: “Good teaching matters. Clear objectives, good structuring of learning materials, relevance to learners’ needs, etc., apply to the use of any technology for teaching, and if these principles are ignored, then the teaching will fail, even if the unique characteristics of the medium are stylishly exploited”.
Based on the previous reading and your own experience, how do you think teaching with technology should be done?