ISA11 - Elisabeth Goodman: Exploratory Design
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ISA11 - Elisabeth Goodman: Exploratory Design

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Procurando novas abordagens para velhos problemas? Indo para um campo novo? Trabalhando para melhorar produtos e serviços que já existem? Começar um trabalho de design através de pesquisa pode......

Procurando novas abordagens para velhos problemas? Indo para um campo novo? Trabalhando para melhorar produtos e serviços que já existem? Começar um trabalho de design através de pesquisa pode trazer insights muito importantes para o trabalho de criação de novos produtos e serviços.

Este workshop vai ensinar técnicas exploratórias e inspiracionais de pesquisa em design, de jogos a testes culturais. Além dos aspectos práticos de planejamento e execução da pesquisa, iremos discutir as implicações de cada método para designers, clientes e usuários finais.

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  • Ola and welcome. My name is Elizabeth Goodman. I teach a related class at the University of California, Berkeley, for master’s level students, and I’m writing a book on design research now. So I’m really happy to be here today, because It’s a chance to explore some topics that are important in my own work but that I don’t actually get to teach that much to my students.
  • While I’m
  • At the moment, I’m a PhD candidate at UC Berkeley. My background is in design research – research for product development, prototyping and design as a way to do R&D for large companies, and research on design practice. This talk combines two long-term interests of mine. The first is what’s been called urban computing or urban informatics, which I’ve been thinking about since about 2002. You can think about it as applications for city life, such as the map-based chat you see in the middle and a picture above that of map-based urban theater game I designed. The second is what’s often called user-centered or human-centered design. I’ve taught design research at Berkeley, and I’m in the middle of revising Observing the User Experience, a handbook of user research techniques. At any rate, after focusing for a while on what you might call sidewalk and streetlevel interactions, I got into studying urban green space largely because it seemed like such unexplored territory for digital design. “GREEN SPACE?!” People would say to me. “How is THAT digital?” I’m just contrary enough to take that as a challenge to see what there was. And also, of course, I felt that green space – parks, and especially community gardens – was something I wanted to support. Green spaces are places of beauty and play. They mitigate pollution and storm damage. Sidewalks and streets can be difficult, messy places, full of arguments about traffic, rights-of-way, and other issues that come up when people bump and crowd each other. Green space, I thought. What a completely benign and harmonious topic. I had a lot to learn.
  • Discussion. What do people think of when they think of research?What do people think of when they think of exploratory research?My definition of exploratory research: investigation outside your own head undertaken to figure out what questions to ask. Opening discussion; broadening landscape – not finding specific answers.My work as a research scientist often involves
  • Formative vs summative researchFormativeExploratoringnew terrain open-ended posing questionsSummative Evaluating what you already have Closing off debate Answering questionsMostly, we do summative research…
  • what is your role?what do you want to learn?Inspiration: You are interested in evocative, non-literal design responses. You don’t care if it’s “useful” as long as it provokes conversation.Information: You are interested in answering directly to what people do and think. You want people to integrate it easily into their everyday lives. Meaning: You are interested in the symbolic dimensions of everyday objects: what people say they mean.Behavior: You are interested in physically observable behavior. Inspiration and meaning: You are designing for yourself and you care about how people understand the world (Art)Inspiration and behaviorYou are designing for yourself and you care about what people doInformation and behaviorYou are designing for user needs and you care about what people do (Engineering)Information and meaningYou are designing for user needs and you care about how people understand the world
  • How do you establish your own assumptions so that you can question them?Story of starting nursing research Read nursing textbooks Read nursing forums to see what nurses talk about Culture of holistic care Labor issues What were my assumptions about Belo Horizonte?
