Transboundary Priorities in the Wider Black Sea Basin

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  • 1. Transboundary Priorities in the Wider Black Sea Basin
  • 2. Drainage basin : 420,000Km 2 ;1/3 of Europe; 17 countries Europe's 2 nd 3rd and 4 th biggest rivers (Danube, Dnipro, Don) and others Water balance river flow 350 Km 3 /year flow in Istanbul Strait 300 Km 3 /year flow out Istanbul Strait 600 Km3 /year retention time high isolated from ocean
  • 3. Major Problems Eutrophication Untreated sewage Oil pollution Toxics eg.pesticides &heavy metals Solid waste Radioactive substances Exotic species Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis 1996 Nutrients (nitrogen & phosphorus cpds) 70% from coastal countries 30% from non-coastal ones 70% through major international rivers, mainly Danube ±0xÌÌdsw wtw`q A qdydqv3tx te %#iwv vcdvËhwd rd`vxÌdv xËvwÌd`r 1`sxad' cdvËhwd dbtstrh btqq`Ëvdu ±0xÌÌdsw ËgtvËg`wd qdydqv %#iwv va`s ts C cdwdÌfdswv ±d‚Ëdbwdc wté onom vby ec ic de e
  • 4. Natural characteristics mixing of fresh & salty water is low; planktons die and decomposed by bacteria; oxygen in bottom is used up ; some bacteria use O2 from sulphate of sea water; H 2S produced ; 87 % 0f volume of Black Sea is anoxic Coastal Countries Total N Total P Bulgaria 14% 5% Georgia 1% 1% Romania 27% 23% Ukraine 12% 20% Russian Federation 10% 13% Turkey 6 % 12% Danube Riparian Countries 50 % from agriculture 25% from industry 25% from domestic discharges into the river
  • 5. òin water transparency (m) 50% ò ñ in hypoxic zones (Km 2 ) ñ x1 000 ñ in planktonic Dinoflagellates (cells. l -1 ) ñ x15 000 Dinoflagellates /Diatoms (%) ñ x2 ò area of Phyllophora fields (Km 2 ) ò 0,005% ò biomass of Phyllophora (biocoenosis 100inv & fish) ò 4% Perennial brown algae Cystoseira barbata (biocoenosis 50inv & fish) ò lost ò total biomass of Mytilus galloprovincialis (t) ò 0,02% ò total biomass of oyster Ostraea edulis (t) ò 1,4%
  • 6. Anthropogenic Eutrophication of coastal waters of the Black Sea has been the most damaging influence both in terms of its scale and its consequences ; it has limited species composition, reduced biodiversity and resulted in economic losses Nutrient supply èmostly monosp pl nkton lecific a bè k om ss n r si a i c ea eètr nsp r na a e cy l t p n tr t on righ e e a i decè tseffec onm rop t lac hy ic a gae èp topl nktonk oopl nkhy a z a ncha geè pox n nox ohy ia a d a ia s l r onshe f egièloss o t tsf habi a o o nos sbi c e ièqu l t t v na i a i e a d qu nt t t v stru tura i a i e c e ommun t s v nc i ie ha e cha g olo l loss s twbi gica e be ee r st m t s kk m lla e e i a ed a i i o s kf fi h
  • 7. • Loss of habitats (shelf areas and wetlands) supporting biotic resources • Decline in fisheries (combined with expansion in fishing) • Loss of endangered species • Replacement of indigenous species with exotic ones • Loss of recreational amenities There is evidence of partial recovery of coastal ecosystems due to the recent decrease in nutrient loads resulting from economic failure of agriculture and industry in some coastal & upstream countries, as well as some nutrient reduction programmes upstream. However, economic failure is only temporary and there is a window opportunity for taking proper management actions.
  • 8. • Convention for the Protection of Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest, 1992) (r.1994) • Odessa Ministerial Declaration, 1993 • GEF support for Black Sea Environmental Programme • TDA & Strategic Action Plan for the Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea, 1996 • EU& GEF support for Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin • Danube River Protection Convention (Sofia, 1994) (r.1998) • Strategic Action Plan, 1994 (rev.1999) ; TDA & Danube Pollution Reduction Programme Joint ad hoc Technical Working Group ICPDR-ICBS ''The long term goal for all Black Sea basin countries is to take measures to reduce nutrient levels and other hazardous substances to such a level to permit Black Sea ecosystems to recover to similar conditions as those observed in the 1960's'' and ''as an intermediate goal, urgent control measures should be taken by all countries in the Black Sea basin , in order to avoid that discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Black Sea exceed those levels observed in 1997'' Draft Memorandum of Understanding ICBS-ICPDR
  • 9. Addressing basin-wide eutrophication through Reform of agricultural policies to reduce non-point source run-off of fertilizers and manure (buffer zones, erosion control, organic agriculture, manure storage clamps etc.. Improved industrial and municipal wastewater treatment to capture nutrients (alternative technologies with low O&M costs: advanced integrated ponding systems, constructed wetlands etc..) Rehabilitation of key basin ecosystems to enhance their capacities as nutrient sinks (wetland restoration) Strengthening legislative framework and enforcement, enhancing public awareness, changes in consumer practices (including phosphate free detergents).
  • 10. Addressing basin-wide eutrophication through Reform of agricultural policies to reduce non-point source run-off of fertilizers and manure (buffer zones, erosion control, organic agriculture, manure storage clamps etc.. Improved industrial and municipal wastewater treatment to capture nutrients (alternative technologies with low O&M costs: advanced integrated ponding systems, constructed wetlands etc..) Rehabilitation of key basin ecosystems to enhance their capacities as nutrient sinks (wetland restoration) Strengthening legislative framework and enforcement, enhancing public awareness, changes in consumer practices (including phosphate free detergents).