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World history   chapter 13 assessment - main ideas (9-18)
World history   chapter 13 assessment - main ideas (9-18)
World history   chapter 13 assessment - main ideas (9-18)
World history   chapter 13 assessment - main ideas (9-18)
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World history chapter 13 assessment - main ideas (9-18)

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  • 1. March Toward War Section 1 (pages 407 – 410)<br />9. How did nationalism, imperialism and militarism help set the stage for World War I ?<br /> Nationalism By the 20th century, a fierce rivalry had developed among Europe’s Great Powers. Those nations were Germany, Austria – Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France. Some of the reasons were competition for materials and markets, and territorial disputes. Nationalism in other words is having pride in your country, so much you want to be the strongest in the world. For example, France X Germany b/c Alsace Lorraine.<br />Imperialism As European countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another deepened. Imperialism is when strong countries take over the weaker ones. This mad people mad, nervous and anxious when their land is taken from them. For example when Europeans competed over Africa and Morocco. <br />Militarism It is trying to always make your army strong and ready for a battle. This made people nervous, competitive, and anxious. For example, Germany had the strongest military. <br />10. Why was the Balkans known as “power keg of Europe” ?<br />The southeaster area of Europe, the Balkans, was called "The Powder Keg of Europe" because of the nationalistic spirit that was causing revolts and rebellion in that area prior to World War I. It was where "the Great War," World War I, began with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.<br />Europe Plunges into War Section 2 (pages 411 – 416)<br />11. Why was the first Battle of the Marne considered so significant ?<br />First Battle of Marne is so significant, because it was the first major clash on the Western Front. The defeat of the Germans left Schlieffen Plan in ruins. A quick victory in the west no longer seemed possible. Allies discovered weak points in the German lines and allowing them to take advantage of them.<br />12. Where was the Western Front? The Eastern Front ?<br />In WW1 it stretched from the English Channel to the Swiss Border. Western Front was located in the deadlocked region in northern France. The "Eastern Front" in WWII parlance is the battle lines between Germany and Russia, from the Black Sea to the south (at one time) to as far north as Latvia. This area was a stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border.<br />13. What were the characteristics of trench warfare ?<br />The trenches were set up with interlinking passages to the front and the command centre and to the rear of the battle so that the troops could walk the length of the Battle field and not expose themselves to enemy fire. Life in the trenches was pure misery. The space between the opposing trenches won the grim name “no man’s land.” The conditions were awful in the trenches and diseases ran rampant carried on the back of fleas and nits and lice which were also found in near plague numbers. This is due to the fact that proper sanitation conditions (regular bathing, and improper toilets for example) could not be given, constructed or obtained. So the men either had to go days and sometimes week without a bath or shower or had to squat where ever they could that was out of the way. Those are a few of the characteristics of trench warfare. Some other adjectives that might describe the characteristics are: that it was miserable, wet, bloody, smelly, putrid, nauseating, etc. Life in the trenches was pure misery. The trenches swarmed with rats. Fresh food was nonexistent and Sleep was nearly impossible.<br />A Global Conflict Section 3 (pages 417 – 423) <br />14. What was the purpose of the Gallipoli campaign ?A strategic attempt to open a sea route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea to aid Russia in WW1. To do this the Allies had to secure the seaway from land based artillery. The Allies believed that they could take Constantinople, defeat the Turks, and establish a supply line to Russia by securing the Dardanelles. <br />15. What factors prompted the United States to enter the war ?<br />Some of the factors were such as the German submarine, or U – boat attacking the British passenger ship Lusitania. Which left 1,198 people dead, including 128 U.S citizens? The Americans were outraged and Woodrow send a strong protest to Germany. For some while Germans stopped attacking neutral and passenger ships, but the advantage over the Allies increased, the Germans returned to the unrestricted submarine warfare. They sank three American ships, which pushed the United States closer to war. Another factor was the Germans send a telegram written by a German secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, stating that Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” the land it had lost to the United States if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. Other factor was that Americans were Allies with Britain so this was another reason they entered WWI in April 2, 1917. <br />16. In what ways was World War I a total war ?<br />World War I became a total war. This meant that countries devoted all their resources to the war effort. In each country, the wartime government took control of the economy. Governments told factories what to produce and how much. Many factories were converted to munitions factories. Some examples are : British naval blockade - starve the German population into surrender, air raids and naval bombardment of civilian targets by Germany, conscription of troops for armies (all countries), conscription of women for war work on the Home Front (Britain), unrestricted submarine warfare, attacking all ships, including merchant and passenger ships (Germany), high taxes to pay for the war (there was a 70% profits tax on all British companies in WW1), propagandas, and rationing (goods were in short supply). <br />A Flawed Peace Section 4 (pages 424 – 427)<br />17. What was the purpose of the League of Nations ?<br />The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. (The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global welfare.) keep peace among nations.<br />18. What was the mandate system, and why did it leave many groups feeling betrayed ?<br />In theory, the Mandate system had the benevolent intention of preparing the "natives" of various regions for self government. In practice, the granting of mandates often represented nothing more than the granting of spoils to the different victorious allied governments. The basis of the mandate system was Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, which gave broad authority to the mandate powers regarding preparation for self-rule. (Mandate system refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another ).<br />

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