  • HANDOUT/CHEAT SHEET: RED FLAGSWhat are some examples of red flags that you can remember? Jargon Evocative language “We never…” and “We always…” “That’s not art”
  • HANDOUT/CHEAT SHEET: RED FLAGSWhat are some examples of red flags that you can remember? Jargon Evocative language “We never…” and “We always…” “That’s not art”
  • HANDOUT/CHEAT SHEET: RED FLAGSWhat are some examples of red flags that you can remember? Jargon Evocative language “We never…” and “We always…” “That’s not art”
  • HANDOUT/CHEAT SHEET: RED FLAGSWhat are some examples of red flags that you can remember? Jargon Evocative language “We never…” and “We always…” “That’s not art”
  • HANDOUT/CHEAT SHEET: RED FLAGSWhat are some examples of red flags that you can remember? Jargon Evocative language “We never…” and “We always…” “That’s not art”
  • HANDOUT: QUESTIONS FOR THE WALKING TOURDraw a map of where you go Keep these questions in mind as you goCollect any items that catch your eye: local advertisements, leaves + flowers, wrappersKeep an eye on where people are gathered, and where they are absentLook beyond vision: what about smell, sounds, temperature? Put that on the map too. Your goal:Discover three interesting things about Belo HorizontePick a topic or population to use for the rest of the workshop
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/loxea/4045627675/in/pool-thoughtlessactsHANDOUT: QUESTIONS FOR THE WALKING TOURDraw a map of where you go Keep these questions in mind as you goCollect any items that catch your eye: local advertisements, leaves + flowers, wrappersKeep an eye on where people are gathered, and where they are absentLook beyond vision: what about smell, sounds, temperature? Put that on the map too. Your goal:Discover three interesting things about Belo HorizontePick a topic or population to use for the rest of the workshop
  • HANDOUT: QUESTIONS FOR THE WALKING TOURDraw a map of where you go Keep these questions in mind as you goCollect any items that catch your eye: local advertisements, leaves + flowers, wrappersKeep an eye on where people are gathered, and where they are absentLook beyond vision: what about smell, sounds, temperature? Put that on the map too. Your goal:Discover three interesting things about Belo HorizontePick a topic or population to use for the rest of the workshop
  • Exercise: Start walking around in small groups. Your goal is to pick a topic or population to work on for the rest of the afternoon.Go out for half an hour – end up at lunch IntroductionsThe nature of exploratory researchOur project for today Asking initial questionsOn the ground observationLunch DiscussionCo-creation exercisesProbes Games
  • So, let’s return to the idea of a project for today. Belo Horizonte not on the maps. Maybe it’s not as pretty as OuroPreto, but I’m sure they’d like more tourism.For the rest of the workshop, we’re going to pretend that we’ve been hired to design a product or service for Belo Horizonte tourism. But that’s a big topic! So we’re going to use the rest of the workshop as a way to find some questions that seem particularly relevant. Some of the observations from this morning may apply, since they’re all essentially of us, visitors, at a conference.But tourism is a pretty stable market. There’s lots of apps and products. So if we wanted to make a really big splash, we’d have to come up with something really new and interesting. The next exercise will prompt us to be very imaginative in thinking about what tourism could mean.
  • CULTURAL PROBES!This is a cultural probe with questions from Mena Design, who wanted to learn about the lives of Lebanese kids to design health programs for them. Cultural probes, as the text says…
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jderuna/Cultural: encourages imaginative personal reflection through structured, but playful, exercises. This is a photo of a cultural probe. You can see – there are these maps – there’s one filled out in the box; there are little cards, there’s an envelope. There’s a different kind of probe which people talk about: Technical: working artifacts that people live with so that you can learn something from them. This takes a lot of time and can get expensive, but it’s a great way to learn.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/gcbb/3234112339/in/photostream/These kits are often immaculately designed – as you can see in this photo, of a design student in Denmark making his own cover for a disposable camera.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jderuna/http://www.flickr.com/photos/gcbb/3234180323/in/photostream/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jderuna/http://www.flickr.com/photos/gcbb/3234180323/in/photostream/Explain each tool.Cameras: to documentPostcards: for personal thoughts, for collage, for quick messagesStickers: to mark places on maps, to use in collage, for funMaps: As the base for writing messages, putting stickers, drawing pathsYou could do this digitally, by setting up a tumblr and having people upload digital photos, post messages, and sent tweets. But the paper and pens are more accessible for people who do not know how to use these digital tools and/or do not ordinarily have access to them. People might not worry about “doing the wrong thing”; they seem unofficial and playful.
  • On one level, cultural probes are really, really simple.Just four steps. On the other hand, as with observation, the difficulty lies not in executing a well-defined set of steps, but in your own creativity, subtlety, and willingness to be surprised.
  • I say this because there’s a tendency to think about probes as literal, information-gathering tools. You can do that with what are called diary studies. Some people say that diary studies are a type of probe; others say that diary studies and probes do the same thing. I think it’s important to preserve a distinction between them.
  • Let’s go!
  • Cultural probe exercise = 1 hour6 minutes per group x 6 groups15 minutes conversation
  • The promise – and the difficulty – of using cultural probes in organizations is the temptation to explain them as diary studies. As information-gathering tools. There’s absolutely a place for diary studies in exploratory research. We’re not covering them to day because there’s lots written on how to do diary studies and I figure many people have done them before. But what you’re really trying to do with a cultural probe is not some neutral or objective “core sample,” like an engineering probe into the earth. Take a look at this diagram (which I copied directly from the Gaver, Boucher, etc article). You, the designer, are expressing a desire to engage with a person through a playful, often very open-ended task. That person interprets that task -- perhaps not in the way you intended – and expresses their own interpretation and experience. You, in turn, receive that expression through the return of the probe, and interpret it yourself. There’s no pretence of neutrality there – it’s about a conversation.
  • Literally, “making together”http://www.add2thebeauty.com/diabetestoolkit.html
  • If you remember the first slide, co-creation helps people articulate experiences, emotions, or thoughts. Sometimes, as with this example of a study on diabetes, the goal is to help people talk about experiences that may be emotionally difficult. By externalizing the emotions into stickers and pictures, they canTalk about them more clearly Provide rich artifacts that designers can “read” for symbolic and cultural meaningThis is also an example of a first-time use of a co-creation activity. One of the things that’s great about this technique is that it’s easy to get started with and to adapt to your own purposes. “articipatory design” – ArvindVenkataramani
  • You can have a lot of things in a toolkit, based on what your topic is. For example, you might use legos, cardboard, or foam, to ask people to build a house or chair for themselves. Images are common in exercises that ask people to recall past activities in terms of feelings and emotions. Here are some common ingredients. The photo is from a designer named Wayne Chung, in the Us, There’s usually a tension between specificity (like in images) and generic shapes. Specific images are rich with meaning – they’re great for starting very detailed and culturally specific conversations. But they can be too specific – kind of like leading questions in a trial – and sometimes really culturally off-base. On the other hand, geometric shapes aren’t as good for prompting very specific associations. But people read a lot into them and they don’t bias the conversation as much. There’s no one good choice. Here, with the co-creation exercise coming up, I decided to go with only geometric shapes. Maybe we can talk about why at the end of the class.
  • Take a look at the number of activities you can use with co-creation.
  • Now, we’re going to do a quick exercise in co-creation to get the feeling of it. Normally, you would do this with someone who’s not a designer – maybe someone who’s a potential user of a product or service, or maybe a subject matter expert who you want to get involved in your design process. Normally, also, you might have not just a set of geometric shapes but photographs – some related to the project, some representing moods or dreams. Today, because it’s a workshop, we’ll just work with each other. I also didn’t bring stickers because we don’t have a lot of time and having lots of props on hand can take more time. So this exercise has two points. First, to experience what it’s like to be the person making the map. Then, to get some experience in asking questions as the exercise guide. Before we start, I’ll put up a slide with more detailed instructions.
  • This is the whole toolkit
  • While
  • Note that SleesjwikVisser’s map is very informational – it’s about kitchen rhythms and trajectories.
  • Okay. So first I’m going to have them brainstorm Roles (superhero, supervillain, grandmother, baby, bartender, student)Contexts (bar, bus, bank, street, car, bedroom, church, restaurant, office, factory, motorbike, taxi)Concepts: Evolution, Insanity, Elections, Birth, Death, Marriage, Or maybe just a freelisting game about your hometown, and the longest list gets a sticker? Identify preferencesGenerate dreams and fantasyGroup items by similarity/difference Learn a languageSingle player / multiple playerhttp://www.slideshare.net/amyjokim/putting-the-fun-in-functiona Collecting Earning points Feedback Exchanges (turn-taking, trading) CustomizationStatus cheering others on Races competition to collectPlayer relationships: Competition vs collaborationPoints/rewards: endless vs limitedRolesacquisitionRace; Tug of war, bidding; giftingRolesWhat is limited?Time? Incentives? Turns? Design Games - http://www.slideshare.net/donnam/design-games-presentation Design the box Divide the dollar Botticelli (get someone to guess an name without saying it) Freelisting (brainstorming) – make up as many names as possible for points Pick cards out of a hat and brainstorm on them, like: Reframing and reversing: What would a supervillain do? Make a superhero. Design a superhero costume and secret identity for BH. How would you destroy BH?Design a game that would have made your walking tour more productive/usefulI will hand out inspiration cards
  • Defining games can get very, very complicated – not to mention the work of designing them. I prefer to use this simple definition, from Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman. Games have defined (though often arbitrary) rules, or constraints – though, as Roger Caillois pointed out in his classic Man, Play, and Games, games can be more or less structured. Some games have so few rules they seem almost not to have them at all. And they have set objectives, or ends. That’s what makes games special, and unlike ordinary life. This special, set aside quality of games and play is what cultural theorist Johan Huizinga called “the magic circle.” The magic circle allows us to feel free to do things we would not normally do, to imagine new worlds in play.This roleplaying board game by AlidehGhanpour, for example, asks people to imagine that they are different types on city inhabitants – a student, a businessperson, a parent – and then asks them to choose means of transportation around the board and “pay” for it with fake money. One of the interesting things that they found was that people instinctively wanted to give the car to the businessperson. They simply could not imagine a successful businessperson on a bike or on a bus. I could do a whole workshop on games.
  • There’s been a lot of attention paid recently to the idea of gamification – of making everyday tasks and interactions more like games by adding game elements – often, points, levels, badges, etc. The idea is that this will motivate people to participate. You might not want to do that for exploratory researchIt’s not entirely clear, from the psychology literature, that points lead to sustainable motivation over time Finally, games are just a much more flexible and wide-ranging tool for exploratory research than, say, just giving people points if they complete a questionnaire
  • Some other variables to considerPlayer relationships: Competition vs collaborationPoints/rewards: endless vs limitedSingle player / multiple playerIn the next couple of slides, I’ll give some sample games that can work well, just to jumpstart your own thinking--------Status cheering others on Races competition to collectRolesacquisitionRace; Tug of war, bidding; giftingRolesWhat is limited?Time? Incentives? Turns? Design Games - http://www.slideshare.net/donnam/design-games-presentation Design the box Divide the dollar Botticelli (get someone to guess an name without saying it) Freelisting (brainstorming) – make up as many names as possible for points Pick cards out of a hat and brainstorm on them Reframing and reversing: What would a supervillain do? Make a superhero. Design a superhero costume and secret identity for BH.
  • Think of this as a “collect them all” or “race to the finish” game. Freelisting could work well as a probe task.
  • Explain “constraints” here – as structures that help set up the scenario. This combines really well with co-creation, as you can imagine. You can give people toolkits to help them imagine a change in their lives.
  • “Instead of researching to uncover barriers, we’re going to uncover them by designing them away” – ArvindVenkataramaniBodystorming:“sketching with your body” Dave GrayGaining empathy through embodied actionThis is one that I’m sometimes wary of, because you can end up reinforcing your assumptions in how you set up the roleplay.
  • Reframe as part of popular culture, and let people associate. Like the probes, you are not asking for literal recommendations
  • Pick an activity that you saw this morning, or on your way over here?Make it a quick activity, but one that seems important to someone’s life. Yes, AND vs No, but
  • Sorry this is so fast! But we’ve got a lot to get through.
  • Here’s a quick summary of the methods we discussed today.
  • "Unless we are able to generate knowledge in a way that pushes our collaborators and clients to think about what they SHOULD do, not just what they can do or what their customers' needs and desires are, we will simply remain stuck in the position of being the discoverers of needs & desires. De-skilling and commodification will follow." ArvindVenkataramani

Transcript

  • 1. EXPLORATORY DESIGN RESEARCHInteraction Design South America 2011Elizabeth Goodman, University of California, Berkeley
  • 2. SCHEDULE  Introductions  The nature of exploratory research  Our project for today  Asking initial questions  Method 1: “Walking tour”  Lunch  Discussion  Method 2: Probes  Method 3: Co-creation  Method 4: Games
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONS What’s your first name? What is your job? What would you like to learn at this workshop?
  • 4. ABOUT MEUrban exploration interfaces and games User research handbook geolocated chattingCommunity garden studies Ethnography of interaction design
  • 5. What’sTHE NATURE exploratory?OF EXPLORATORYDESIGN RESEARCH What’s research?
  • 6. The researcher uses these methodsnot to answer precisely framed questions, but in order to generate the questions themselves, in directions he or she does not control:in order to find the blind spots. “Mapping the Experiential Context of Product Use” Pieter Jan Stappers, FroukjeSleeswijkVisser, a nd Ianus Keller
  • 7. DIMENSIONS of EXPLORATION inspiration behavior “Art” meaning “Engineering” information
  • 8. DESK RESEARCH  Make things  Read a lot  Talk to many experts  Question assumptions !!!Photo:Lalo de Almeida for The New York Times
  • 9. CLUES TO A GOOD PROJECT “Doing my I’s and O’s” Jargon/slang “He’s a troll” Evocative imagery“We never do that here” Absolutes“That’s not punk rock” Group definition and exclusion “Skydiving is crazy” Accusations of insanity or stupidity Tricks of the Trade Basics of Qualitative Research Howard Becker Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin
  • 10. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Think Do Use Know Feel Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders, 2002
  • 11. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Think Say Do Use Do Know Feel Make Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders, 2002
  • 12. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Surveys Think Say Interviews Do Diaries Use Do Observation Probes/games Know Feel Make Co-creation Dream “From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches” Elizabeth Sanders
  • 13. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Surveys Think Say Interviews Do Diaries Use Do Observation Probes/games Know Feel Make Co-creation Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders
  • 14. The key is looking carefully at what peopleactually do in various situations and asking ourselvesquestions such as these…Why has someone placed this object here?What are those people doing and why are they groupedlike that?Why is it that people apparently avoid being here?Curiosity will reveal meaning behind thesenonspectacular interactions that take placearound us all the time. Thoughtless Acts? Observations on Intuitive Design Jane Fulton Suri and IDEO
  • 15. OBSERVATION FRAMEWORK Activities: What are people doing? Environments: Where is the action happening? Interactions: What operations are being carried out? Objects: What things are being put to use? Users: Which people are involved? “Ethnography in the field of design” Christina Wasson (Doblin)
  • 16. EXPERIENTIAL ENCOUNTERS Traces Workarounds Paths Feelings Territories Goals Talkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/loxea/4045627675/in/pool-thoughtlessacts
  • 17. OBSERVATION: TO MAKE/KEEP  Notes  Photos/Drawings  Maps  Souvenirs
  • 18. OBSERVATION Belo Horizonte Pick a spot as a group Inside or outside hotel Stay there for at least 15 minutes • Don’t hide, but try not to stand out – especially if you are taking photographs • If anyone asks, you’re “doing this for a class assignment” • If people ask you to leave, move along. • Even if it’s boring – especially if it’s boring — stay in the place you chose for at least 15 minutes. Ask yourself: why do you think this boring? What’s happening during the “boring parts”?  Lunch
  • 19. OBSERVATION Discussion In your groups, pick 3 of your As other people most interesting or surprising talk, write down: what observations. Pick one person PEOPLE, ACTIVITIES, to present your 3 observations. or TOOLS would be You have 10 minutes. interesting to explore further? Tell us about them! Each group has 3 minutes.
  • 20. OUR PROJECT FOR TODAYImagine that you have been askedto explore tourism in BeloHorizonte in order to design a newproduct or service. Where wouldyou start?
  • 21. Image: Mena Design ResearchCULTURAL PROBESEncourage imaginative personal reflectionthrough structured, but playful, activities
  • 22. About CULTURAL PROBESPhotos: J Deruna/Flickr
  • 23. Making aCULTURAL PROBE Photo: GCBB/Flickr ASK PEOPLE TO ACTIVITIES  IMAGINE possibilities, dreams,  Photography nightmares  Drawing  Mapping  CONNECT emotions and memories  Listing to places and products  Collecting  INVITE fantasy, humor, whimsy ON THEIR OWN, USING A KIT YOU GIVE THEM
  • 24. CULTURAL PROBE Tasks“Put a red dot “Tell us about “Write a letter “Draw youron things you your dreams as to your future path to school.dislike and take soon as you self about your life Where do youa photo.” wake up.” now.” feel safest?” Stickers Voice recorder Postcard Maps “Cultural Probes” Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti
  • 25. TOOLS FOR Camera Postcard CULTURALPhoto: GCBB/Flickr PROBES  Postcards  Stickers  Maps  Cameras Stickers  Voice recorders Maps  Card decks … et cetera!Photo: J Deruna/Flickr
  • 26. CULTURAL PROBES HOW-TO1. Design the probe kit2.Give it to people3.Wait for them to return it4.Interpret for inspiration!
  • 27. PROBES are not DIARIES
  • 28. CULTURAL PROBE EXERCISEIn your groups, invent 3 activitiesfor a cultural probe of tourism inBelo Horizonte. – Who is the audience for your probe?You have 15 minutes.
  • 29. CULTURAL PROBE DISCUSSIONEach group has 3 minutes topresent their ideas, with 3minutes for group comments.
  • 30. CULTURAL PROBE TIPSEmbrace personal Promise design interpretations inspiration, notSchedule follow-up informational interviews to discuss recommendations with participants “Cultural Probes and Uncertainty” Bill Gaver, Andrew Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker.
  • 31. Photos: Felipe SarmientoCO-CREATION with participants
  • 32. Diabetes journey map: Gloria MurilloWhat is CO-CREATION?Generative techniques that allow Activities that involvepeople to tell stories about their non-designers in the design processexperiences using creative playwith objects
  • 33. CO-CREATION TOOLKIT  Image collection  different subjects and styles, some more literally related, some more figurative or poetic  Cut-outs of paper, fabric, foam in geometric shapes  Scissors and glue  Colored markers Stickers from Wayne Chung
  • 34. CO-CREATION PRINCIPLES Prompt discussion about ACTIVITIES dreams, fears, beliefs  “Day in the life”  Timelines/cycles Ask people to express  Autobiographies thoughts and emotions  Spatial maps  Mood boards/collages Support creativity  Sticker-placing with ambiguous prompts  Model-making Focus on describing experiences rather than identifying features Don’t reward polish or demand artistic skill
  • 35. CO-CREATION EXERCISEMake a timeline of your BeloHorizonte trip thus far.Then, discuss it with a partner.
  • 36. CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 1 1. Take a sheet from the big pad and draw a horizontal line across it. This is your journey to BH. 2. Now, take a look at the objects we have given you. Take any of them that seem to represent those steps and start gluing them along the line. You don’t have to use all the shapes – just use what makes sense to you. Use the pens to add any explanations or details that will complete the picture of your journey. Feel free to use the scissors to cut new shapes if you like. You have 10 minutes.
  • 37. CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 2 1. Ask your partner to explain their journey map to you. You might ask: – What does each shape mean? – Why did you pick that shape? – What did you learn about your journey in making this map? … or anything else. 2. After 5 minutes, it will be your partner’s turn to ask questions. Each person will have 5 minutes to talk.
  • 38. CO-CREATIONTIPS Spatial map of a kitchen activity FroukjeSleesjwikVisserSchedule as a group Can be taken literally, workshop or as part for information, or as of interviews a source of inspiration.Using the same people Works well with to evaluate prototypes cultural probes later gives consistency
  • 39. BREAK – 15 MINUTES
  • 40. GAMES and PLAY
  • 41. Urban transportation roleplaying game by AlidehGhanpourWHAT MAKES A GAME?Defined Constraints + Defined Objectives (Points optional) Homo Ludens Man, Play and Games Rules of Play Johan Huizinga Roger Caillois Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman
  • 42. GAMES are not GAMIFICATION
  • 43. USING GAMES TO ASKQUESTIONSTACTICS PATTERNS  What-ifMake a new game  Role-playing  Buying and sellingUse an existing game  Matching/grouping  CollectingModify a research activity  Races to make it more game-like … et cetera “Participatory Design: “Design Games” The Third Space in HCI” Donna Spencer Michael Muller
  • 44. Technique 1 FREELISTING ASK Constraints List all the words  Under __ minutes you can think of that  In teams describe…  No points given for words shared with Take as many other teams photographs as you can of…. Outcome  The most items receives a prize
  • 45. Technique 2 THE MAGIC IF Ask Constraints What would your day be like  Reversal of the usual if…  Exaggeration of what exists now How would you respond if…  Absence of something you expect Where would your life  Presence of something improve if… new
  • 46. Technique 3 ROLEPLAY (Bodystorm) Try Constraints Act out an activity that  Under __ minutes relates to your topic, using  In teams everyday objects as props. Outcome How does your body feel?  Empathize with Where do you encounter an potential users. obstacle? What causes the obstacle? Consider how you  Identify appropriate could change the situation sites for intervention. to remove it.  Generate ideas for new interactions.
  • 47. Technique 4 REFRAMING Ask Constraints Make a superhero for the  Under __ minutes situation. What are his/her  In teams special powers? Design the costume. Outcome  Present the stories to Pitch a TV show about the the group lives of the people you’re interested in. Is it a comedy? A  People vote for the drama? Give it a name and best idea describe the major characters.
  • 48. ACTING OUT Part 1Pick an activity relevant to tourism.Choose people to act out all the roles in the situation. – If there are more people than roles, replay the scene with other people in the same roles. – If you need a prop, make one out of paper or use an available object as a substitute.Choose one person to act as the note-taker.
  • 49. ACTING OUT Part 2Now, act it out! Move your body as the people in thesituation move, and say what you remember them saying.If you feel a problem, obstacle, or moment of joy in the roleyou are playing, say “FREEZE!” and tell the note-takerabout it. Then keep going.If you have time, try to solve the problems that youdiscovered while acting.You have 15 minutes to play.
  • 50. EXPLORATORYANALYSISASK Where were/are the blind spots in your approach? What would change this TOOLS situation for the better?  WRITE Thick/rich description of What other situations are action relevant to this research?  IDENTIFY recurring problems and responses Where are the digital  MAP Cycles of activity tools? Do you care?  Presence/absence  FOLLOW linear processes, growth What other questions  LIST Ecologies of tools do you have now?
  • 51. METHODS SUMMARY PRODUCES CONTACT WITH QUESTIONING DESIGN NON-DESIGNERS ASSUMPTIONS CONCEPTS DESK RESEARCH NO SOMETIMES NO OBSERVATION NO SOMETIMES NO CULTURAL YES PROBES YES SOMETIMES YES CO-CREATION YES SOMETIMES GAMES SOMETIMES YES SOMETIMES
  • 52. FINAL DISCUSSION Is there anything you’d like to talk more about? Anything that I didn’t mention? Any thoughts you’d like to share?
  • 53. THANKS!More questions and comments?egoodman@ischool.berkeley.edu@egoodman, +egoodmanwww.confectious.netA complete list of references is atthe end of this presentation. The presentation isavailable (for workshop members only, please)at: www.confectious.net/ixda-sa/exploratory-design-workshop.pptx
  • 54. PROMPTS
  • 55. PROMPTS
  • 56. AEIOU HANDOUT
  • 57. DESK RESEARCH SOURCES Flickr memes: “Day in the Life”; “What’s in your bag” Forums and blogs Read academic papers from the ACM: portal.acm.org Non-fiction books, of course Textbooks and educational materials Memoirs and oral histories
  • 58. REFERENCES Asking Questions Tricks of the Trade Howard Becker Basics of Qualitative Research Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin
  • 59. REFERENCES Observation Ethnography in the field of design. Christina Wasson Participant Observation James P Spradley IDEO Thoughtless Acts Flickr Pool
  • 60. REFERENCES Co-creation Understanding anyone’s social network in 60 minutes Paul Adams Maketools Elizabeth Sanders ID-StudioLab Delft information and many helpful publications “Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI” Michael Muller
  • 61. REFERENCES Cultural probes “Cultural Probes” Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti “Cultural Probes and the value of uncertainty.” Bill Gaver, Andy Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker Flickr Design probes group
  • 62. REFERENCES Games Man, Play and Games Roger Caillois Homo Ludens Johan Huizinga 40 Social Mechanics for Social Games RaphKoster “Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI” Michael Muller Rules of Play Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman “Design Games” Donna Spencer